Besucher dieser Seite:

       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


  /* This work is registered directly with the copyright offices of the     */
  /* United States and of the United Kingdom, and indirectly in many other  */
  /* nations via the conventions the above are signatory to.                */
  /*           Generous licensing terms are available on inquiry.           */



                            I N T R O D U C T I O N


 This book is a technical reference. It is NOT a tutorial. Hopefully, this
book is what you'll reach for when you want find out what Peter Norton or the
"official" references glossed over.

 This manual is intended to replace the various (expensive) references needed
to program for the DOS environment, that stack of magazines threatening to take
over your work area, and those odd tables and charts you can never find when
you need them.

 The various Microsoft and IBM publications and references don't always have
the same information. This has caused some consternation about the
"undocumented" features to be found in DOS. In general, if a call doesn't
appear in the IBM DOS Technical Reference it is considered "undocumented"
although it may be documented by other OEMs or by later Microsoft tech
bulletins.

 The information here is valid for DOS 2.x through 5.x. Where there are
differences between the two versions there are notes in the text. No great
effort was expended on DOS 1.x.

 When I started writing this book, it was originally for my own personal use.
Then I began expanding it with the idea of getting it published, since at that
time there was *nothing* in print like it. (late 1987) If I had managed to
send it off to the publishers early enough, I would have had it made. As it
was I lost six months having a nice steel rod put in my leg after being run
over by a drug addict in an uninsured car, and half a dozen similar books were
published by then, and nobody was interested in mine. Six months is a long
time in the PC world.

 That's why I'm uploading this file as "user-supported." It gives me a chance
to recoup a few bucks for the time I've been working on this thing, and it
gives some advantages that a printed book can't - first, you can load it on
your hard disk and use Vern Buerg's LIST or SideKick to scan through text. You
can grab a piece of something and paste it into a document, etc. If you help
support the Reference you will always have the latest version available; you
can't "upgrade" books.

 A project this size takes a LOT of time and effort. I've tried to verify as
much of the information I've received as I could, but there's just too much for
absolute certainty.  The TechRef has been in the hands of some heavy-duty code
jockeys for a couple of years now with very few bug reports, though.

 If you find any typos, incorrect information, or want to see something else,
let me know. If you have any more detailed information on something, PLEASE let
me know!

                                                        Dave Williams



                         D  I  S  C  L  A  I  M  E  R



 As is common these days, I have to make a "Notice of Disclaimer". I take no
responsibility for anything, and if anything you do with this book ruins you
for life or makes your dog bite you, or anything else, that's just tough.

 I hope you find much use for this reference. It was a trip to write, too.

                                                        Dave Williams

                                                  (C) Copyright 1987, 1992

/* note: the above disclaimer is being used as an example in the University */
/*       of Texas' School of Law. Whether good or bad, my respondent didn't */
/*       say...                                                             */


______________________________________________________________________________

Copyrights and trademarks:

(3COM Corporation)
 3COM, Etherlink

(Allied Telephone and Telegraph)
 UNIX, AT&T

(Artisoft)
 LANtastic

(AST Corporation)
 AST, RAMpage!

(Atari Computer)
 Atari, ST, TOS

(Borland)
 Borland, Turbo C, Turbo Pascal, Turbo Lightning, Turbo Assembler, SideKick

(Commodore Business Machines)
 Amiga 2000, Bridge Board

(Compaq Computer Corp.)
 Compaq, Deskpro

(Cordata Computer)
 Corona, Cordata

(Cove Software)
 CED, PCED

(Digital Equipment Company)
 DEC, Rainbow, DECMate, DOS    (uh... yeah. DEC owns the trademark to 'DOS')

(Fox Research, Inc.)
 10-Net

(Graphic Software Systems)
 GSS, DGIS

(Hayes)
 Smartmodem

(Hercules Computer Technology)
 Hercules, HGC, Hercules Graphics Card Plus, InColor Card

(IBM Corp.)
 IBM, PC, PCjr, PC/XT, PC/AT, XT/286, PS/2, TopView, Micro Channel, 3270 PC,
 RT PC, Token Ring, OS/2

(Intel Corp.)
 Intel, iAPX286, iAPX386, LIM EMS, Communicating Applications Standard (CAS)

(Logitech, Inc)
 Logitech, Logimouse

(Microsoft Corp.)
 Microsoft, MS, MS DOS, OS/2, Xenix, Windows, Windows/286, Windows/386,
 Microsoft Networks, LIM EMS, XMA, DPMI

(Mouse Systems Corp.)
 Mouse Systems, PCMouse

(Novell Development Corp.)
 Novell, NetWare

(Phar Lap)
 VCPI, Virtual Control Program Interface

(Qalitas)
 386-To-The-Max, 386MAX

(Quarterdeck Office Systems)
 DesQview, QEMM

(SEAware, Inc)
 ARC

(Softlogic)
 DoubleDOS

(Sunny Hill Software)
 TaskView, OmniView

(Tandy Corp.)
 Tandy, Radio Shack, DeskMate

(Texas Instruments)
 TI, TI Professional, Business Professional, TIGA (TI Graphics Interface)

(Zenith Radio Corporation)
 Zenith, Z-100, Z-248

(ZSoft Corporation)
 ShowPartner, Paintbrush

 "LIM 4.0" and "Expanded Memory Specification" are copyright Lotus Development
Corp, Intel Corp, and Microsoft Corp.

 "EEMS", "AQA 3.1" and "Enhanced Expanded Memory Specification" are copyright
by Ashton-Tate, Quadram, and AST

 "DPMI" and "DOS Protected Mode Interface" are copyright Lotus Development
Corp, Intel Corp, Microsoft Corp, and AST

Various other names are trademarks of their respective companies.

袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴
     Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC     SWv2.2a  
훤袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴暠

  This is a user-supported technical reference.  If you find this information
 to be of use, please mail your check or money order for US $20 + $1.75 S&H to:

                       佶袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴
                           Dave Williams, DOSREF    
                                PO Box 181          
                        Jacksonville, AR 72076-0181 
                                    USA             
                       鳩袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴

  Shipping is US Postal Service Air Mail.  For non-Australian foreign orders,
 see the file 'PAYMENT'.  Site licensing and product licensing terms are
 available.

  If you wish to make payment in Australian dollars, please mail your check
 or money order for AUS $29 or credit card information to to:

                       佶袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴
                        Spearwood Shareware Service 
                                 PO Box 121         
                           Hamilton Hill, WA 6163   
                                  Australia         
                       鳩袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴袴

        Spearwood Shareware Service is our authorized Australian dealer.
        They will forward your order to the USA and you will receive the
        absolute latest version of DOSREF by airmail straight from the
        author.  This means there will be about a three week delay before
        your order arrives.  We appreciate your business!

        Spearwood is our dealer only; for support write or E-mail the
        author, Dave Williams, at the above address.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

   Why support DOSREF instead of relying on one of those public domain
 "interrupt lists"?  Sheer size, for one.  Even in LHarc format DOSREF
 bulks out to over a megabyte, making it too large for most sysops to
 consider keeping online.  Registered users also get support via:

        The Courts of Chaos BBS (TechRef support board)
        RIME/RelayNet
        BIX
        CompuServe
        airmail

  You get the very latest edition of this manual on disk, with no worries
 about corrupted or tampered text.  DOSREF is a quality product, in use
 by the US Navy, CalTech, Borland, NEC, Wang, General Motors, Citicorp,
 Rockwell, Honeywell, Digital Research, Central Point Software, 20th Century
 Fox, Associated Press, hospitals, universities, and government agencies
 around the world.

  The Registered User reference consists of over a megabyte of the compressed
 technical reference, appendices, and sample source code. That's about three
 megabytes of raw data when uncompressed, or several times larger than the
 shareware version.

  The Registered User version contains information on device drivers, mouse
 programming, Virtual Control Program Interface, Microsoft Windows 2.x, hard
 drives, hardware information, virus and Trojan programs, EMS 3.2, LIM 4.0,
 EEMS 3.2, CD-ROM, network programming, DOS 5.0, and more.

  Registered users will be advised by mail of updates.

  Several people who have downloaded copies over three years old have written
 to see if I was still supporting the Reference.  The answer is yes.  Not only
 that, but my book contract calls for keeping the information current.  If
 you're concerned, just drop a postcard.

 *****************************************************************************

 Foreign langauge versions are available!

  Klaus Overhage of Stuttgart, West Germany has licensed DOSref for
 redistribution and is now able to provide versions in German.  Klaus' version
 is a separate product from this one and must be purchased separately. Klaus
 is providing full support for German users.  If you'd like a copy in German,
 please contact:

                             Klaus Overhage
                             Rosenstrasse 15 A
                             7000 Stuttgart 50
                             Germany

  I hope to have other languages available soon.  If you are interested in
purchase or translation, please contact me for details.

 *****************************************************************************

  For payment in British pounds, Canadian dollars or EuroCheques, see
 INVOICE.TRF and PAYMENT.  I fully support foreign users!  If you're having
 trouble arranging payment, write (or leave EMail) and I'll try to work
 something out.

  Do you live outside the US?  If so, you're probably familiar with the
 hassles of keeping up with the latest information - the three to five month
 lead time for US publication, plus time for local book dealers to catalog
 new releases, plus problems in trying to order... plus the delays while your
 book comes in on special order, goes through Customs, the inevitable price
 hikes through all the middlemen, taxes...  not only is DOSREF priced
 well below the price of good printed computer books in the US, it's probably
 far cheaper than you could expect to pay for US books locally.  Plus your
 order will show up in your very own mailbox by air mail.

 *****************************************************************************

  Printed copies of the Tech Ref are available for 16.95 or US$35.10 from
Sigma Press, marketed by John Wiley & Sons UK. Address orders to:

        Programmer's Technical Reference
        by Dave Williams

        ISBN 185058-199-1
        John Wiley & Sons
        Baffins Lane
        Chichester
        West Sussex PO19 1UD
        England

 They accept checks, most credit cards, or purchase orders.

 *****************************************************************************

  The latest shareware version is always available on BIX the ibm.dos/listings
 area, the GEnie IBM file area, or:

 The Courts of Chaos, (501)985-0059, (support BBS)  CompuCom 9600
 The Cat House, (501)376-6909,  (sysop: Joe Felix)  CompuCom 9600

 RelayNet node ->CHAOS
    send mail in COMMON or MULTITSK (I'm the Conference Host for Multitask)
 MetroNet node ->CHAOS
    send mail in METRONET

 The DRAKE BBS, (0522) 824379, (sysop: Paolo Masetti)
 Langhirano, Italy  FIDOnet 2:332/502

 GroupMed, (206) 581-9088  (sysop: Ismail Arslangiray)
 Tacoma WA, USA  FIDOnet 1:138/120 2400bps, 1:138/116 9600bps USR HST
 instant access, latest DOSREF is FREQable


 *****************************************************************************

 Shareware is try-before-you buy software.  If you find this package to be of
use you should consider registering.  Registered users get the complete
version, support, and updates.

 If you received this copy of DOSREF from a shareware vendor the money you
paid was only for the diskette, not the software.

 Dave Williams is a member of the User Supported Software Association (ussa).
ussa wants to make sure that the user supported software principle works for
you. If you are unable to resolve a software-related problem with a ussa
member by contacting the member directly, ussa may be able to help. The ussa
Mediator can help you resolve a dispute or problem with a ussa member, but
does not provide technical support for members' products. Please write to the
ussa Mediator at Box 1000, London SE17 2UA, England.

     旼컴컴커
     넬컴컴켸
     냅컴컴커
     쳇컴쩡캑  Approved
     납  넬엿  Author
     냅컴冒납
     쳇컴쩝졍  User -
     납  넬엿  Supported
     냅컴冒납  Software
     쳐컴쬔척  Association
     넬커 납
     냅켸읕冒
     읕컴컴켸
       ussa



                               How to use DOSREF

 This reference changes so often that any attempt to format it for pagination 
would be a tremendous waste of time. Simply printing the thing out and letting 
the pagebreaks fall where they may is how most people do it. The neatest 
solution is Vern Buerg's LIST.COM or SideKick's file view function. If your
editor has multiple-window support, you can open a small window into the 
Reference and cut and paste into your source.

 An efficient method of using the Reference is to concatenate all the chapters 
together with the COPY command, ie COPY CONTENTS + CHAPTER.001 + CHAPTER.002 +
..... + CHAPTER.017   REF.  (REF being the new file name for the concatenated 
files.) With LIST.COM, the backslash (\) or F9 key will search for strings. 
You can then dump pieces of text to a disk file or your printer.

 If you work better with a printout than scanning with a file viewer, try 
setting your printer to 132 columns. This allows a nice margin for writing 
notes and eliminates the problem some printers have when printing 80 
character wide text. Some of the text and charts in the reference are a full 
80 columns wide; unfortunately some printers wrap automatically at 79 columns.
Some printers don't handle a combination of compressed print and graphics 
characters very well either. You may have to use the PRTRFIX.COM program 
provided on Disk 1 to squelch the graphics for printing.

 I strongly recommend using a viewer instead of printing. If you *must* print 
the Reference out, do it in stages so your printer does not overheat. Some
inexpensive printers will self-destruct after a couple of hours.


   **  Programmer's  Technical  Reference  for  MSDOS  and  the  IBM  PC **
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams


 This is a listing of some of the new stuff added to the Reference. I didn't
keep a version list until 2.0; lots of stuff gets added between version
numbers.

09/87   first shareware release of the reference
11/87   LIM 3.2 functions
01/88   LIM 4.0 spec
05/88   AST EEMS 3.2 spec
06/88   DesQview and TopView calls, NetBIOS calls
07/88   Intel CAS 1.0 spec
12/88   Microsoft XMA 2.0 standard
03/89   Microsoft Windows 1.03 API
04/89   porting between operating systems
04/89   video programming
04/89   more networking
04/89   mouse programming
04/89   table of contents at beginning of each chapter
06/89   major bugfixes and verification of data
09/89   Microsoft TSR Programming Guidelines 1.0 (provisional)
10/89   PharLap VCPI 1.0
10/89   LANtastic network API
10/89   PC-MOS/386 4.00 partial API
10/89   partial DesQview and TopView
10/89   further updates to MS Windows API
12/89   PCjr cartridge support in DOS
12/89   more info on European multitasking DOS 4.0
12/89   added some paint program formats
12/89   info on computer viruses and Trojan Horses

06/90   expanded sysid ID codes in Chapter 2
07/90   add Connor Peripheral drives to Appendix 6
07/90   add Imprimis drives to Appendix 6
08/90   Weitek x167 math coprocessor interfaces
10/90   info on Pelican/Kodak 5.5mb 5-1/4 floppy drives
10/90   added info in IBM PC LAN and Token Ring API
11/90   int 10h functions for EGALOAD font loader, LANtastic AI-LANBIOS 2Fh
        calls, CopyIIPC board ports, UMB definition in Chap2, updated Appendix
        11 (glossary), added new Appendix 21 (hotkey definitions), completely
        reworked partition tables in Chapter 8
12/90   added more network functions from IBM PC LAN reference

Version 2.0 released!

01/91   EISA access ports, more Carbon Copy int 10h calls, more history of
        DOS, changes to partition table info in Chapter 8, more info on
        IRQ7/int17, more info on eDOS 4.0, Pelican I/O ports, CopyII board I/O
        ports, added network info to int 21h calls, added DOS 1.x info to int
        21h calls, added ARJ archive format to Appendix 15
02/91   added DHELP.BAT to DOSCMDS. Lots of new ravings in MISCSTUF. STB VGA
        modes added to chap16, ADT SmartFAX function calls, 8250 UART coverage,
        8237 DMA Controller coverage, NEC 765 floppy controller chip coverage,
        more coverage on AT int 70h timer, more Novell calls, GriD ID bytes
        and specific BIOS functions, Leading Edge Model M undocumented BIOS
        1Ah functions, Versa-Spool interrupts, ZIPKEY int 0B3h calls

04/91   extensive additions of network card port addresses to Chapter 2
        extensive additions to hard drive listings

05/91   added Appendix 22, Sound Blaster API
        added Appendix 23, French-Canadian accented character chart
        moved XMS spec from Chapter 5 to Chapter 10, since many people missed
        it buried in the 2Fh calls.
        added more Desqview programming information

06/91   removed obsolete TIFF information; Aldus will give the latest spec
        to anyone who asks.  Put TIFF hotline number in Appendix 20.
        added CIS GIF file format, by permission of H&R Block and CIS.
        added PCX file format, by permission of ZSoft.
        added DOS 5 mods and new information to ASSIGN in Chapter 5.

