About This Web Page

This Web Page describes Open Firmware at an introductory level. This description will not substitute for a course given by Firmworks or Forth Inc on Open Firmware, but it will, I hope, give the reader a pretty good idea of how Open Firmware presents the industry with an elegant solution to some knotty problems of booting an operating system.

1996 Sabaki Engineering. Copies may be made for strictly non-commercial, non-pecuniary purposes. All other copies require written permission from Sabaki Engineering. Links, of course, may be freely made to this page.

A Note on Reading This Page

Since not everybody's browser has a navigation key for returning to the previous anchor instead of to the previous document, I have included an anchor titled "Back" for each definition in the Glossary. But it does not take you back to wherever you were, it takes you back to the first reference to the word defined.

Disclaimer and Acknowledgments

This web page on Open Firmware is the exclusive work of Sabaki Engineering. It does not represent the claims, opinions or promises of any other legal person. We at Sabaki Engineering express our thanks to the Open Firmware Working Group for hosting this page.

Note that all comments on this page should be directed to the author of this page, Matthew Johnson and NOT to the Open Firmware Working Group.

Open Firmware - A New Class of Software Tool

Open Firmware provides a novel capability, virtually unheard of before its invention in 1988 at Sun. This new capability is writing hardware independent boot code, firmware and device drivers.

A Brief History of Open Firmware

As mentioned above, Open Firmware was invented at Sun for release in 1988 to prevent a maintenance and support nightmare with the then unprecedented wide choice of hardware and software configurations the new product lines required. Open Firmware, then called Open Boot, prevented the nightmare by allowing one version of the Boot Rom to run on any configuration of hardware and software, even supporting boot-time operations on third-party plug-in cards.

The idea worked so well, other major players in the computer market, such as IBM and Apple, got in on the act as well. The existence of a comprehensive IEEE standard for Open Firmware, IEEE-1275, makes this possible.

Hardware Independent Boot Code? Get Real!

This is such a new capability, it defies belief. Open Firmware provides this capability by a careful application of the FORTH philosophy. Just as FORTH has always presented its users with unique capabilities through a careful combination of 1) pushdown stack 2) dictionary and 3) interpreter, so Open Firmware works because of its combination of 1) standardized tokens=FCode, 2) User Interface~= outer interpreter 3) Device Interface ~= inner interpreter and 4) Client Interface to allow the OS to call Open Firmware services with the calling conventions and bindings of a high-level language, such as C. We will see later in this web page how all these pieces fit together to form such an amazingly flexible whole.

The Tasks of Boot Code

Before we can understand why the various pieces of OF fit together the way they do, we must understand for what purpose they do so. This in turn requires that we understand the basic tasks of boot code on a wide class of systems. These tasks are largely 1) Boot-time Drivers and 2) building a device tree, which the Operating System then uses to discover what devices are available to it and how to use them. The particular format of the device tree is operating system dependent, but all device trees have a great deal in common. That commonality can be expressed in a common language independent of the operating system. The format of an Open Firmware device tree is such a common language. In a typical installation, the operating system uses Client Interface calls to translate the Open Firmware device tree into the Operating system's own format. In the rest of this web page, we will assume that Open Firmware is being used for such a "typical installation", although there are cases when you might want to use only parts of Open Firmware, such as only a Device Interface, for "non-typical" applications.

An Open Firmware Device Tree

The Open Firmware Device Tree is a generic and simple format for a device tree. It can be used to represent the various entries in a device tree for just about any operating system. Like any tree, it consists of nodes, some of which are leaf nodes, i.e. have no children. Every node has one parent, except for the top node. Each node has a node name, and a list of "properties" and"methods". In fact, the node name is a property, one that is required for every node. The properties are named data. Open firmware makes no restrictions on how the operating system will eventually use this named data, except for reserving certain names to have certain meanings: the "name" property, for example, is always the node name. This named data may also be of any type: string and integer types are specifically supported, while compound types may be grouped together out of combinations of "int" "string" and "bytes", the latter being for any length of arbitrary consecutive bytes.