07/91   received permission from VESA to redistribute VESA documents.
        documented SWITCHAR no longer works in 5.0
        int 2Fh/fn 4Ah DOS 5 HMA services (partial)
        int 21h/fn 33h DOS 5 "real" DOS version call
        more information on 21h/60h (TRUENAME) and networks, Win3
        added 8250 info back to Chapter 15
        moved CIS GIF file format to Appendix 24
        hex chart

Version 2.1 released

08/91   added more DV info to int 10h/0FEh
        added int 21h and int 2Fh calls for DOS 5.0 from MS 5.0 Tech Ref
        moved DoubleDOS functions from Chapter 4 to Chapter 17
        added how to detect VDISK, some DV info to chap3, 15h/87h
        more info on chap3, 15h/83h and 86h, AT int70 timer functions
        more into on Create Temporary File changes under MS and DR 5.0
        more model ID bytes in chapter 2
        noted potential problems with MSC int86() and ints 25h, 26h
        added CheckIt parallel loopback tester pinout
        greatly enhanced bibliography (50 new entries!)
        more info on the history of the PCjr
        included Raintree's nice information file on DOS4 and SHARE

        IBM-to-Mac serial cable adapter pinouts
        more on 2Fh/16h, DOS give-up-time (used by OS/2 2.0 and Win3 too)
        port addresses on Logitech ScanMan board

        Microsoft TSR Specification 1.0 as Appendix 26
        AT&T 6300 BIOS Data Area problem, Chapter 2
        more info on int 15h,fn 4Fh (OS Hook)


       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


 The rest of the chapters aren't included in this shareware demonstration
package.  Since the complete manual takes about 1000k even compressed in
LHarc format, something had to give somewhere.

 Here's a sample of what you're missing:

 DOS 5 information (mainly in registered chapters 4, and 5)


 (Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are the same as the registered version, less additions
since this demo was released)


                               TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRO           Introduction, credits, copyrights


CHAPTER 1       DOS and the PC

Some History .......................................................... 1**1
What is DOS? .......................................................... 1**2
Other Operating Systems ............................................... 1**3
Specific Versions of MS/PC-DOS ........................................ 1**4
The Operating System Heirarchy ........................................ 1**5
DOS Structure ......................................................... 1**6
DOS Initialization .................................................... 1**7


CHAPTER 2       Low Memory and Absolute Addresses

Introduction .......................................................... 2**1
System Memory Map ..................................................... 2**2
A Brief Guide to Current Memory Terminology ........................... 2**3
PC Port Assignment .................................................... 2**4
Reserved Memory Locations ............................................. 2**5
Absolute Addresses .................................................... 2**6
The IBM PC System Interrupts (Overview) ............................... 2**7
Quick Chart of Interrupts 00h-0FFh .................................... 2**8
The IBM-PC System Interrupts 00h-0Fh (in detail) ...................... 2**9


CHAPTER 3       The IBM ROM BIOS

Calling the ROM BIOS .................................................. 3**1
Interrupt 10h  Video Services ......................................... 3**2
Interrupt 11h  Equipment Check ........................................ 3**3
Interrupt 12h  Memory Size ............................................ 3**4
Interrupt 13h  Disk Functions ......................................... 3**5
Interrupt 14h  Initialize and Access Serial Port ...................... 3**6
               FOSSIL Drivers ......................................... 3**7
Interrupt 15h  Cassette I/O ........................................... 3**8
Interrupt 16h  Keyboard I/O ........................................... 3**9
Interrupt 17h  Printer ................................................ 3**10
Interrupt 18h  ROM BASIC .............................................. 3**11
Interrupt 19h  Bootstrap Loader ....................................... 3**12
Interrupt 1Ah  Time of Day ............................................ 3**13
Interrupt 1Bh  Control-Break .......................................... 3**14
Interrupt 1Ch  Timer Tick ............................................. 3**15
Interrupt 1Dh  Vector of Video Initialization Parameters .............. 3**16
Interrupt 1Eh  Vector of Diskette Controller Parameters ............... 3**17
Interrupt 1Fh  Ptr to Graphics Character Extensions (Graphics Set 2) .. 3**18


CHAPTER 4       DOS Function Requests

General Programming Guides ............................................ 4**1
DOS Registers ......................................................... 4**2
DOS Stacks ............................................................ 4**3
DOS Interrupts ........................................................ 4**4
Interrupt 20h (Terminate) ............................................. 4**5
DOS Services (quick list) ............................................. 4**6
Calling the DOS Services .............................................. 4**7
Version Specific Information .......................................... 4**8
Compatibility Problems With DOS 4.0+ .................................. 4**9
PCjr Cartridge Support ................................................ 4**10
eDOS 4.0 .............................................................. 4**11
DOS Services in Detail ................................................ 4**12


CHAPTER 5       Interrupts 22h through 0FFh

Interrupt 22h   Terminate Address ..................................... 5**1
Interrupt 23h   Ctrl-Break Exit Address ............................... 5**2
Interrupt 24h   Critical Error Handler ................................ 5**3
Interrupt 25h   Absolute Disk Read .................................... 5**4
Interrupt 26h   Absolute Disk Write ................................... 5**5
Interrupt 27h   Terminate And Stay Resident ........................... 5**6
Interrupt 28h   (not documented by Microsoft) ......................... 5**7
Interrupt 29h   (not documented by Microsoft) ......................... 5**8
Interrupt 2Ah   Microsoft Networks - Session Layer Interrupt .......... 5**9
Interrupt 2Bh   Unknown ............................................... 5**10
Interrupt 2Ch   Unknown ............................................... 5**11
Interrupt 2Dh   Unknown ............................................... 5**12
Interrupt 2Eh   Alternate EXEC (DOS 2.0+) ............................. 5**13
Interrupt 2Fh   Multiplex Interrupt ................................... 5**14
Interrupt 30h   FAR jump instruction for CP/M-style calls ............. 5**15
Interrupt 31h   Unknown ............................................... 5**16
Interrupt 32h   Unknown ............................................... 5**17
Interrupt 33h   Used by Microsoft Mouse Driver Function Calls ......... 5**18
Interrupt 34h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**19
Interrupt 35h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**20
Interrupt 36h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**21
Interrupt 37h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**22
Interrupt 38h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**23
Interrupt 39h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**24
Interrupt 3Ah   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**25
Interrupt 3Bh   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**26
Interrupt 3Ch   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**27
Interrupt 3Dh   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**28
Interrupt 3Eh   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation  5**29
Interrupt 3Fh   Overlay Manager Interrupt (Microsoft LINK.EXE) ........ 5**30
Interrupt 40h   Hard Disk BIOS ........................................ 5**31
Interrupt 41h   Hard Disk Parameters .................................. 5**32
Interrupt 42h   Pointer to screen BIOS entry .......................... 5**33
Interrupt 43h   Pointer to EGA Graphics Character Table ............... 5**34
Interrupt 44h   Pointer to graphics character table ................... 5**35
Interrupt 45h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**36
Interrupt 46h   Pointer to second hard disk parameter block ........... 5**37
Interrupt 47h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**38
Interrupt 48h   Cordless Keyboard Translation ......................... 5**39
Interrupt 49h   Non-keyboard Scan Code Translation Table Address (PCjr) 5**40
Interrupt 4Ah   Real-Time Clock Alarm (Convertible, PS/2) ............. 5**41
Interrupt 4Bh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**42
Interrupt 4Ch   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**43
Interrupt 4Dh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**44
Interrupt 4Eh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**45
Interrupt 4Fh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**46
Interrupt 50-57 IRQ0-IRQ7 Relocation .................................. 5**47
Interrupt 58h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**48
Interrupt 59h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**49
Interrupt 5Ah   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)  ................... 5**50
Interrupt 5Bh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**51
Interrupt 5Ah   Cluster Adapter BIOS entry address .................... 5**52
Interrupt 5Bh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**53
Interrupt 5Ch   NETBIOS interface entry port, TOPS .................... 5**54
Interrupt 5Dh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**55
Interrupt 5Eh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**56
Interrupt 5Fh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) .................... 5**57
Interrupt 60h-67h  User Program Interrupts ............................ 5**58
Interrupt 60h   Network OS Interface .................................. 5**59
Interrupt 67h   Expanded Memory Board Driver Interrupt ................ 5**60
Interrupt 68h   Not Used  (not initialized) ........................... 5**61
Interrupt 69h   Not Used  (not initialized) ........................... 5**62
Interrupt 6Ah   Not Used  (not initialized) ........................... 5**63
Interrupt 6Bh   Not Used  (not initialized) ........................... 5**64
Interrupt 6Ch   System Resume Vector (Convertible) .................... 5**65
Interrupt 6Dh   Not Used  (not initialized) ........................... 5**66
Interrupt 6Eh   Not Used  (not initialized) ........................... 5**67
Interrupt 6Fh   10-Net API............................................. 5**68
Interrupt 70h   IRQ 8, Real Time Clock Interrupt (AT, XT/286, PS/2) ... 5**69
Interrupt 71h   IRQ 9, Redirected to IRQ 8 (AT, XT/286, PS/2) ......... 5**70
Interrupt 72h   IRQ 10  (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved .................. 5**71
Interrupt 73h   IRQ 11  (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved .................. 5**72
Interrupt 74h   IRQ 12  Mouse Interrupt (PS/2) ........................ 5**73
Interrupt 75h   IRQ 13, Coprocessor Error (AT) ........................ 5**74
Interrupt 76h   IRQ 14, Hard Disk Controller (AT, XT/286, PS/2) ....... 5**75
Interrupt 77h   IRQ 15 (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved ................... 5**76
Interrupt 78h   Not Used .............................................. 5**77
Interrupt 79h   Not Used .............................................. 5**78
Interrupt 7Ah   Reserved .............................................. 5**79
Interrupt 7Bh-7Eh  Not Used by IBM .................................... 5**80
Interrupt 7Ch   REXX-PC API ........................................... 5**81
Interrupt 7Fh   IBM 8514/A Graphics Adapter API ....................... 5**82
Interrupt 80h-85h  Reserved by BASIC .................................. 5**83
Interrupt 86h   Int 18 when relocated by NETBIOS ...................... 5**84
Interrupt 86h-0F0h  Used by BASIC when BASIC interpreter is running ... 5**85
Interrupt 0A4h  Right Hand Man API .................................... 5**86
Interrupt 0D4h  PC-MOS/386 API ........................................ 5**87
Interrupt 0E0h  Digital Research CP/M-86 function calls ............... 5**88
Interrupt 0E1h  PC Cluster Disk Server Information .................... 5**89
Interrupt 0E2h  PC Cluster Program .................................... 5**90
Interrupt 0E4h  Logitech Modula-2 v2.0   Monitor Entry ................ 5**91
Interrupt 0E5h  Not Used .............................................. 5**92
Interrupt 0E6h  Not Used .............................................. 5**93
Interrupt 0E7h  Not Used .............................................. 5**94
Interrupt 0E8h  Not Used .............................................. 5**95
Interrupt 0E9h  Not Used .............................................. 5**96
Interrupt 0EAh  Not Used .............................................. 5**97
Interrupt 0EBh  Not Used .............................................. 5**98
Interrupt 0ECh  Not Used .............................................. 5**99
Interrupt 0EDh  Not Used ............................................. 5**100
Interrupt 0EEh  Not Used ............................................. 5**101
Interrupt 0EFh  GEM interface (Digital Research) ..................... 5**102
Interrupt 0F0h  unknown .............................................. 5**103
Interrupts 0F1h-0FFh  (absolute addresses 3C4h-3FFh) ................. 5**104
Interrupt 0F4h  Not Used ............ ................................ 5**105
Interrupt 0F5h  Not Used ............ ................................ 5**106
Interrupt 0F8h  Set Shell Interrupt (OEM) ............................ 5**107
Interrupt 0F9h  Reserved ............................................. 5**108
Interrupt 0FAh  USART ready (RS-232C) ................................ 5**109
Interrupt 0FBh  USART RS ready (keyboard) ............................ 5**110
Interrupt 0FCh  Unknown ...............................................5**111
Interrupt 0FDh  reserved for user interrupt .......................... 5**112
Interrupt 0FEh  reserved by IBM ...................................... 5**113
Interrupt 0FFh  reserved by IBM ...................................... 5**114



CHAPTER 6       DOS Control Blocks and Work Areas

DOS Address Space ..................................................... 6**1
Storage Blocks ........................................................ 6**2
Disk Transfer Area (DTA) .............................................. 6**3
Program Segment Prefix ................................................ 6**4
Memory Control Blocks ................................................. 6**5
DOS Program Segment ................................................... 6**6


CHAPTER 7       DOS File Information

File Management Functions ............................................. 7**1
FCB Function Calls .................................................... 7**2
Handle Function Calls ................................................. 7**3
Special File Handles .................................................. 7**4
Raw and Cooked File I/O ............................................... 7**5
Number of Open Files Allowed  ......................................... 7**6
Restrictions on FCB Usage ............................................. 7**7
Restrictions on Handle usage .......................................... 7**8
Allocating Space to a File ............................................ 7**9
MSDOS / PCDOS Differences ............................................. 7**10
.COM File Structure ................................................... 7**11
.EXE File Structure ................................................... 7**12
The Relocation Table .................................................. 7**13
"NEW" .EXE Format (Microsoft Windows and OS/2) ........................ 7**14
Standard File Control Block ........................................... 7**15
Extended File Control Block ........................................... 7**16
Disk Transfer Area .................................................... 7**17


CHAPTER 8       DOS Disk Information

The DOS Area .......................................................... 8**1
The Boot Record ....................................................... 8**2
DOS File Allocation Table (FAT) ....................................... 8**3
        Media Descriptor Byte ......................................... 8**4
        12 Bit FATs ................................................... 8**5
        16 Bit FATs ................................................... 8**6
        32 Bit FATs ................................................... 8**7
DOS Disk Directory .................................................... 8**8
The Data Area ......................................................... 8**9
Floppy Disk Types ..................................................... 8**10
Hard Disk Layout ...................................................... 8**11
System Initialization ................................................. 8**12
Boot Record/Partition Table ........................................... 8**13
Hard Disk Technical Information ....................................... 8**14
Determining Hard Disk File Allocation ................................. 8**15
BIOS Disk Functions ................................................... 8**16


CHAPTER 9       Device Drivers


CHAPTER 10      Lotus/Intel/Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification

History ............................................................... 10**1
Uses of Expanded Memory ............................................... 10**2
DOS and Expanded Memory ............................................... 10**3
Different Memory Types ................................................ 10**4
AST/Quadram/Ashton-Tate Enhanced EMM .................................. 10**5
EMS Address Space Map ................................................. 10**6
Writing Programs That Use Expanded Memory ............................. 10**7
Page Frames ........................................................... 10**8
Calling the Manager ................................................... 10**9
Detecting EMS ......................................................... 10**10
Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) Program Cooperation ................. 10**11
Expanded Memory Services Quick List ................................... 10**12
Expanded Memory Services .............................................. 10**13
        LIM 3.2 Specification ......................................... 10**14
        LIM 4.0 Specification ......................................... 10**15
        AQA EEMS 3.2 Specification .................................... 10**16
        VCPI API 1.0 .................................................. 10**17
Expanded Memory Manager Error Codes ................................... 10**18
Microsoft Extended Memory Specification 2.0 ........................... 10**19


CHAPTER 11      Conversion Between Operating Systems

Overview .............................................................. 11**1
Special Considerations ................................................ 11**2
Example Operating Systems ............................................. 11**3
Atari ST .............................................................. 11**4
CP/M .................................................................. 11**5
MacOS ................................................................. 11**6
AmigaDOS .............................................................. 11**7
OS/2 .................................................................. 11**8
UNIX .................................................................. 11**9


CHAPTER 12      Microsoft Windows API

Overview .............................................................. 12**1
Programming Windows ................................................... 12**2
Versions .............................................................. 12**3
Functions ............................................................. 12**4
Error Codes ........................................................... 12**5


CHAPTER 13      Network APIs

FTP Driver - PC/TCP Packet Driver Specification ....................... 13**1
10-Net Network ........................................................ 13**2
LANtastic LANOS API ................................................... 13**3
Novell NetWare 2.11 API ............................................... 13**4
APPC/PC ............................................................... 13**5


CHAPTER 14      Mouse Programming

General Information ................................................... 14**1
Register Usage ........................................................ 14**2
Interrupt 33h Function Requests ....................................... 14**3
Interrupt 10h Function Requests ....................................... 14**4


CHAPTER 15      Register-Level Programming

8555 Peripheral Interface ............................................. 15**1
8259 Interrupt Controller ............................................. 15**2
AT CMOS RAM Configuration ............................................. 15**3


CHAPTER 16      Video Programming

Quick List of BIOS Interrupt 10h Functions ............................ 16**1
BIOS Interrupt 10h Functions in Detail ................................ 16**2


CHAPTER 17      Multitasking Shells

Introduction .......................................................... 17**1
Programming Practices ................................................. 17**2
TopView/DESQview API (interrupt 15h, "System Services" interface) ..... 17**3
TopView/DESQview API (interrupt 16h, "BIOS Video" interface) .......... 17**4


CHAPTER 18      Viruses and Trojan Horses


CHAPTER 19      Tips and Tricks


MISCSTUF        Miscellaneous Stuff

AFTERWRD        Afterword

CREDITS         Credits and Bibliography



 A P P E N D I C E S

APPENDIX  1     Keyboard scan code chart

APPENDIX  2     ASCII character chart

APPENDIX  3     IBM PC character set

APPENDIX  4     IBM PC error code listing

APPENDIX  5     Addresses of various manufacturers

APPENDIX  6     Hard disk information

APPENDIX  7     Floppy and Tape Devices

APPENDIX  8     Pinouts of various connectors on the IBM PC

APPENDIX  9     Sizes of various drivers installed in CONFIG.SYS

APPENDIX  10    Common modem instruction sets

APPENDIX  11    Glossary of computer terminology

APPENDIX  12    Various busses used in MSDOS machines

APPENDIX  13    Common filename extensions

APPENDIX  14    Clock speeds of various expansion cards

APPENDIX  15    Header formats used by various archive utilities

APPENDIX  16    Miscellaneous Hardware Information

APPENDIX  17    HP LaserJet Setup Codes

APPENDIX  18    ANSI.SYS Escape Sequences

APPENDIX  19    DEC VT100 Escape Sequences

APPENDIX  20    Various Paint Program Formats

APPENDIX  21    Some Commonly Used Hot-Keys

APPENDIX  22    Sound Blaster API

APPENDIX  23    French-Canadian accented character chart

APPENDIX  24    Compuserve Graphic Image Format '89a

APPENDIX  25    Hex Chart

APPENDIX  26    Microsoft TSR Specification 1.0

       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                            C H A P T E R    O N E

                              DOS AND THE IBM PC


                                C O N T E N T S

Some History .......................................................... 1**1
What is DOS? .......................................................... 1**2
Other Operating Systems ............................................... 1**3
Specific Versions of MS/PC-DOS ........................................ 1**4
The Operating System Heirarchy ........................................ 1**5
DOS Structure ......................................................... 1**6
DOS Initialization .................................................... 1**7



SOME HISTORY쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 1**1

 Development of MSDOS/PCDOS began in October 1980, when IBM began searching
the market for an operating system for the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC.
Microsoft had no 8086 real operating system to sell, but quickly made a deal
to license Seattle Computer Products' 86-DOS operating system, which had been
written by Tim Paterson earlier in 1980 for use on that company's line of 8086,
S100 bus micros. 86-DOS (also called QDOS, for Quick and Dirty Operating System)
had been written as more or less a 16-bit version of CP/M, since Digital
Research was showing no hurry in introducing CP/M-86.

 This code was quickly polished up and presented to IBM for evaluation. IBM
had originally intended to use Digital Research's CP/M operating system, which
was the industry standard at the time.

 Folklore reports various stories about the rift between DRI and IBM. The most
popular story claims Gary Kildall or DRI snubbed the IBM executives by flying
his airplane when the meeting was scheduled. Another story claims Kildall
didn't want to release the source for CP/M to IBM, which would be odd, since
they released it to other companies. One noted industry pundit claims
Kildall's wife killed the deal by insisting on various contract changes. I
suspect the deal was killed by the good ol'boy network. It's hard to imagine
a couple of junior IBM executives giving up when ordered to a task as simple
as licensing an operating system from a vendor. Wouldn't look good on their
performance reports. It would be interesting to hear IBM's story...

 IBM found itself left with Microsoft's offering of "Microsoft Disk
Operating System 1.0". An agreement was reached between the two, and IBM agreed
to accept 86-DOS as the main operating system for thir new PC. Microsoft
purchased all rights to 86-DOS in July 1981, and "IBM Personal Computer DOS
1.0" was ready for the introduction of the IBM PC in October 1981. IBM
subjected the operating system to an extensive quality-assurance program,
reportedly found well over 300 bugs, and decided to rewrite the programs. This
is why PC-DOS is copyrighted by both IBM and Microsoft.

 Some early OEM versions of DOS had different names, such as Compaq-DOS, Z-DOS,
Software Bus 86, etc.  By version 2 Microsoft managed to persuade everyone but
IBM to refer to the product as "MS-DOS."

 It is sometimes amusing to reflect on the fact that the IBM PC was not
originally intended to run MSDOS. The target operating system at the end of the
development was for a (not yet in existence) 8086 version of CP/M. On the other
hand, when DOS was originally written the IBM PC did not yet exist! Although
PC-DOS was bundled with the computer, Digital Research's CP/M-86 would probably
have been the main operating system for the PC except for two things - Digital
Research wanted $495 for CP/M-86 (considering PC-DOS was essentially free) and
many software developers found it easier to port existing CP/M software to DOS
than to the new version of CP/M.

 The upgrade from DOS 3.3 to 4.0 was done in-house by IBM.  DOS 4.0 was a
completely IBM product, later licensed back to Microsoft. In early 1990 IBM
announced that it was ceasing development of DOS and all further work would
be done solely by Microsoft.


 Microsoft Press' "MSDOS Encyclopedia" shows a reproduction of a late
DOS 1.25 OEM brochure.  Microsoft was touting future enhancements to
1.25 including Xenix-compatible pipes, process forks, and multitasking,
as well as "graphics and cursor positioning, kanji support, multi-user
and hard disk support, and networking."  Microsoft certainly thought
big, but, alas, the forks, multitasking, and multiuser support never
came about, at least in US versions of DOS.  Oddly, the flyer claims
that

 "MS-DOS has no practical limit on disk size. MS-DOS uses 4-byte XENIX
OS compatible pointers for file and disk capacity up to 4 gigabytes."

 Umm... yeah.  One sort of gets the idea nobody at Microsoft had a hard
disk larger than 32 megabytes...

 For the record they actually delivered:

Xenix-compatible pipes             DOS 2.0  ("|" operator)
process forks, and multitasking   eDOS 4.0  (not delivered in the US)
multi-user                         never delivered
graphics and cursor positioning    DOS 2.0  (ANSI.SYS, more than likely)
kanji support                      DOS 2.01, 2.25 (double-byte char set)
hard disk support                  DOS 2.0  (subdirectories)
networking                         DOS 3.1  (file locking, MS Networks)

 Early Microsoft ads pumped DOS' Xenix-like features and promised Xenix
functionality in future releases.

 We'll probably never know what the real story was behind eDOS/DOS 4/
DOS 5/286DOS/OS2.  Microsoft had announced their intent to build a
multitasking, multiuser version of MSDOS as early as 1982.  They shipped
betas of "DOS 4.0" in '86 and early '87, before 3.3 was even announced.
Microsoft UK announced they had licensed 4.0 to Apricot Computer, and
the French Postal Service was supposed to be running it.  I've never
been able to find out if Apricot ever shipped any 4.0 to end users.

 Despite Gordon Letwin's acid comments about problems with the 80286
processor, I doubt the '286 was the barrier between users and a
multitasking MSDOS.  I also doubt there was any shortage of programming
talent at Microsoft - Digital Research's Concurrent DOS and Software
Link's PC-MOS were developed without undue trouble.


 MSDOS and PC-DOS have been run on more than just the IBM-PC and clones. Some
of the following have been done:

 Hardware PC Emulation:

        Apple II                ->      TransPC 8088 board
        Apple MacIntosh         ->      AST 80286 board
        Atari 400/800           ->      Co-Power 88 board
        Atari ST                ->      PC-Ditto II cartridge
        Commodore Amiga 2000    ->      8088 or A2286D 80286 Bridge Board
        IBM PC/RT               ->      80286 AT adapter
        Kaypro 2                ->      Co-Power Plus board

 Software PC Emulation:

        Apple MacIntosh         ->      SoftPC
        Atari ST                ->      PC-Ditto I
        IBM RS/6000             ->      DOS emulation

 DOS Emulation:

        AIX (IBM RS/6000)       ->      DOS emulation with "PCSIMulator"
        OS/2                    ->      DOS emulation in "Compatibility Box"
        QNX                     ->      DOS window
        SunOS                   ->      DOS window
        Xenix                   ->      DOS emulation with DOSMerge


WHAT IS DOS?쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 1**2

 DOS exists as a high-level interface between an application program and the
computer. DOS stands for "Disk Operating System", which reflects the fact that
its main original purpose was to provide an interface between the computer and
its disk drives.

 DOS now lets your programs do simple memory management, I/O from the system
console, and assorted system tasks (time and date, etc) as well as managing
disk operations. Versions 3.1 and up also incorporate basic networking
functions.

 With the introduction of installable device drivers and TSR (terminate but
stay resident) programs in DOS 2.0, the basic DOS functions may be expanded to
cover virtually any scale of operations required.


OTHER OPERATING SYSTEMS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 1**3

 There are a number of compatible replacements for Microsoft's MSDOS. Some are:

Alloy 386 Multiware                  (multitasking control prog, licensed DOS)
Consortium Technologies MultiDOS     (multitasking, multiuser)
Digital Research Concurrent DOS      (multitasking)
Digital Research Concurrent DOS 386  (for 80386 computers)
Digital Research Concurrent DOS XM   (multitasking, multiuser)
Digital Research DR-DOS 3.31 and 5.0 (PC-DOS clones)
Digital Research Multiuser DOS       (multitasking, multiuser)
PC-MOS/386                           (multitasking, multiuser)
Wendin-DOS                           (multitasking, multiuser)
VM/386                               (multitasking)

 Various other operating systems are available for the IBM PC. These include:

Digital Research CP/M-86
Digital Research Concurrent CP/M-86 (multitasking)
Minix (multitasking UNIX workalike)
Pick  (database-operating system)
QNX   (multitasking, multiuser)
UNIX  (various systems from IBM itself, Microsoft-SCO, Bell, and various UNIX
       clones, single and multi user) (AIX, Xenix, AT&T System V, etc.)

 "Shell" programs exist which use DOS only for disk management while they more
or less comprise a new operating system. These include:

     DesQview                        Windows                     OmniView
     GEM                             TopView                     TaskView
     GeoWorks

 Systems using the NEC V-series CPUs can execute Intel 8080/8085 8-bit
instructions as well as the 16-bit 8088-up instructions.  They can run standard
Digital Research 8-bit CP/M and MP/M directly, as well as other operating
systems developed for that processor.



SPECIFIC VERSIONS OF MS/PC-DOS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 1**4

 DOS 1.x is essentially 86-DOS.  DOS 2.x kept the multiple file layout (the two
hidden files and COMMAND.COM) but for all practical purposes is an entirely
different operating system with backwards compatibility with 1.x.  I seriously
doubt there has been much code from 1.x retained in 2.x. DOS 3.x is merely an
enhancement of 2.x; there seems little justification for jumping a whole
version number.  The disk handling routines were considerably extended in 3.1,
allowing disk access in a "virtual" fashion, independent of whether the drive
was a local or network device.  DOS 4.0, originating as it did from outside
Microsoft, can justify a version jump.  Unfortunately, 4.0 seemed to have very
little reason to justify its existence - virtually all of its core features
could be found in one version or another of DOS 3.x.  According to Microsoft's
Gordon Letwin, DOS 5.0 was a complete rewrite with the kernel done in hand
optimized assembly language.

 DOS version nomenclature: major.minor.minor.  The digit to the left of the
decimal point indicates a major DOS version change.  1.0 was the first version.
2.0 added support for subdirectories, 3.0 added support for networking, 4.0
added some minimal support for Lotus-Intel-Microsoft EMS.

 The first minor version indicates customization for a major application.  For
example, 2.1 for the PCjr, 3.3 for the PS/2s.  The second minor version does not
seem to have any particular meaning.

 The main versions of DOS are:

 86-DOS       February 1981  Paterson's Quick'n'Dirty DOS first runs on PC
 PC-DOS 1.0   August   1981  original IBM release
 PC-DOS 1.05  -------- ----  fixes to BASIC interpreter
 PC-DOS 1.1   June     1982  bugfix, double sided drive support
 MS-DOS 1.25  July     1982  for early compatibles. This is the first non-IBM
                             OEM version
 PC-DOS 2.0   March    1983  for PC/XT, Unix-type subdirectory support,
                             installable device drivers, I/O redirection,
                             subdirectories, hard disk support, handle calls
 PC-DOS 1.85  April    1983  internal IBM - extended 1.1 - not released
 MS-DOS 2.01  -------- 1983  first support for individual country formats, Kanji
 PC-DOS 2.1   October  1983  for IBM PCjr, bugfixes for 2.0. No country support
 MS-DOS 2.11  October  1983  basically a cross of PC-DOS 2.1 and MS-DOS 2.01
 MS-DOS 2.12  -------- ----  special version for TI Professional
 PC-DOS 3.0   August   1984  1.2 meg drive for PC/AT, some new system calls,
                             new external programs, 16-bit FAT, specific support
                             for IBM network
 MS-DOS 3.05  -------- 1984  first OEM version of 3.x
 PC-DOS 3.1   November 1984  bugfix for 3.0, implemented generic network support
 MS-DOS 2.25  October  1985  extended foreign language support
 PC-DOS 3.2   January  1986  720k 3.5 inch drive support, special support for
                             laptops (IBM PC Convertible), XCOPY
 MS-DOS 4.0   April    1986  multitasking (Europe only) - withdrawn from market
 PC-DOS 3.3   April    1987  for PS/2 series, 1.44 meg support, multiple DOS
                             partition support, code page switching, improved
                             foreign language support, some new function calls,
                             support for the AT's CMOS clock.
 MS-DOS 3.31  November 1987  over-32 meg DOS partitions. Different versions
                             from different OEMs (not Microsoft).  Compaq and
                             Wyse are most common.
 PC-DOS 3.4   -------- ----  internal IBM - not released (4.0 development)
 MS-DOS 2.11R -------- 1988  bootable ROM DOS for Tandy machines
 PC-DOS 4.0   August   1988  32mb limit officially broken, minor EMS support,
                             more new function calls, enhanced network support
                             for external commands
 MS-DOS 4.01  January? 1989  Microsoft version with some bugfixes
 MS-DOS 3.21R September1989  DOS in ROM, Flash File System for laptops
 MS-DOS 3.3R  -------- 1990  DOS in ROM, introduced for TI laptops
 MS-DOS 5.0   June     1991  new high memory support, uses up to 8 hard disks,
                             command line editor and aliasing, 2.88 floppies

 IBM's PC-DOS was long considered to be the "standard" version of DOS.  Now
that MS 5.0 is a commercial product most developers will probably write to it.