Open Firmware Boot Drivers

The Boot Drivers supplied by Open Firmware are mainly meant for supplying messages that must be displayed during boot time, before the operating system has been loaded. They are also handy for other purposes, such as debugging hardware that is failing during boot time. For such purposes, it is not important that this sort of driver knows nothing about the operating system (which typically hasn't even been loaded yet). These drivers therefore do not work in the background, are not multi-taskable, nor do they use interrupts. They provide the most basic operations on the device, such as open, close, read and write. These operations are all implemented as Open Firmware methods, i.e., FORTH words accessible from the User Interface when the given device is selected. We will cover this concept in more detail later.

This is the Open Firmware component that most closely resembles a traditional FORTH system. On the Apple PCI Macintoshes, you enter the Open Firmware User Interface by holding down the NMI switch while toggling the Reset Line. Then the System Firmware, sensing these switches, goes through a truncated boot process; instead of loading the entire system, it starts with low-level hardware diagnostics, then loads Open Firmware, opens the modem port (i.e. Serial Port # 1) for I/O, prints a boot message and awaits your commands on that port, just like QUIT in a traditional FORTH system. The method of entering the User Interface is not defined by the IEEE-1275 standard; it is implementation dependent.

Dictionary Searching

Dictionary Searching is a little strange in Open Firmware. There are no vocabularies in the FORTH79 or FORTH83 sense of the word. Instead, Open Firmware supports a new and peculiar notion, the active-package. Furthermore, there are really two sorts of definitions possible under the User Interface: conventional FORTH words appended to the root "vocabulary", and Open Firmware methods appended to the active-package. When the user types in a word, the User Interface looks up the word first in the list of methods of the active-package, then in the root FORTH definitions not attached to any package.

Clearly, the use of packages instead of the more usual sort of vocabularies takes some getting used to. But this new sort of vocabulary is pretty well suited for the tasks of boot-time firmware.

An even more marked difference from the traditional method of dictionary searching is the use of $call-method or its congeners $call-parent and call-package to call methods not in the current search order. These words are used frequently. We will describe the use of these words in more detail after covering the prerequisite notion of the instance chain.

Devices, Packages and THE Active Package

Unfortunately, the IEEE-1275 spec and the Open Firmware language itself uses the terms "device" and "package" inconsistently. Sometimes, the two terms are used to mean the same thing, sometimes they are not! In the spec's own words:

A package is the combination of a device node's properties, methods and private data. In most cases, the terms "package" and "device node" may be used interchangeably. "Device node" is typically used when the emphasis is on the node as a part of the device tree, and "package" is used with emphasis on the use of the node's driver methods.

I would have been happier if they had said:

A package is the combination of a device node's properties, methods and private data (so far, so good). "Device nodes" and "packages" are usually strongly linked, i.e, a device node has a package associated with it, every package has an entry in the device tree, i.e., a device node associated with it. But there are pure software packages with no physical device associated with them. For all other packages, the device node and the package are two different ways of looking at the same thing.

A simple example should make the above ideas more clear: the IEEE-1275 spec suggests (but does not require) that the default input device be named "keyboard". In this case, there will be an entry in the device-tree (i.e. a device node) named "keyboard", which includes methods "open", "close" and "read". The only property it MUST contain is the "name" property, "keyboard". For the convenience of the users, the properties "model" (a string property naming the model number) and "compatible" (a string property naming a more popular model with which the keyboard is compatible) might also be included. In Apple's case, it also defines the property "device_type", setting it equal to "serial".

The collection of all these properties, methods and whatever private data the methods use is the package corresponding to the device "keyboard".

Now many systems will also define a pure software package, called the "deblocker", whose purpose in life is to "deblock" a block-oriented device, i.e., provide byte-oriented methods to access the block-oriented device. This is analogous to the old FORTH trick of implementing virtual memory using BLOCK, which views the disk as a block-oriented device (hence the name). The deblocker has its own entry in the device-tree much like a true physical device, but there are a few significant differences: it must be a child of the node "/packages" in the device-tree, it has no address, and it can and should be opened with"open-package" instead of with "open-device".