 Microsoft's policy has been to sell DOS only to OEMs.  Despite this, they
sold small quantities of DOS 3.2, 3.3, and 4.0 without insurmountable
difficulties.  DOS 5.0 was conceived from the beginning as an over-the-counter
retail product.

 Incidentally, IBM refers to its DOS as "The IBM Personal Computer DOS." The
term "PCDOS" is a trademark of IBM's rival DEC.

 Some versions of MS-DOS varied from PC-DOS in the available external commands.
Some OEMs only licensed the basic operating system code (the xxxDOS and xxxBIO
programs, and COMMAND.COM) from Microsoft, and either wrote the rest themselves
or contracted them from outside software houses like Phoenix.  Most of the
external programs for DOS 3.x and 4.x are written in "C" while the 1.x and 2.x
utilities were written in assembly language.  Other OEMs required customized
versions of DOS for their specific hardware configurations, such as Sanyo 55x
and early Tandy computers, which were unable to exchange their DOS with the IBM
version.

 PC-DOS 3.0 was extremely buggy on release.  It did not handle the DOS
environment correctly and there were numerous documented problems with the
batch file parser.  The network support code was also nonfunctional in that DOS
version.  It is recommended that users upgrade to at least version 3.1.

 DEC MSDOS versions 2.11 for the Rainbow had the ANSI.SYS device driver built
into the main code.  The Rainbow also used a unique quad density, single-sided
floppy drive and its DOS had special support for it.

 IBM had a version 1.85 of PC-DOS in April 1983, after the introduction of DOS
2.0.  It was evidently for internal use only, supported multiple drive file
searches (a primitive form of PATH), builtin MODE sommands for screen support,
a /P parameter for TYPE for paused screens, an editable command stack like the
public domain DOSEDIT.COM utility, and could be set up to remain completely
resident in RAM instead of a resident/transient part like normal DOS.  It is a
pity some of the neat enhancements didn't make it into DOS 2.0.  IBM also had
an "internal use only" version 3.4, evidently used while developing DOS 4.0.

 Digital Research's DR-DOS is the first widely available DOS clone.  Version
3.4, released in June 1988, was the one first available to the American public.
It was somewhat buggy and its use is not recommended.  DR 3.41 is extremely
compatible and its use should pose no problems on any machine.  DR-DOS 5.0
(released May, 1990) is functionally equivalent to MS-DOS 5.0.  For all
practical purposes, MS 5.0 is a clone of DR 5.0, since DR beat MS to market by
over a year.  According to Greg Ewald, DRI's DR-DOS product manager, DR-DOS was
developed from Concurrent DOS 386 with the multiuser and multitasking code
stripped out.

 Some versions of DOS used in compatibles do not maintain the 1.x, 2.x, ...
numbering system.  Columbia Data Products computers labeled DOS 1.25 as DOS
2.0.  Early Compaqs labeled DOS 2.0 as DOS 1.x.  Other versions incorporated
special features - Compaq DOS 3.31 and Wyse DOS 3.21 both support >32mb disk
partitions in the same fashion as DOS 4.x.

 AT&T DOS 3.1 differs from generic MSDOS 3.10 in its use of cluster-size and
file allocation table structures.  AT&T DOS appears to use rules not from
version 3, but rather those from version 2.

 Epson Equity III and ComputerLand 3.10 DOS's appear to use cluster techniques
that are a cross between versions 2 and 3.  On type DOS partitions, these DOS's
use 3.x rules if the partition is larger than 32,680 sectors in total size.
This implies 16 bit FAT entries as well.  On partitions below this size, they
will use 2.x rules, including the 12 bit FAT entries.

 Zenith DOS 3.x and Wyse DOS 3.2 have a builtin internal device driver to
handle up to 4 32Mb DOS partitions on a single hard disk. Wyse DOS 3.31 will
handle single partitions up to 512Mb with a 32-bit FAT.

 According to PC Week Magazine, July 4, 1988, Arabic versions of MSDOS are
shipping with a hardware copy-protection system from Rainbow Technologies.
This is similar to the short-lived system used by AutoCAD 2.52 and a very few
other MSDOS programs, where an adapter block is plugged into the parallel port
and software makes use of coded bytes within the block.  This type of copy
protection has been common on Commodore products for several years, where it is
called a "dongle."
 The AutoCAD dongle was defeated by a small program written within weeks of
version 2.52's debut.  Version 2.62 was released 3 months later, without the
dongle.  The DOS dongle will, however, prevent the system from booting at all
unless it is found.
 This makes the Arabic version of MSDOS the first copy-protected operating
system, a dubious distinction at best.  The modifications to the operating
system to support the dongle are not known at this time.  Frankly, it would
seem that burning the operating system into ROMs would be cheaper and simpler.

 Versions of DOS sold in Great Britain are either newer than those sold in the
US or use a different numbering system.  DOS 3.4, 4.0, 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3 had
been released there between the US releases of 3.3 and 4.0.
 MSDOS 4.0 (eDOS) was introduced in mid-1987 in Europe (at SICOB in Paris and
sometime earlier by Apricot Computer in the UK).  It offered multitasking
provided applications were specially written for it.
 David Fraser (Microsoft UK Managing Director) is on record saying that "DOS
4.0 is unlikely to set the world alight and is of interest only to specific
OEMs who want its features for networking and communications."   Standard DOS
applications will run under DOS 4.x as a foreground task according to uncertain
information.  It differs from earlier versions only in allowing background tasks
to run.  For further information, see Chapter 4.

 Microsoft changed their OEM licensing agreements between DOS versions 2.x and
3.x.  OEM versions of DOS 3.x must maintain certain data areas and undocumented
functions in order to provide compatibility with the networking features of the
operating system.  For this reason, TSR programs will be much more reliable
when operating under DOS 3.x.

 Several versions of DOS have been modified to be run out of ROM.  The Sharp
PC5000 had MSDOS 1.25 in ROM, and the Toshiba 1000 and some Tandy 1000 models
have MSDOS 2.11 in ROM.  In mid September 1989 Microsoft introduced 3.21R ROMs
for laptops, and in early '90 Texas Instruments laptops were the first to get
the 3.3R ROMs.  Digital Research has also announced its DR-DOS 3.41 and 5.0 is
available in a ROM version and Award Software is marketing DOS cards to OEMs
as a plug-in to ISA-bus machines.

 IBM's release of DOS 4.0 (and the immediate subsequent release of a bugfix)
was a dubious step "forward."  DOS 4.0 was the first version of DOS to come with
a warranty; the catch is that IBM warranted it only for a very slim list of
IBM-packaged software.  4.0 had some minor EMS support, support for large hard
disks, and not much else.  With its voracious RAM requirements and lack of
compatibility with previous versions of DOS (many major software packages
crashed under DOS 4.0), plus the increase in price to a cool $150, there was
no great rush to go to that version of DOS.

 Microsoft undertook development of MSDOS 5.0 in early 1990, soliciting
input from Usenet, BIX, and Compuserve among others.  5.0 is a functional
clone of Digital Research's DR-DOS 5.0.  5.0's compatibility was assured
by what has been claimed as the largest beta-test program in history -
in his address to the Boston Computer Society, Bill Gates announced over
7,500 testers were involved.




THE OPERATING SYSTEM HIERARCHY쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 1**5


 The Disk Operating System (DOS) and the ROM BIOS serve as an insulating layer
between the application program and the machine, and as a source of services
to the application program.

  As the term 'system' might imply, DOS is not one program but a collection
of programs designed to work together to allow the user access to programs
and data.  Thus, DOS consists of several layers of "control"programs and a set
of "utility" programs.

 The system hierarchy may be thought of as a tree, with the lowest level being
the actual hardware.  The 8088 or V20 processor sees the computer's address
space as a ladder one byte wide and one million bytes long.  Parts of this
ladder are in ROM, parts in RAM, and parts are not assigned.  There are also
65,536 "ports" that the processor can use to control devices.

 The hardware is normally addressed by the ROM BIOS, which will always know
where everything is in its particular system.  The chips may usually also be
written to directly, by telling the processor to write to a specific address or
port.  This sometimes does not work as the chips may not always be at the same
addresses or have the same functions from machine to machine.



DOS STRUCTURE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 1**6

DOS consists of four components:

 * The boot record
 * The ROM BIOS interface  (IBMBIO.COM, DRBIOS.SYS, or IO.SYS)
 * The DOS program file    (IBMDOS.COM, DRBDOS.SYS, or MSDOS.SYS)
 * The command processor   (COMMAND.COM or aftermarket replacement)


* The Boot Record

 The boot record begins on track 0, sector 1, side 0 of every diskette prepared
by the DOS FORMAT command.  The boot record is placed on diskettes to produce an
error message if you try to start up the system with a nonsystem diskette in
drive A.  For hard disks, the boot record resides on the first sector of the DOS
partition.  All media supported by DOS use one sector for the boot record.


* Read Only Memory (ROM) BIOS Interface and Extensions

 The file IBMBIO.COM or IO.SYS is the interface module to the ROM BIOS.
This file provides a low-level interface to the ROM BIOS device routines and
may contain extensions or changes to the system board ROMs.  Some compatibles do
not have a ROM BIOS to extend, and load the entire BIOS from disk.  (Sanyo 55x,
Viasyn machines).  Some versions of MSDOS, such as those from Compaq's MS-DOS
and Digital Research's DRDOS 5.0, are named IBMBIO.COM but are not IBM files.

 These low-level interface routines include the instructions for performing
operations such as displaying information on the screen, reading the keyboard,
sending data out to the printer, operating the disk drives, and so on.  It is
the operating system's means of controlling the hardware.  IBMBIO.COM contains
any modifications or updates to the ROM BIOS that are needed to correct any
bugs or add support for other types of hardware such as new disk drives.  By
using IBMBIO.COM to update the ROM BIOS on the fly when the user turns on their
computer, IBM does not need to replace the ROM BIOS chip itself, but makes any
corrections through the cheaper and easier method of modifying the IBMBIO.COM
file instead.

 IBMBIO.COM also keeps track of hardware operations on an internal stack or
"scratch pad" area for the operating system to save information such as
addresses it will need, etc.  An example of the use for this stack can be seen
when running a program such as a word processor.  If you have told the word
processor to save your letter, it will write the data to your disk.  During this
time, if you start typing some more information, the keyboard generates a
hardware interrupt.  Since you don't want the process of writing the information
to the disk to be interrupted, DOS allocates a slot in the stack for the
keyboard's hardware interrupt and when it gets a chance, (probably after the
data has been written to the disk), it can process that interrupt and pick up
the characters you may have been typing.  The STACKS= command in DOS 3.2+'s
CONFIG.SYS file controls the number of stack frames available for this
purpose.

 IBMBIO.COM also reads your CONFIG.SYS file and installs any device drivers
(i.e. DEVICE=ANSI.SYS) or configuration commands it may find there.



* The DOS Program

 The actual DOS program is the file IBMDOS.COM or MSDOS.SYS.  It provides a high-
level interface for user (application) programs.  This program consists of file
management routines, data blocking/deblocking for the disk routines, and a
variety of built-in functions easily accessible by user programs.

 When a user program calls these function routines, they accept high-level
information by way of register and control block contents.  When a user program
calls DOS to perform an operation, these functions translate the requirement
into one or more calls to IBMBIO.COM, MSDOS.SYS or system hardware to complete
the request.

 This section is often referred to as the "kernel" by systems programmers.



* The Command Interpreter

 The command interpreter, COMMAND.COM, is the part you interact with on the
command line.  COMMAND.COM has three parts.  IBM calls them the "resident
portion", the "initialization portion" and the "transient portion".

 IBM's original documentation spoke of installing alternate command
interpreters (programs other than COMMAND.COM) with the SHELL= statement in
CONFIG.SYS.  Unfortunately, IBM chose not to document much of the interaction
between IBMDOS.COM and IBMBIO.COM.  By the time much of the interaction was
widely understood, many commercial software programs had been written to use
peculiarities of COMMAND.COM itself.

 Several programs exist that perform as actual "shells" by completely replacing
COMMAND.COM and substituting their own command interpreter to use with the
hidden DOS files.  Examples are Command Plus, a commercial package, and the
shareware 4DOS and FlexShell packages.  Both supply greatly enhanced batch
language and editing capabilities.

NOTE: DOS 3.3+ checks for the presence of a hard disk, and will default to
      COMSPEC=C:\.  Previous versions default to COMSPEC=A:\.  Under some DOS
      versions, if COMMAND.COM is not immediately available for reloading
      (i.e., swapping to a floppy with COMMAND.COM on it) DOS may crash.


Resident Portion:

 The resident portion resides in memory immediately following IBMDOS.COM and its
data area.  This portion contains routines to process interrupts 22h (Terminate
Address), 23h (Ctrl-Break Handler), and 24h (Critical Error Handler), as well as
a routine to reload the transient portion if needed.  For DOS 3.x, this portion
also contains a routine to load and execute external commands, such as files
with exensions of COM or EXE.

 When a program terminates, a checksum is used to determine if the application
program overlaid the transient portion of COMMAND.COM.  If so, the resident
portion will reload the transient portion from the area designated by COMSPEC=
in the DOS environment.  If COMMAND.COM cannot be found, the system will halt.

 All standard DOS error handling is done within the resident portion of
COMMAND.COM.  This includes displaying error messages and interpreting the
replies to the "Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?" message.

 Since the transient portion of COMMAND.COM is so large (containing the
internal commands and all those error messages), and it is not needed when the
user is running an application it can be overlaid that program if that
application needs the room.  When the application is through, the resident
portion of COMMAND.COM brings the transient portion back into memory to show
the prompt.  This is why you will sometimes see the message "Insert disk with
COMMAND.COM".  It needs to get the transient portion off the disk since it was
overlaid with the application program.

 The initialization portion of COMMAND.COM follows the resident portion and is
given control during the bootup procedure.  This section actually processes the
AUTOEXEC.BAT file.  It also decides where to load the user's programs when they
are executed.  Since this code is only needed during startup, it is overlaid by
the first program which COMMAND.COM loads.

 The transient portion is loaded at the high end of memory and it is the
command processor itself.  It interprets whatever the user types in at the
keyboard, hence messages such as "Bad command or file name" for when the user
misspells a command.  This portion contains all the internal commands (i.e.
COPY, DIR, RENAME, ERASE), the batch file processor (to run .BAT files) and
a routine to load and execute external commands which are either .COM or
.EXE files.

 The transient portion of COMMAND.COM produces the system prompt, (C>), and
reads what the user types in from the keyboard and tries to do something with
it.  For any .COM or .EXE files, it builds a command line and issues an EXEC
function call to load the program and transfer control to it.



DOS INITIALIZATION쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 1**7

 The system is initialized by a software reset (Ctrl-Alt-Del), a hardware reset
(reset button), or by turning the computer on.  The Intel 80x8x series processors
always look for their first instruction at the end of their address space
(0FFFF0h) when powered up or reset.  This address contains a jump to the first
instruction for the ROM BIOS.

 Built-in ROM programs (Power-On Self-Test, or POST, in the IBM) check machine
status and run inspection programs of various sorts.  Some machines set up a
reserved RAM area with bytes indicating installed equipment (AT and PCjr).

 When the ROM BIOS finds a ROM on an adapter card, it lets that ROM take
control of the system so that it may perform any set up necessary to use the
hardware or software controlled by that ROM.  The ROM BIOS searches absolute
addresses C8000h through E0000h in 2K increments in search of a valid ROM.
A valid ROM is determined by the first few bytes in the ROM.  The ROM will have
the bytes 55h, AAh, a length indicator and then the assembly language
instruction to CALL FAR (to bring in a "FAR" routine).  A checksum is done on
the ROM to verify its integrity, then the BIOS performs the CALL FAR to bring
in the executible code.  The adapter's ROM then performs its initialization
tasks and hopefully returns control of the computer back to the ROM BIOS so it
can continue with the booting process.

 The ROM BIOS routines then look for a disk drive at A: or an option ROM
(usually a hard disk) at absolute address C:800h.  If no floppy drive or option
ROM is found, the BIOS calls int 19h (ROM BASIC if it is an IBM) or displays
an error message.

 If a bootable disk is found, the ROM BIOS loads the first sector of information
from the disk and then jumps into the RAM location holding that code.  This code
normally is a routine to load the rest of the code off the disk, or to "boot"
the system.

 The following actions occur after a system initialization:

 1.  The boot record is read into memory and given control.

 2.  The boot record then checks the root directory to assure that the first
     two files are IBMBIO.COM and IBMDOS.COM or their OEM equivalents.  These
     must be the first two files, and they must be in that order (IBMBIO.COM
     first, with its sectors in contiguous order).
     NOTE: IBMDOS.COM need not be contiguous in version 3.x+.

 3.  The boot record loads IBMBIO.COM into memory.

 4.  The initialization code in IBMBIO.COM loads IBMDOS.COM, determines
     equipment status, resets the disk system, initializes the attached
     devices, sets the system parameters and loads any installable device
     drivers according to the CONFIG.SYS file in the root directory (if
     present), sets the low-numbered interrupt vectors, relocates IBMDOS.COM
     downward, and calls the first byte of DOS.
     NOTE: CONFIG.SYS may be a hidden file.

 5.  DOS initializes its internal working tables, initializes the interrupt
     vectors for interrupts 20h through 27h, and builds a Program Segment
     Prefix for COMMAND.COM at the lowest available segment.  For DOS versions
     3.10 up, DOS also initializes the vectors for interrupts 0Fh through 3Fh.
     An initialization routine is included in the resident portion and assumes
     control during startup.  This routine contains the AUTOEXEC.BAT file
     handler and determines the segment address where user application programs
     may be loaded.  The initialization routine is then no longer needed and is
     overlaid by the first program COMMAND.COM loads.
     NOTE: AUTOEXEC.BAT may be a hidden file.

 6.  IBMDOS.COM uses the EXEC function call to load and start the top-level
     command processor.  The default command processor is COMMAND.COM in the
     root directory of the boot drive.  If COMMAND.COM is in a subdirectory
     or another command processor is to be used, it must be specified by a
     SHELL= statement in the CONFIG.SYS file.
     A transient portion is loaded at the high end of memory.  This is the
     command processor itself, containing all of the internal command
     processors and the batch file processor.  For DOS 2.x, this portion also
     contains a routine to load and execute external commands, such as files
     with extensions of COM or EXE.
      This portion of COMMAND.COM also produces the DOS prompt (such as "A>"),
     reads the command from the standard input device (usually the keyboard or
     a batch file), and executes the command.  For external commands, it builds
     a command line and issues an EXEC function call to load and transfer
     control to the program.

note 1) COMMAND.COM may be a hidden file.
     2) For IBM DOS 2.x, the transient portion of the command processor
        contains the EXEC routine that loads and executes external commands.
        For MSDOS 2.x+ and IBM DOS 3.x+, the resident portion of the command
        processor contains the EXEC routine.
     3) IBMDOS only checks for a file named "COMMAND.COM".  It will load
        any file of that name if no SHELL= command is used.


 That pretty much covers the bootup process.  After the command processor is
loaded, it runs the AUTOEXEC.BAT file and then the user gets their prompt to
begin working.



       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                             C H A P T E R   T W O


 CPU Port Assignments, System Memory Map, BIOS Data Area, Interrupts 00h to 09h



                                C O N T E N T S

Introduction .......................................................... 2**1
System Memory Map ..................................................... 2**2
A Brief Guide to Current Memory Terminology ........................... 2**3
PC Port Assignment .................................................... 2**4
Reserved Memory Locations ............................................. 2**5
Absolute Addresses .................................................... 2**6
The IBM PC System Interrupts (Overview) ............................... 2**7
Quick Chart of Interrupts 00h-0FFh .................................... 2**8
The IBM-PC System Interrupts 00h-0Fh (in detail) ...................... 2**9



Introduction .......................................................... 2**1

 For consistency in this reference, all locations and offsets are in
hexadecimal unless otherwise specified. All hex numbers are prefaced with a
leading zero if they begin with an alphabetic character, and are terminated
with a lowercase H (h). The formats vary according to common usage.



System Memory Map ..................................................... 2**2

 The IBM PC handles its address space in 64k segments, divided into 16k
fractions and then further as necessary.

旼컴컴컫컴컴컫컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
퀂tart 퀂tart쿮nd                                                            
쿪ddr. 쿪ddr.쿪ddr.                          usage                           
(dec)    (hex)                                                             
쳐컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   *640k RAM Area*                                                           
쳐컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 0k                start of RAM, first K is interrupt vector table         
 16k  00000-03FFF  PC-0 system board RAM ends                              
 32k  04000-07FFF                                                          
 48k  08000-0BFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 64k  10000-13FFF  PC-1 system board RAM ends                              
 80k  14000-17FFF                                                          
 96k  18000-1BFFF                                                          
 112k 1C000-1FFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 128k 20000-23FFF                                                          
 144k 24000-27FFF                                                          
 160k 28000-2BFFF                                                          
 176k 2C000-2FFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 192k 30000-33FFF                                                          
 208k 34000-37FFF                                                          
 224k 38000-3BFFF                                                          
 240k 3C000-3FFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 256k 40000-43FFF  PC-2 system board RAM ends                              
 272k 44000-47FFF                                                          
 288k 48000-4BFFF                                                          
 304k 4C000-4FFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 320k 50000-53FFF                                                          
 336k 54000-57FFF                                                          
 352k 58000-5BFFF                                                          
 368k 5C000-5FFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 384k 60000-63FFF                                                          
 400k 64000-67FFF                                                          
 416k 68000-6BFFF                                                          
 432k 6C000-6FFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 448k 70000-73FFF                                                          
 464k 74000-77FFF                                                          
 480k 78000-7BFFF                                                          
 496k 7C000-7FFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 512k 80000-83FFF                                                          
 528k 84000-87FFF                                                          
 544k 88000-8BFFF  the original IBM PC-1 BIOS limited memory to 544k       
 560k 8C000-8FFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 576k 90000-93FFF                                                          
 592k 94000-97FFF                                                          
 609k 98000-9BFFF                                                          
 624k 9C000-9FFFF  to 640k (top of RAM address space)                      
쳐컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿌0000 ***** 64k ***** EGA/VGA starting address                               
쿌0000 ***** 64k ***** Toshiba 1000 DOS ROM (MS-DOS 2.11V)                    
쳐컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 640k 쿌0000-A95B0  MCGA 320x200 256 color video buffer                     
           -AF8C0  MCGA 640x480 2 color video buffer                       
           -A3FFF                                                          
 656k 쿌4000-A7FFF                                                          
 672k 쿌8000-ABFFF      this 64k segment may be used for contiguous DOS     
 688k 쿌C000-AFFFF      RAM with appropriate hardware and software          
쳐컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿍0000 ***** 64k ***** mono and CGA address                                   
쳐컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 704k 쿍0000-B3FFF  4k  monochrome display   | The PCjr and early Tandy 1000
 720k 쿍4000-B7FFF                           | BIOS revector direct write to
 736k 쿍8000-BBFFF  16k CGA uses             | the B8 area to the Video Gate
 756k 쿍C000-BFFFF                           | Array and reserved system RAM
쳐컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿎0000 ***** 64k *************** expansion ROM                                
쳐컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 768k 쿎0000-C3FFF  16k EGA BIOS C000:001E EGA BIOS signature (letters IBM  
 784k 쿎4000-C5FFF                                                          
      쿎6000-C63FF  256 bytes Professional Graphics Display comm. area      
      쿎6400-C7FFF                                                          
 800k 쿎8000-CBFFF  16k hard disk controller BIOS, drive 0 default          
      쿎A000            some 2nd floppy (high density) controller BIOS      
 816k 쿎C000-CDFFF   8k IBM PC Network NETBIOS                              
      쿎E000-CFFFF                                                          
쳐컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿏0000 ***** 64k ***** expansion ROM                                          
쳐컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 832k 쿏0000-D7FFF  32k IBM Cluster Adapter  | PCjr first ROM cartridge     
            DA000  voice communications     | address area.                
 848k 쿏4000-D7FFF                           | Common expanded memory board 
 864k 쿏8000-DBFFF                           | paging area.                 
 880k 쿏C000-DFFFF                           |                              
      쿏E000        TI Pro default video buffer, 4k in length               
쳐컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿐0000 ***** 64k ***** expansion ROM                                          
쳐컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 896k 쿐0000-E3FFF                           | PCjr second ROM cartridge    
 912k 쿐4000-E7FFF                           | address area                 
 928k 쿐8000-EBFFF                           |                              
 944k 쿐C000-EFFFF                           |    spare ROM sockets on AT   
쳐컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿑0000 ***** 64k ***** system                                                 
쳐컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 960k 쿑0000-F3FFF  reserved by IBM          |    cartridge address         
 976k 쿑4000-                                |    area (PCjr cartridge      
      쿑6000        ROM BASIC Begins         |    BASIC)                    
 992k 쿑8000-FB000                           |                              
 1008k쿑C000-FFFFF  ROM BASIC and original   |                              
                   BIOS (Compatibility BIOS |                              
                   in PS/2)                 |                              
 1024k      FFFFF  end of memory (1024k) for 8088 machines                 
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컨컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 384k 100000-15FFFF 80286/AT extended memory area, 1Mb motherboard         
 15Mb 100000-FFFFFF 80286/AT extended memory address space                 
 15Mb 160000-FDFFFF Micro Channel RAM expansion (15Mb extended memory)     
 128k 쿑E0000-FFFFFF system board ROM            (PS/2 Advanced BIOS)       
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  64k 쿎0000000-C000FFFF Weitek "Abacus" math coprocessor memory-mapped I/O 
읕컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 Note that the ROM BIOS has a duplicated address space which causes it to
"appear" both at the end of the 1 megabyte real mode space and at the end of
the 16 megabyte protected mode space. The addresses from 0E0000 to 0FFFFF are
equal to 0FE0000 to 0FFFFFF. This is necessary due to differences in the memory
addressing between Real and Protected Modes.



A Brief Guide to Current Memory Terminology ........................... 2**3

LOW MEMORY - 0000h to around 0:5(something), comprising the 80x8x interrupt
             vector table, the BIOS Data Area, DOS Data Area, etc.

CONVENTIONAL MEMORY - from the end of low memory to the beginning of the
             "reserved by IBM" A000 segment (640k).

HIGH MEMORY - originally noncontiguous RAM stuffed into the "reserved for
             ROM expansion" areas, typically segments D000 and E000. DOS
             normally can't access this memory without a driver of some
             sort, but it's easy to put RAMdisks and stuff in there.

CONVENTIONAL MEMORY - extra RAM stuck at A000, assuming the machine already
             has 640k, appears as conventional memory accessible to DOS
             and applications. IBM clones can typically add 64k before
             bumping into a mono card or 96k before hitting a color card.
             This address is part of the EGA/VGA video RAM area and most
             EGA cards don't like system memory at A000.

EXPANDED MEMORY - LIM 3.2, LIM 4.0, or EEMS 3.2 bank switched memory. A
             RAM "window" allows an app to save a block of RAM to an expansion
             board. The window size and location varies according to the
             EMS standard being used.

EXTENDED MEMORY - this is the "native mode" address space of the 80286 and
             later chips. The "real mode", or 8088 addressing scheme,
             sees RAM as a collection of segments and offsets with a limit
             on segment size. "Protected mode" addressing uses a flat linear
             addressing scheme. 8088 and 80188 chips do not have extended
             memory.

HIGH MEMORY - by fiddling a bit with the segment/offset stuff, you can
             get an extra block of addressable 8088-mode memory just over
             the 1 meg address space. Microsoft issued their "HMA" (High
             Memory Area) standard to try to standardize use of this block.
             Though it really is "high" memory, "high" had for many years
             referred to memory between 640k and 1mb. This creates more
             confusion for new programmers.

EMS - this is expanded memory as described above

XMS - Microsoft is pushing an "Extended Memory Standard" which defines
      a page-switching scheme much like EMS. The only real difference is
      that XMS uses protected-mode RAM instead of a special paged RAM board.

XMS - some severely brain-damaged jerk at IBM issued documentation for some
      IBM *EMS* boards referring to the boards as *XMS*. This was a classic
      blunder, and now some IBM-followers are picking up the aberrant
      terminology. This is guaranteed to confuse some people. To make it
      simple, if it needs an expansion board, it is EMS no matter what the
      vendor calls it.


PC Port Assignment .................................................... 2**4


 These are functions common across the IBM range. The PCjr, PC-AT, PC
Convertible and PS/2 (both buses) have enhancements. In some cases, the
AT and PS/2 series ignore, duplicate, or reassign ports arbitrarily. If
your code incorporates specific port addresses for video or system board
control it would be wise to have your application determine the machine
type and video adapter and address the ports as required.

 hex address                   Function                   Models
                                                PCjr|PC|XT|AT|CVT|M30|PS2