Blazing the Trail to Plug and Play

Open Firmware does not solve all the problems that need to be solved to make Plug & Play a reality in the DOS, Windows or Macintosh environments. However,it solves some of the major problems, and provides a framework for solving the others. If manufacturers can agree on how to use the properties that might be defined for their devices, then this will go a long way to making plug and play a reality. Open Firmware makes this much simpler than ever before.

Why FORTH for all This?

Forth programmers have known for years that Forth provides a virtual machine, consisting of a data stack, a return stack and the registers IP, W, RP and SP. It is amazing how much computing can be done with such a simple machine. This machine needs only a small supplement to become an excellent virtual machine for all the tasks of boot code. This supplement is the hardware dependent portion of the Open Firmware code, whether in the Fcode on a plug-in card, or in the Host's Open Firmware interpreter.

Open Firmware for Debugging

In addition to providing a hardware independent method of building the device tree and providing boot drivers, Open Firmware provides a convenient FORTH environment for debugging new hardware and firmware. Suppose, for example, you need to test SCSI device capability, running with different devices in different parts of the chain of SCSI devices. You could write an endless loop as follows:

\ Generate the path name for the drive with the given SCSI-id
: diskno   30 +  pad c!  pad 1 ( scsi-id -- adr cnt)
  " /yourprocessorbus/XYZ,scsi@" cat2str ;
  
\ Use "open-dev" to open the disk w/ SCSI-ID "diskno", show the instance 
\ handle, then close it.
: testdisk  ( diskno --)
   diskno open-dev
   ." ihandle= "  dup .
   close-dev ;
   
: scsi-test ( --)
   begin
      probe-scsi-all
      7 0 do i testdisk loop
   key? until ;

If you need to test the ability to do real data transfers as well, you need only add the standard block-size/read calls via $call-method, as follows:

0 value my-ih
1000 alloc-mem constant TEST_BLOCK

: block-size ( --#bytes)
    " block-size" my-ih $call-method ;
    
: read ( bufadr #bytes-to-read -- #actual-read)
    " read" my-ih $call-method ;
    
: testdisk  ( diskno --)
   dup >r
   diskno open-dev
   ." ihandle= "  dup .   to my-ih
   test_block block-size read
   block-size - if ." ERROR READING BLOCK Disk: " r> . else r> drop then
   close-dev ;<\pre>

Glossary

Active-package
the package whose methods constitute the current vocabulary Back
Byte-oriented
an Open Firmware device having device_type "byte", and methods read, write, seek and load. These last two differ from the block-oriented case in that they treat the device like a tape drive. Back
Block-oriented
an Open Firmware device having device_type "block", and methods read, write, seek and load. These last two differ from the byte-oriented case in that they treat the device like a disk drive. Back
Device Tree
a tree each node of which describes a device in terms of properties and methods Back
Device Interface
the component of Open Firmware that builds the device tree, which process is dominated by interpreting FCode Back
Client Interface
the interface providing C calling conventions and bindings for Open Firmware Back
FCode
Open Firmware's hardware independent byte-codes for common operations, such as 0x47 for "duplicate top of stack" or 0x46 for "pop stack" Back
User Interface
the "shell" of Open Firmware, which interprets FORTH words typed by the user on the standard input. Back
Properties
data of arbitrary type describing the device type. Back
Instance Chain
A linked list of Instances. These in turn are a sort of device context. Every time you open a device, you create an instance of the device, adding it to the chain. They are also analogous to multiple handles to the same file, or multiple copies of the same program running as separate tasks in a multi-tasking operating system. Back
Methods
FORTH words attached to a package, typically for handling driver services, e.g., "read", "write", "open" & "close" Back

More Info on Open Firmware

The following Web Sites have more info on Open Firmware.

For the O.F. Working Group's Open Firmware page, click here For informtion on FORTH in general, go to The FORTH Home Page, by clicking here For the Open Firmware vendor Firmworks, click here

What is Open Firmware / Sabaki Engineering / mejohnsn@netcom.com

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