 0000-000F      8237 DMA controller                  PC
 0010-001F      8237 DMA controller                        AT         PS2
 0020-0027      8259A interrupt controller
 0020-002F      IOSGA interrupt function                              PS2
 0020-003F      8259A interrupt controller  (AT)
 0020-0021      interrupt controller 1, 8259A        PC    AT         PS2
 0040-0043      programmable timer 8253              PC
 0040-0047      programmable timers                                   PS2
 0040-005F      8253-5 programmable timers                 AT
                note 1) 0041 was memory refresh in PCs. Not used in PS/2.
                     2) A few early 80386 machines used static RAM and did
                        not use refresh at all. The PCjr refreshes by the
                        video vertical retrace signal.
 0060-0063      keyboard controller 8255A            PC
 0060-006F      8042 keyboard controller                   AT
 0060           IOSGA keyboard input port                             PS2
 0061           speaker                         PCjr PC XT AT CVT
 0061           IOSGA speaker control                             M30 PS2
 0061           On some clones, setting or clearing bit 2 controls Turbo mode
 0061           Toshiba 1000 - system command
 0062           IOSGA configuration control                       M30 PS2
 0062           Toshiba 1000 - System Status, port C
 0063           SSGA, undocumented                                    PS2
 0063           Toshiba 1000 - mode set
 0064           keyboard auxiliary device                             PS2
 0065-006A      SSGA, undocumented                                    PS2
 006B           SSGA, RAM enable/remap                                PS2
 006C-006F      SSGA, undocumented                                    PS2
 0070           AT CMOS write internal register
 0071           AT CMOS read internal register
 0070-0071      CMOS real-time clock, NMI mask                        PS2
 0070-007F      CMOS real-time clock, NMI mask             AT
 0074-0076      reserved                                              PS2
 0800-008F      SSGA DMA page registers                               PS2
 0080-009F      DMA page registers, 74LS612                AT
 0090           central arbitration control port (Micro Channel)
 0091           card selected feedback           (Micro Channel)
 0092           system control port A            (Micro Channel)
 0093           reserved                         (Micro Channel)
 0094           system board setup               (Micro Channel)
 0096           POS "CD SETUP" selector          (Micro Channel)
 00A0-00A1      Interrupt controller 2, 8259A              AT         PS2
 00A0-00AF      IOSGA NMI mask register                               PS2
 00B0-00BF      realtime clock/calendar, (undocumented)               PS2
 00C0-00DF      reserved                        PCjr PC XT AT CVT M30
 00C0-00CF      DOS ROM register, Toshiba 1000
 00D0-00EF      "special" register, Toshiba 1000
      00C0      0C1 key register, Toshiba 1000
      00C1      keyboard transfer register, Toshiba 1000
      00C2      keyboard receive register, Toshiba 1000
      00C3      keyboard status register, Toshiba 1000
      00C8      DOS ROM page register, Toshiba 1000
      00E0      CPU speed control, Toshiba 1000
      00E1      keyboard status/0E2 key register, Toshiba 1000
      00E2      work register, Toshiba 1000
      00E3      0E4 key register, Toshiba 1000
      00E4      system control register 0, Toshiba 1000
      00E4      Weitek ABACUS NDP - bit 0=1, ABACUS is present
      00E5      0E6 key register, Toshiba 1000
      00E6      system control register 1, Toshiba 1000
      00EE      EMS unit index, Toshiba 1000
      00EF      EMS unit data, Toshiba 1000
 00C0-00DF      DMA controller 2, 8237A-5                  AT         PS2
 00E0-00EF      realtime clock/calendar  (undocumented)           M30 PS2
 00F0-00FF      PS/2 math coprocessor I/O  (Model 50+)  (diskette IO on PCjr)
 0100-0101      PS/2 POS adapter ID response            (Micro Channel)
 0102-0107      PS/2 POS adapter configuration response (Micro Channel)
 01F0-01F8      hard disk                                  AT         PS2
 0200-0201      game-control adapter (joystick)
 0200-020F      game controller                      PC    AT
 0208-0209      Chips & Technology CS8221 chipset default EMS ports
                alternate addresses: 218h, 258h, 268h, 2A8h, 2B8h, 2E8h
 0208-020F      Toshiba 1000 - EMS unit I/O #1
 020C-020D      reserved by IBM
 0210-0217      expansion box (PC, XT)
 0218-021F      Toshiba 1000 - EMS unit I/O #2
 021F           reserved by IBM
 0258-025F      Toshiba 1000 - EMS unit I/O #3
 0258-0259      LIM EMS 3.1 (not defined in 3.2+)
 0268-026F      Toshiba 1000 - EMS unit I/O #4
 0278-027F      parallel printer port 2                    AT
 0278-027B      parallel printer port 3                               PS2
 02A2           clock chip in early Sperry PCs
 02A8-02AF      Toshiba 1000 - EMS unit I/O #5
 02B8-02BF      Toshiba 1000 - EMS unit I/O #6
 02B0-02DF      EGA (alternate)                       PC   AT
 02C0-02DF      Toshiba 1000 - realtime clock
 02E1           GPIB (adapter 0)                           AT
 02E2-02E3      data acquisition (adapter 0)               AT
 02E8           "industry standard" COM4
 02E8-02EF      Toshiba 1000 - EMS unit I/O #7
 02F8-02FF      serial communications (COM2)          PC   AT         PS2
 0300-031F      prototype card                        PC   AT
 0300-031F      Leading Edge Model D clock            -------------------
 0320-032F      hard disk controller                  PC
 0320           Perstor HD controller, primary        -------------------
 0324           Perstor HD controller, secondary      -------------------
 0340           Sony CD-ROM                           -------------------
 0348-0357      DCA 3278
 0360-0367      PC Network (low address)
 0368-036F      PC Network (high address)                  AT
 0370           Colorado Memory external tape backup control port -------
                some "second controller" floppy cards -------------------
 0378-037F      parallel printer port                 PC   AT
 0378-037B      parallel printer port                                 PS2
 0380-038F      Eicon Technology Network Adapter (X.25) board (default)
 0380-038F      SDLC, bi-synchronous 2                PC   AT
 0380-0389      BSC communications (alternate)        PC
 0390-039F      Eicon Technology Network Adapter (X.25) board (alternate)
 0390-0393      cluster (adapter 0)                   PC   AT
 03A0-03A9      BSC communications (primary)          PC   AT
 03B0-03BF      monochrome/parallel printer adapter   PC   AT
 03B4-03B5      video subsystem                                       PS2
 03BA           video subsystem                                       PS2
 03BC-03BF      parallel printer port 1                               PS2
 03C0-03CF      Enhanced Graphics Adapter
 03C0-03DA      video subsystem and DAC                               PS2
 03DA           video status register                 AT&T 6300, Olivetti PC
 03D0-03DF      CGA, MCGA, VGA adapter control
 03DE           video mode selector register          AT&T 6300, Olivetti PC
 03E8h          "industry standard" COM3
 03F0-03F7      floppy disk controller                PC   AT         PS2
 03F0           Colorado Memory internal tape backup control port -------
 03F2           DTK high-density XT floppy controller (output only)
 03F5           DTK high-density XT floppy controller
 03F8-03FF      serial communications (COM1)          PC   AT         PS2
 06E2-06E3      data acquisition (adapter 1)               AT
 0790-0793      cluster (adapter 1)                   PC   AT
 0878           Compaq 386SX VGA BIOS relocation           AT
 0AE2-0AE3      data acquisition (adapter 2)               AT
 0B90-0B93      cluster (adapter 2)                   PC   AT
 0EE2-0EE3      data acquisition (adapter 3)               AT
 1390-1393      cluster (adapter 3)                   PC   AT
 22E1           GPIB (adapter 1)
 2390-2393      cluster (adapter 4)                   PC   AT
 4258           LIM EMS 3.1 (not defined in 3.2+)     -------------------
 42E1           GPIB (adapter 2)                           AT
 62E1           GPIB (adapter 3)                           AT
 8258           LIM EMS 3.1 (not defined in 3.2+)     -------------------
 82E1           GPIB (adapter 4)                           AT
 A2E1           GPIB (adapter 5)                           AT
 C258           LIM EMS 3.1 (not defined in 3.2+)     -------------------
 C2E1           GPIB (adapter 6)                           AT
 E2E1           GPIB (adapter 7)                           AT

note 1) IOSGA = I/O Support Gate Array
        SSGA = System Support Gate Array
     2) I/O Addresses, hex 000 to 0FF, are reserved for the system board I/O.
        Hex 100 to 3FF are available on the I/O channel.
     3) These are the addresses decoded by the current set of adapter cards.
        IBM may use any of the unlisted addresses for future use.
     4) SDLC Communication and Secondary Binary Synchronous Communications
        cannot be used together because their port addresses overlap.



Reserved Memory Locations ............................................. 2**5

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 000-3FF  - 1k DOS interrupt vector table, 4 byte vectors for ints 00h-0FFh.
   30:00  - used as a stack area during POST and bootstrap routines. This
퀃o 3F:FF    stack area may be revectored by an application program.
쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 ** The BIOS Data Area ** addresses from 400h to 4FFh
쳐컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿪ddr. size                           description
쳐컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
40:00  word  COM1 port address |   These addresses are zeroed out in the
40:02  word  COM2 port address |   OS/2 DOS Compatibility Box if any of
40:04  word  COM3 port address |   the OS/2 COMxx.SYS drivers are loaded.
40:06  word  COM4 port address |
40:08  word  LPT1 port address
40:0A  word  LPT2 port address
40:0C  word  LPT3 port address
40:0E  word  LPT4 port address        (not valid in PS/2 machines)
40:0E  word  PS/2 pointer to 1k extended BIOS Data Area at top of RAM
40:10  word  equipment flag (see int 11h)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bits:
               0       0       no floppy drive present
                       1       if floppy drive present (see bits 6&7)
               1       0       no math coprocessor installed
                       1       if 80x87 installed  (not valid in PCjr)
               2,3     system board RAM   (not used on AT or PS/2)
                       0,0     16k             0,1     32k
                       1,0     48k             1,1     64k
               4,5     initial video mode
                       0,0     no video adapter
                       0,1     40 column color  (PCjr default)
                       1,0     80 column color
                       1,1     MDA
               6,7     number of diskette drives
                       0,0     1 drive         0,1     2 drives
                       1,0     3 drives        1,1     4 drives
               8       0       DMA present
                       1       DMA not present (PCjr, Tandy 1400, Sanyo 55x)
               9,A,B   number of RS232 serial ports
               C       game adapter  (joystick)
                       0       no game adapter
                       1       if game adapter
               D       serial printer (PCjr only)
                       0       no printer
                       1       serial printer present
       旼컴컴켸 E,F     number of parallel printers installed
       쿻ote 1) The IBM PC and AT store the settings of the system board
       읕컴    switches or CMOS RAM setup information (as obtained by the BIOS
               in the Power-On Self Test (POST)) at addresses 40:10h and
               40:13h. 00000001b indicates "on", 00000000b is "off".
旼컴컴쩡컴컨컴
40:12  byte  reserved (PC, AT)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴  number of errors detected by infrared keyboard link (PCjr)
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴  POST status (Convertible)
40:13  word  availible memory size in Kbytes (less display RAM in PCjr)
쳐컴컴탠컴컴컴  this is the value returned by int 12h
40:15  word  reserved
40:17  byte  keyboard flag byte 0 (see int 9h)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 7  insert mode on      3  alt pressed
                   6  capslock on         2  ctrl pressed
                   5  numlock on          1  left shift pressed
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴     4  scrollock on        0  right shift pressed
40:18  byte  keyboard flag byte 1 (see int 9h)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 7  insert pressed      3  ctrl-numlock (pause) toggled
                   6  capslock pressed    2  PCjr keyboard click active
                   5  numlock pressed     1  PCjr ctrl-alt-capslock held
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴     4  scrollock pressed   0
40:19  byte  storage for alternate keypad entry (not normally used)
40:1A  word  pointer to keyboard buffer head character
40:1C  word  pointer to keyboard buffer tail character
40:1E32bytes 16 2-byte entries for keyboard circular buffer, read by int 16h
40:3E  byte  drive seek status - if bit=0, next seek will recalibrate by
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 repositioning to Track 0.
               bit 3  drive D          bit 2  drive C
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴     1  drive B              0  drive A
40:3F  byte  diskette motor status (bit set to indicate condition)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 7  write in progress    3  motor on (floppy 3)
                   6                       2  motor on (floppy 2)
                   5                       1  B: motor on (floppy 1)
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴     4                       0  A: motor on (floppy 0)
40:40  byte  motor off counter
             starts at 37 and is decremented 1 by each system clock tick.
             motor is shut off when count = 0.
40:41  byte  status of last diskette operation     where:
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 7 timeout failure                3 DMA overrun
                   6 seek failure                   2 sector not found
                   5 controller failure             1 address not found
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴     4 CRC failure                    0 bad command
40:427 bytes NEC floppy controller chip status
40:49  byte  Video Control Data Area 1 from 0040:0049 through 0040:0066
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 current CRT mode (hex value)
                  00h 40x25 BW      (CGA)          01h 40x25 color   (CGA)
                  02h 80x25 BW      (CGA)          03h 80x25 color   (CGA)
                  04h 320x200 color (CGA)          05h 320x200 BW    (CGA)
                  06h 640x200 BW    (CGA)          07h monochrome    (MDA)
              쿮xtended video modes (EGA/MCGA/VGA or other)
                  08h lores,16 color               09h med res,16 color
                  0Ah hires,4 color                0Bh n/a
                  0Ch med res,16 color             0Dh hires,16 color
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴    0Eh hires,4 color                0Fh hires,64 color
40:4A  word  number of columns on screen, coded as hex number of columns
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 20 col = 14h  (video mode 8, low res 160x200 CGA graphics)
               40 col = 28h
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴 80 col = 46h
40:4C  word  screen buffer length in bytes
쳐컴컴탠컴컴컴(number of bytes used per screen page, varies with video mode)
40:4E  word  current screen buffer starting offset (active page)
40:508 words cursor position pages 1-8
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 the first byte of each word gives the column (0-19, 39, or 79)
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴 the second byte gives the row (0-24)
40:60  byte  end line for cursor   (normally 1)
40:61  byte  start line for cursor (normally 0)
40:62  byte  current video page being displayed  (0-7)
40:63  word  base port address of 6845 CRT controller or equivalent
쳐컴컴탠컴컴컴 for active display           3B4h=mono, 3D4h=color
40:65  byte  current setting of the CRT mode register
40:66  byte  current palette mask setting  (CGA)
40:675 bytes temporary storage for SS:SP during shutdown (cassette interface)
40:6C  word  timer counter low word
40:6E  word  timer counter high word
40:69  byte  HD_INSTALL (Columbia PCs) (not valid on most clone computers)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit  0    0  8 inch external floppy drives
                         1  5-1/4 external floppy drives
                    1,2     highest drive address which int 13 will accept
                            (since the floppy drives are assigned 0-3,subtract
                            3 to obtain the number of hard disks installed)
                    4,5     # of hard disks connected to expansion controller
                    6,7     # of hard disks on motherboard controller
                            (if bit 6 or 7 = 1, no A: floppy is present and
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴              the maximum number of floppies from int 11 is 3)
40:70  byte  24 hour timer overflow 1 if timer went past midnight
쳐컴컴탠컴컴컴 it is reset to 0 each time it is read by int 1Ah
40:71  byte  BIOS break flag (bit 7 = 1 means break key hit)
40:72  word  reset flag
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 PCjr keeps 1234h here for softboot when a cartridge is installed
               bits 1234h = soft reset, memory check will be bypassed
                    4321h = preserve memory         (PS/2 only)
                    5678h = system suspended        (Convertible)
                    9ABCh = manufacturing test mode (Convertible)
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴      ABCDh = system POST loop mode   (Convertible)
40:74  byte  status of last hard disk operation ; PCjr special disk control
40:75  byte  # of hard disks attached (0-2)     ; PCjr special disk control
40:76  byte  HD control byte; temp holding area for 6th param table entry
40:77  byte  port offset to current hd adapter  ; PCjr special disk control
40:784 bytes timeout value for LPT1,LPT2,LPT3,LPT4
40:7C4 bytes timeout value for COM1,COM2,COM3,COM4 (0-0FFh secs, default 1)
40:80  word  pointer to start of circular keyboard buffer, default 03:1E
40:82  word  pointer to end of circular keyboard buffer, default 03:3E
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 note: early Zenith Z183 BIOS set these pointers to zero and
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴       ignored them.
40:84  ....  Video Control Data Area 2, 0040:0084 through 0040:008A
40:84  byte  rows on the screen minus 1 (EGA only)
40:84  byte  PCjr interrupt flag; timer channel 0  (used by POST)
40:85  word  bytes per character (EGA only)
40:852 bytes (PCjr only) typamatic character to repeat
40:862 bytes (PCjr only) typamatic initial delay
40:87  byte  mode options (EGA only)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 0   0   cursor emulation in effect
                       1   no cursor emulation
                   1   0   EGA is connected to a color display
                       1   EGA is connected to monochrome TTL display
                   2   0   wait for vertical retrace (CGA active)
                       1   don't wait for vertical retrace (EGA or MDA active)
                   3   0   EGA is the active display,
                       1   "other" display is active.
                   4       reserved
                   5,6     EGA memory size
                           0,0   64k
                           0,1   128k
                           1,0   192k
                           1,1   256k
                   7   0   don't clear screen on mode changes
                       1   if the last "set mode" specified not to clear the
                           video buffer
               mode combinations:
               bit3  bit1     Meaning
                 0     0   EGA is active display and is color
                 0     1   EGA is active display and is monochrome
                 1     0   EGA is not active, a mono card is active
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴   1     1   EGA is not active, a CGA is active
40:87  byte  (PCjr only) current Fn key code
쳐컴컴탠컴컴컴             80h bit indicates make/break key code?
40:88  byte  feature bits and switches (EGA only) 0=on, 1=off
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 0   switch 1
                   1   switch 2
                   2   switch 3
                   3   switch 4
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴     4-7 feature bits
40:88  byte  (PCjr only) special keyboard status byte
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 7 function flag      3 typamatic (0=enable,1=disable)
                   6 Fn-B break         2 typamatic speed (0=slow,1=fast)
                   5 Fn pressed         1 extra delay bef.typamatic (0=enable)
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴     4 Fn lock            0 write char, typamatic delay elapsed
40:89  byte  (PCjr) current value of 6845 reg 2 (horizontal synch) used by
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 ctrl-alt-cursor screen positioning routine in ROM
                (VGA)
               bit 0       reserved
                   1       video summing enabled
                   2   0   for color monitor attached
                       1   for mono monitor
                   3   0   for default palette loading enabled
                   4   0   for 8x8 text font
                       1   for 8x16 text font
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴     5-7     reserved
40:8A  byte  (PCjr) CRT/CPU Page Register Image, default 3Fh
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 (VGA)  Display Combination Code Index. This is the value
                set/returned by function 1Ah of the Video BIOS. This byte
                contains an index into the ROM BIOS Display Combination Code
                table, which is a list of byte pairs that specify valid
                combinations of one or two video subsystems. Video subsystems
                are designated by the following values:
                00h     no display
                01h     MDA with monochrome display
                02h     CGA with color display
                03h     reserved
                04h     EGA with color display
                05h     EGA with monochrome display
                06h     Professional Graphics Adapter
                07h     VGA with analog monochrome display
                08h     VGA with analog color display
                09h     reserved
                0Ah     MCGA with digital color display
                0Bh     MCGA with analog monochrome display
                0Ch     MCGA with analog color display
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴  0FFh    unrecognized video subsystem
40:8B  byte  last diskette data rate selected
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 7,6 starting data transfer rate to use
                       0,0      500 kb/sec
                       0,1      300 kb/sec
                       1,0      250 kb/sec
                       1,1      reserved
                   5,4 last step rate selected
                   3   ending data transfer rate to use
                   2   reserved
                   1   reserved
                   0   1  combination floppy/fixed disk controller detected
                       0  XT floppy only controller (for 360kb drive) detected
                              Data Transfer Rates
                     Kbits/sec     Media   Drive   Sectors/Track
                       250         360k    360k        9
                       300         360k    1.2M        9
                       500         1.2M    1.2M       15
                       250         720k    720k        9
                       250         720k    1.4M        9
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴         500         1.4M    1.4M       18
40:8C  byte  hard disk status returned by controller
40:8D  byte  hard disk error returned by controller
40:8E  byte  hard disk interrupt (bit 7=working interrupt)
40:8F  byte  combo_card - status of drives 0 and 1
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 7   reserved
                   6   drive type determined for drive 1
                   5   drive multiple data rate capability for drive 1
                       0       no multiple data rate
                       1       multiple data rate
                   4   1 then drive 1 has 80 tracks
                       0 then drive 1 has 40 tracks
                   3   reserved
                   2   drive type determined for drive 0
                   1   drive multiple data rate capability for drive 0
                       0       no multiple data rate
                       1       multiple data rate
                   0   1       the drive 0 has 80 tracks
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴         0       the drive 0 has 40 tracks
40:904 bytes media state drive 0, 1, 2, 3
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 floppy_media_state
               bit 7,6 Data transfer rate
                       00 - 500 K/sec
                       01 - 300 K/sec
                       10 - 250 K/sec
                       11 - reserved
                   5   double stepping required
                   4   media/drive determined
                   3   reserved
                   2-0 present state
                       000  360k in 360k unestablished
                       001  360k in 1.2M unestablished
                       010  1.2M in 1.2M unestablished
                       011  360k in 360k established
                       100  360k in 1.2M established
                       101  1.2M in 1.2M established
                       110  reserved
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴         111  none of the above
40:942 bytes track currently seeked to drive 0, 1
40:96  byte  keyboard flag byte 3 (see int 9h)
40:97  byte  keyboard flag byte 2 (see int 9h)
40:98 dword  segment:offset pointer to users wait flag
40:9C dword  users timeout value in microseconds
40:A0  byte  real time clock wait function in use
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bits 7    wait time elapsed and posted flag
                    6-1  reserved
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴      0    int 15h, function 86h (WAIT) has occurred
40:A1  byte  LAN A DMA channel flags
40:A22 bytes status LAN A 0,1
40:A4 dword  saved hard disk interrupt vector
40:A8 dword  SAVE_PTR: EGA pointer to table of 7 parameters in segment:
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴           offset format. Format of table:
               D_1 dword   pointer to 1472 byte table of 64 video parameters
               D_2 dword   reserved
               D_3 dword   reserved
               D_4 dword   reserved
               D_5 dword   reserved for future use
               D_6 dword   reserved for future use
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴 D_7 dword   reserved for future use
40:B02 words international support                   (Tandy 1000 TX)
40:B4  byte  keyboard NMI control flags              (Convertible)
40:B4  byte  monochrome monitor hookup detect        (Tandy 1000 TX)
             00h not present   0FFh  present
40:B5 dword  keyboard break pending flags            (Convertible)
40:B5  byte  extended equipment detect  (5 bits)     (Tandy 1000 TX)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 0 = 0   drive A is 5
                       1   drive A is 3
                   1 = 0   drive A is 5
                       1   drive A is 3
                   2 = 0   Tandy 1000 keyboard layout
                       1   IBM keyboard layout
                   3 = 0   CPU slow mode
                       1   CPU fast mode
                   4 = 0   internal color video support enabled
                       1   internal color video support disabled, external
                           video enabled (chg from mb'd to expansion card)
                   5 = 0   no external monochrome video installed
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴         1   external monochrome video installed
40:B6  byte  extended equipment detect  (1 bit)      (Tandy 1000 TX)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 bit 0 = 0   drive C is 5
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴         1   drive C is 3
40:B9  byte  port 60 single byte queue               (Convertible)
40:BA  byte  scan code of last key                   (Convertible)
40:BB  byte  pointer to NMI buffer head              (Convertible)
40:BC  byte  pointer to NMI buffer tail              (Convertible)
40:BD16bytes NMI scan code buffer                    (Convertible)
40:CE  word  day counter                             (Convertible and after)
  to  -04:8F               end of BIOS Data Area
쳐컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 ** End of BIOS Data Area **
쳐컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
40:90-40:EF  reserved by IBM
40:F016bytes Inter-Application Communications Area (for use by applications
40:FF        to transfer data or parameters to each other)
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 1) Used by Turbo Power's FMARK (mark memory for TSRs).
               2) Used by Norton Utilities' TimeMark to store the time.
               3) Used by BRIEF editor.
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴
50:00 byte   DOS print screen status flag
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴        00h    not active or successful completion
                      01h    print screen in progress
旼컴컴쩡컴컴컴        0FFh   error during print screen operation
50:01        Used by BASIC
50:02-03      PCjr POST and diagnostics work area
50:04  byte  Single drive mode status byte - not used by AT&T DOS 2.11!
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴         00     logical drive A was last active
旼컴컴컴컴컴컴         01     logical drive B was last active
50:05-0E      PCjr POST and diagnostics work area
50:0F        BASIC: SHELL flag (set to 02h if there is a current SHELL)
50:10  word  BASIC: segment address storage (set with DEF SEG)
50:124 bytes BASIC: int 1Ch clock interrupt vector segment:offset storage
50:164 bytes BASIC: int 23h ctrl-break interrupt segment:offset storage
50:1A4 bytes BASIC: int 24h disk error int vector segment:offset storage
50:1B-1F      Used by BASIC for dynamic storage
50:20-21      Used by DOS for dynamic storage
50:22-2C      Used by DOS for diskette parameter table. See int 1Eh for values
읕컴컴좔컴컴컴 In DOS 1.0 this is located in the ROM BIOS, but in DOS 1.1 and
               subsequent it is a part of DOS located at 05:22. The first byte
               (out of eleven) of the Disk Parameter contains the hexadecimal
               value CF in DOS 1.0 and DF in DOS 1.1 and later.
               DOS 1.0   24ms
旼컴컴컴컴컴컴 DOS 1.1   26ms
50:30-33      Used by MODE command
50:81        number of floppies installed in the system?
50:82        first hard disk drive?
50:83        last hard disk drive?
50:34-FF      Unknown - Reserved for DOS
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴



Absolute Addresses .................................................... 2**6

0008:0047 IO.SYS or IBMBIO.COM IRET instruction. This is the dummy routine that
          interrupts 01h, 03h, and 0Fh are initialized to during POST.
C000:001E EGA BIOS signature (the letters IBM)
F000:FA6E table of characters 00h-7Fh used by int 10h video BIOS
          The first 128 characters are stored here and each occupies 8 bytes.
          The high bit ones are somewhere on the video adapter card.
F000:FFF5 BIOS release date
F000:FFFE PC model identification

     旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
      ROM BIOS     model byte                                            
      copyright        submodel byte          machine                   
        date               revision                                    
     쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴탠컴컵컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                00  00  00  AT&T 6300, Olivetti PC                    
      09/02/86  FA  00  00  PS/2 Model 30                             
      01/10/86  FB  00  00  XT-2 (early)                              
      01/10/86  FB  00  01  XT Model 089                              
      05/09/86  FB  01  02  XT-2 (revised)                            
      01/10/84  FC  --  --  AT Model 099 (original)                   
      06/10/85  FC  00  01  AT Model 239 6mHz      (6.6 max governor) 
      11/15/85  FC  01  00  AT Model 339, 339 8mHz (8.6 max governor) 
                FC  01  00  Compaq 386/16                             
                FC  01  03  some Phoenix 386 BIOS                     
                FC  01  81  some Phoenix 386 BIOS                     
      04/21/86  FC  02  00  XT/286                                    
      02/13/87  FC  04  00  PS/2 Model 50                             
      02/13/87  FC  05  00  PS/2 Model 60                             
                FC  00      7531/2 Industrial AT                      
                FC  06      7552 "Gearbox"                            
      04/18/88  FC  04  03  PS/2 50Z                                  
      01/24/90  FC  01  00  Compaq Deskpro 80386/25e                  
      10/02/89  FC  02  00  Compaq Deskpro 386s, 386SX, 16mHz         
      06/01/83  FD  --  --  PCjr                                      
      11/08/82  FE  --  --  XT, Portable PC, XT/370, 3270PC           
      04/24/81  FF  --  --  PC-0             (16k motherboard)        
      10/19/81  FF  --  --  PC-1             (64k motherboard)        
      08/16/82  FF  --  --  PC, XT, XT/370   (256k motherboard)       
      10/27/82  FF  --  --  PC, XT, XT/370   (256k motherboard)       
        ? 1987  F8  00  00  PS/2 Model 80                             
       3/30/87  F8  00  00  PS/2 Model 80-041  16mHz                  
      08/28/87  F8  ??  ??  PS/2 Model 80-071  16mHz                  
        ? 1987  F8  01  00  PS/2 Model 80      20mHz                  
      09/17/87  F8  01  01  PS/2 Model 80-111  20mHz                  
             ?  F8  04   ?  PS/2 Model 70-121                         
      01/18/89  F8  0B  00   PS/2 Model 70 Portable                   
      04/11/88  F8  09  02   PS/2 Model 70 desktop                    
      02/20/89  F8  0D       PS/2 Model 70-A21                        
      09/13/85  F9  00  00  Convertible                               
                2D  --  --  Compaq PC        (4.77mHz original)       
                9A  --  --  Compaq Plus      (XT compatible)          
     읕컴컴컴컴컨컴컴좔컴컨컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴



The IBM PC System Interrupts (Overview) ............................... 2**7

 The interrupt table is stored in the very lowest location in memory, starting
at 0000:0000h. The locations are offset from segment 0, i.e. location 0000h has
the address for int 0, etc. The table is 1024 bytes in length and contains 256
four byte vectors from 00h to 0FFh. Each address' location in memory can be
found by multiplying the interrupt number by 4. For example, int 7 could be
found by (7x4=28) or 1Bh (0000:001Bh).

 These interrupt vectors normally point to ROM tables or are taken over by DOS
when an application is run. Some applications revector these interrupts to
their own code to change the way the system responds to the user. DOS provides
int 21h function 25h to change interrupts from a high level; altering the
interrupt vector table directly is not recommended, nor would it really get
you anywhere.


Quick Chart of Interrupts 00h-0FFh .................................... 2**8

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
  Interrupt Address                                                          
쳐컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴                        Function                        
 Number (Hex)  Type                                                         
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   0    00-03  CPU   Divide by Zero                                        
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   1    04-07  CPU   Single Step                                           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   2    08-0B  CPU   Nonmaskable                                           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   3    0C-0F  CPU   Breakpoint                                            
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   4    10-13  CPU   Overflow                                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   5    14-17  BIOS  Print Screen                                          
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   6    18-1B  hdw   Reserved                                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   7    1C-1F  hdw   Reserved                                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   8    20-23  hdw   Time of Day                                           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   9    24-27  hdw   Keyboard                                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   A    28-2B  hdw   Reserved                                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   B    2C-2F  hdw   Communications (8259)                                 
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   C    30-33  hdw   Communications                                        
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   D    34-37  hdw   Disk                                                  
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   E    38-3B  hdw   Diskette                                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   F    3C-3F  hdw   Printer                                               
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   10   40-43  BIOS  Video                                                 
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   11   44-47  BIOS  Equipment Check                                       
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   12   48-4B  BIOS  Memory                                                
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   13   4C-4F  BIOS  Diskette/Disk                                         
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   14   50-53  BIOS  Serial Communications                                 
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   15   54-57  BIOS  Cassette, System Services                             
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   16   58-5B  BIOS  Keyboard                                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   17   5C-5F  BIOS  Parallel Printer                                      
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   18   60-63  BIOS  ROM BASIC Loader                                      
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   19   64-67  BIOS  Bootstrap Loader                                      
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   1A   68-6B  BIOS  Time of Day                                           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   1B   6C-6F  BIOS  Keyboard Break                                        
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   1C   70-73  BIOS  Timer Tick                                            
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   1D   74-77  BIOS  Video Initialization                                  
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   1E   78-7B  BIOS  Diskette Parameters                                   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   1F   7C-7F  BIOS  Video Graphics Characters, second set                 
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   20   80-83  DOS   General Program Termination                           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   21   84-87  DOS   DOS Services Function Request                         
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   22   88-8B  DOS   Called Program Termination Address                    
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   23   8C-8F  DOS   Control Break Termination Address                     
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   24   90-93  DOS   Critical Error Handler                                
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   25   94-97  DOS   Absolute Disk Read                                    
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   26   98-9B  DOS   Absolute Disk Write                                   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   27   9C-9F  DOS   Terminate and Stay Resident                           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 28-3F  A0-FF  DOS   Reserved for DOS                                      
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                       *29h   Fast Screen Write                               
                       *2Ah   Microsoft Networks - Session Layer Interrupt    
                        2Fh   Multiplex Interrupt                             
                       *30h   Far jump instruction for CP/M-style calls       
                        33h   Used by Microsoft Mouse Driver                  
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 40-43 100-115 BIOS  Reserved for BIOS                                     
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                        40h   Hard Disk BIOS                                  
                        41h   Hard Disk Parameters  (except PC1)              
                        42h   Pointer to screen BIOS entry  (EGA, VGA, PS/2)  
                        43h   Pointer to EGA initialization parameter table   
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   44  116-119 BIOS  First 128 Graphics Characters                         
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 45-47 120-131 BIOS  Reserved for BIOS                                     
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                        45h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)              
                        46h   Pointer to hard disk 2 params (AT, PS/2)        
                        47h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)              
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   48  132-135 BIOS  PCjr Cordless Keyboard Translation                    
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   49  136-139 BIOS  PCjr Non-Keyboard Scancode Translation Table          
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                        4Ah   Real-Time Clock Alarm (Convertible, PS/2)       
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 50-5F 140-17F BIOS  Reserved for BIOS                                     
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                        5Ah   Cluster Adapter BIOS entry address              
                       *5Bh   IBM  (cluster adapter?)                         
                        5Ch   NETBIOS interface entry port                    
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 60-67 180-19F  User Program Interrupts (availible for general use)         
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                        60h   10-Net Network                                  
                        67h   Used by LIM & AQA EMS, EEMS                     
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 68-7F 1A0-1FF  Reserved by IBM                                             
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                        6Ch   System Resume Vector (Convertible)              
                        6Fh   some Novell and 10-Net API functions            
                        70h   IRQ 8, Real Time Clock Interrupt (AT, PS/2)     
                        71h   IRQ 9, LAN Adapter 1                            
                        72h   IRQ 10  (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved            
                        73h   IRQ 11  (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved            
                        74h   IRQ 12  Mouse Interrupt (PS/2)                  
                        75h   IRQ 13, Coprocessor Error                       
                        76h   IRQ 14, Hard Disk Controller (AT, PS/2)         
                        77h   IRQ 15 (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved             
                        7Ch   IBM REXX88PC command language                   
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 80-85 200-217  ROM BASIC                                                   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 86-F0 218-3C3  Used by BASIC Interpreter When BASIC is running             
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 F1-FF 3C4-3FF  Reserved by IBM                                             
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                        *0F8h  Set Shell Interrupt (OEM)                      
                        *0F9h  OEM SHELL service codes                        
                       읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴



The IBM-PC System Interrupts (in detail) .............................. 2**9

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  00h Divide by Zero                                                
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0000h) (processor error). Automatically called at end of DIV or IDIV
          operation that results in error. Normally set by DOS to display an
          error message and abort the program.

note    On an 8086/8088, the return address points to the following instruction
        On an 80286/80386, the return address points to the divide instruction


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  01h Single step                                                   
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0004h) Taken after every instruction when CPU Trap Flag indicates
          single-step mode (bit 8 of FLAGS is 1). This is what makes the "T"
          command of DEBUG work for single stepping. Is not generated after MOV
          to segment register or POP of segment register. (unless you have a
          very early 8088 with the microcode bug).


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  02h Non-maskable interrupt                                        
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0008h)       Vector not disabled via CLI. Generated by NMI signal in
                hardware. This function is called in the event of a memory
                parity error or may occur in the event of other hardware
                problems or failures depending on the specific manufacturer's
                hardware. Displays the appropriate error message and halts the
                processor.
                 Some AT chip sets apparently use int 02h to signal I/O errors
                as well as parity errors.

                This signal has various uses:
        POST parity error:                  all except PCjr and Convertible
        80x87 coprocessor interrupt:        all except PCjr and Convertible
        Keyboard interrupt:                 PCjr, Convertible
        I/O channel check:                  Convertible, PS/2 50+
        Disk controller power-on request:   Convertible
        System suspend:                     Convertible
        Realtime clock:                     Convertible
        System watchdog timer:              PS/2 50+
        Timeout interrupt:                  PS/2 50+
        DMA timer time-out interrupt:       PS/2 50+
        Infrared keyboard link:             PCjr


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  03h Breakpoint                                                    
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:000Ch)  Taken when CPU executes the 1-byte int 3 (0CCh). Similar to 8080's

(internal) RST instruction. Generally used to set breakpoints for DEBUG.

note 1)  Also used by Turbo Pascal versions 1,2,3 when {$U+} specified.
     2)  Int 3s are sometimes inserted by the Microsoft Linker in response to
         an unresolved symbol.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  04h Divide overflow                                               
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0010h)  Generated by INTO instruction if OF flag is set. If flag is not set,

(internal) INTO is effectively a NOP. Used to trap any arithmetic errors when
           program is ready to handle them rather than immediately when they
           occur.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  05h Print Screen                                                  
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0014h)  Service dumps the screen to the printer. Invoked by int 9 for shifted
           key 55 (PrtSc). Automatically called by keyboard scan when PrtSc key
           is pressed. Normally executes a routine to print the screen, but may
           call any routine that can safely be executed from inside the keyboard
           handler. Status and result byte are at address 0050:0000.

(internal) BOUND Check Failed (80286+)
           Generated by BOUND instruction when the value to be tested is less
           than the indicated lower bound or greater than the indicated upper
           bound.

entry   AH      05h
return  absolute address 50:0
        00h     print screen has not been called, or upon return from a call
                there were no errors
        01h     print screen is already in progress
        0FFh    error encountered during printing
note 1) Uses BIOS services to read the screen.
     2) Output is directed to LPT1.
     3) Revectored into GRAPHICS.COM if GRAPHICS.COM is loaded.
     4) On the Tandy 1000TX this interrupt can be enabled or disabled across
        the expansion slots via a DIP switch.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  06h Reserved by IBM                                               
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0018h)
        On the Tandy 1000TX this interrupt can be enabled or disabled across
        the expansion slots via a DIP switch.

(internal) Undefined Opcode (80286+)



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  07h Reserved by IBM                                               
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:00C0h)
        On the Tandy 1000TX this interrupt can be enabled or disabled across
        the expansion slots via a DIP switch.

(internal) No Math Unit Available (80286+)

note    The 80286 and later can be programmed to generate an int 7 whenever
        an ESC instruction is encountered. This could be used to emulate an
        80x87 series coprocessor in software and be transparent to the
        application software. It could also be used to make a non-Intel
        floating point processor emulate an 80x87.



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  08h Timer                                                         
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0020h)  55ms timer "tick" issued 18.2 times per second.
 (IRQ0)    8259-1 Interrupt Controller
           Updates the system time at [0040:006C] (low word) and [0040:006E]
           (high word) and issues an int 1Ch (timer). (int 1Ch points to an
           IRET instruction unless changed by a resident program). The timer
           interrupt is given the highest maskable interrupt priority upon
           power up.

(internal) Double Fault (80286+ protected mode) Called when multiple exceptions
           occur on one instruction, or an exception occurs in an exception
           handler. If an exception occurs in the double fault handler, the CPU
           goes into SHUTDOWN mode (which circuitry in the PC/AT converts to a
           reset).

entry   AH      08h
return  absolute addresses:
        40:6C   number of interrupts since power on (4 bytes)
        40:70   number of days since power on       (1 byte)
        40:67   day counter on all products after AT
        40:40   motor control count - gets decremented and shuts off diskette
                motor if zero



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  09h Keyboard                                                      
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0024h)  Taken whenever a key is pressed or released. This is normally a scan
 (IRQ1)    code, but may also be an ACK or NAK of a command on AT-type
           keyboards. The hardware provides the key pressed in a non-ASCII scan
           code format read at I/O port 60h. The servicer acknowledges receipt
           of the key by toggling bit 7 of port 61h. (Port 61h should be read
           first, then bit 7 ORed on, output to port 61h, then ANDed off, and
           resent to port 61h).

            The read key is decoded to yield an ASCII character, special
           function key (such as F1) or a control function like Left Shift Key.
           The converted ASCII character is placed into the next available
           position in the circular queue keyboard. It is put in the position
           indicated by queue tail when it will not cause the loss of earlier
           entered data. The queue head points to the oldest key pressed in the
           buffer which has not been removed from the queue (the normal process
           uses int 16h to remove keys from the queue and return the key value
           to the int 16h caller).

            The 16 word queue holds up to 16 keys. If the queue head equals the
            queue tail, the queue is empty. Valid keys in the queue comprise
            the upper byte scan code and the lower byte ASCII character. If the
            key pressed has no ASCII equivalent (i.e F1 to F12), the lower byte
            is zero.

             Toggle and shift keys are not placed in the buffer, but appear in
           the two status bytes at absolute addr. [0040:0017,18].

           Special key combinations will cause other events to occur:
           a) Ctrl-Alt_Del  -  Reset computer by jumping to power_on_reset
           b) Print screen  -  Call int_5_prn_scrn to print the current screen
           c) Ctrl-Break    -  Call int_1Bh control break key processor (DOS)
           d) Pause         -  Wait until an ASCII key is pressed, without
                               placing the key in the queue

(internal) Math Unit Protection Fault (80286+ protected mode)

entry   AH      09h
return  at absolute memory addresses:
        40:17   bit
                0       right shift key depressed
                1       left shift key depressed
                2       control key depressed
                3       alt key depressed
                4       ScrollLock state has been toggled
                5       NumLock state has been toggled
                6       CapsLock state has been toggled
                7       insert state is active
        40:18   bit
                0       left control key depressed
                1       left alt key depressed
                2       SysReq key depressed
                3       Pause key has been toggled
                4       ScrollLock key is depressed
                5       NumLock key is depressed
                6       CapsLock key is depressed
                7       Insert key is depressed
        40:96   bit
                0       last code was the E1h hidden code
                1       last code was the E0h hidden code
                2       right control key down
                3       right alt key down
                4       101 key Enhanced keyboard installed
                5       force NumLock if rd ID & kbx
                6       last character was first ID character
                7       doing a read ID (must be bit 0)
        40:97   bit
                0       ScrollLock indicator
                1       NumLock indicator
                2       CapsLock indicator
                3       circus system indicator
                4       ACK received
                5       resend received flag
                6       mode indicator update
                7       keyboard transmit error flag
        40:1E   keyboard buffer (20h bytes)
        40:1C   buffer tail pointer
        40:72   1234h if ctrl-alt-del pressed on keyboard
     AL   scan code
note 1) Int 05h invoked if PrtSc key pressed.
     2) Int 1Bh invoked if Ctrl-Break key sequence pressed.
     3) Int 15h, AH=85h invoked on AT and after if SysReq key is pressed.
     4) Int 15h, AH=4Fh invoked on machines after AT.
     5) Int 16h, BIOS keyboard functions, uses this interrupt.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  0Ah  EGA Vertical Retrace                                         
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0028h)  used by EGA vertical retrace
 (IRQ2)    8259-1 Interrupt Controller
note 1) The TOPS and PCnet adapters use this IRQ line by default.
     2) On systems equipped with 2 interrupt controller chips (8259), IRQ 2
        is used to support the second interrupt controller. In this case,
        int 71h (IRQ 9) is used to replace IRQ 2. Hardware calls to int 71h
        are redirected to this interrupt to maintain compatibility.
     3) Many VGA boards to not use this interrupt.

(internal) Invalid Task State Segment (80286+ protected mode)



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  0Bh  Communications Controller (serial port) hdw. entry           
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:002Ch)  Serial Port 2 (COM2) 8259-1
 (IRQ3)
note 1) IRQ 3 may be used by SDLC (synchronous data-link control) or
        bisynchronous communications cards instead of a serial port.
     2) The TOPS and PCnet adapters use this interrupt request line as an
        alternate.
     3) On PS/2s, COM2 through COM8 share this IRQ.
     4) For most serial boards, COM4 shares this IRQ.
     5) On the Commodore Amiga 2000 with the PC Bridge Board, this interrupt
        is used for communication between the Amiga system board and the
        Bridge Board. This was probably the lowest IRQ level they felt safe
        using, but limits the A2000's use of network cards, etc.
     6) This interrupt is used by part of the stack-switching code added
        to DOS 3.2 for use with Local Area Network adapters.
     7) The PS/2 puts COM3 through COM8 at port addresses above 3FFh (not
        properly decoded by older PCs) and has all of them sharing IRQ3.

(internal) Not Present (80286+ protected mode)
           Generated when loading a segment register if the segment descriptor
           indicates that the segment is not currently in memory. May be used
           to implement virtual memory.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  0Ch  Communications Controller (serial port) Hardware Entry       
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0030h)  Serial Port 1 (COM1) or internal modem in PCjr or Convertible
 (IRQ4)    8259-1
note 1) IRQ 4 may be used by SDLC (synchronous data-link control) or
        bisynchronous communications cards instead of a serial port.
     2) On some PCs, this interrupt is shared by COM3.
     3) Tandy computers use IRQ4 instead of IRQ5 for the hard disk interrupt.
     4) Best performance of mice sometimes happens when they are configured
        for IRQ4 instead of IRQ3, since some mouse drivers may lock system
        interrupts for long periods.

(internal) Stack Fault (80286+ protected mode)
           Generated on stack overflow/underflow. Note that the 80286 will shut
           down in real mode if SP=1 before a push.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  0Dh  Hard Disk                                                    
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0034h)  Miscelleneous uses
 (IRQ5)    8259-1
note 1) Various Tandy 1000 models may use this line for the 60Hhz RAM refresh
        or as "optional bus interrupt."
     2) Used by hard disk on IBM XT and most compatibles.
     3) LPT2 on AT, XT/286, and PS/2
     4) Dummy CRT vertical retrace on PCjr

(internal) General Protection Violation (80286+)
           Called in real mode when an instruction attempts to access a word
           operand located at offset 0FFFFh or a PUSH MEM or POP MEM
           instruction contains an invalid bit code in the second byte, or
           when an instruction exceeds the maximum length allowed (10 bytes
           for 80286, 15 bytes for 80386)


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  0Eh  Diskette Interrupt                                           
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0038h)  Generated by floppy controller on completion of an operation
 (IRQ6)    (sets bit 8 of 40:3E)

(internal) Page Fault (80386+ native mode)


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt  0Fh  Reserved by IBM                                              
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:003Ch)  IRQ7 used by 8259 PPI interrupt (LPT1, LPT2)
 (IRQ7)
note 1) Generated by the LPT1 printer adapter when printer becomes ready. Many
        printer adapters do not reliably generate this interrupt.
     2) This interrupt is normally avoided. If a bad interrupt occurs, it will
        vector to this spot (when caused by a misprogrammed 8259 PIC)


       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                          C H A P T E R    T H R E E


                                THE PC ROM BIOS


                                C O N T E N T S

Calling the ROM BIOS .................................................. 3**1
Interrupt 10h  Video Services ......................................... 3**2
Interrupt 11h  Equipment Check ........................................ 3**3
Interrupt 12h  Memory Size ............................................ 3**4
Interrupt 13h  Disk Functions ......................................... 3**5
Interrupt 14h  Initialize and Access Serial Port ...................... 3**6
               FOSSIL Drivers ......................................... 3**7
Interrupt 15h  Cassette I/O ........................................... 3**8
Interrupt 16h  Keyboard I/O ........................................... 3**9
Interrupt 17h  Printer ................................................ 3**10
Interrupt 18h  ROM BASIC .............................................. 3**11
Interrupt 19h  Bootstrap Loader ....................................... 3**12
Interrupt 1Ah  Time of Day ............................................ 3**13
Interrupt 1Bh  Control-Break .......................................... 3**14
Interrupt 1Ch  Timer Tick ............................................. 3**15
Interrupt 1Dh  Vector of Video Initialization Parameters .............. 3**16
Interrupt 1Eh  Vector of Diskette Controller Parameters ............... 3**17
Interrupt 1Fh  Ptr to Graphics Character Extensions (Graphics Set 2) .. 3**18



 The ROM BIOS is the lowest level of software access. It contains the
following routines:

   (all)
        power-on self-test (POST)
        boostrap loader
        clock
        floppy disk I/O
        video I/O
        keyboard
        serial ports
        parallel ports
        print screen
        equipment check
        report memory size


    (AT)
        hard disk I/O
        report memory size (extended memory)
        extended memory block moves
        enhanced video and keyboard I/O
        high resolution timer
        alarm

  Machines such as the PC Convertible, PCjr, and non-IBM machines add
additional functions.


Calling the ROM BIOS .................................................. 3**1

 The BIOS services are invoked by placing the number of the desired function in
register AH, subfunction in AL, setting the other registers to any specific
requirements of the function, and invoking any of ints 10h through int 1Fh.

 The original IBM PC Technical Reference gave the absolute addresses of the
ROM routines. Some early software jumped directly to these addresses, with
mixed results on non-IBM BIOSes. This practice was common on machines
predating the PC, but there is no practical use for it now. The OS/2
Compatibility Box also does not support jumping directly into the ROM.

 When the interrupt is called, all register and flag values are pushed into the
stack. The interrupt address contains a pointer into an absolute address in the
ROM BIOS chip address space. This location may be further vectored into the
IBMBIO.COM (or equivalent) file or user file.

 The address vector points to a particular BIOS command handler. The handler
pops the register values, compares them to its list of functions, and executes
the function if valid. When the function is complete, it may pass values back
to the command handler. The handler will push the values into the stack and
then return control to the calling program.

 Most functions will return an error code; some return more information.
Details are contained in the listings for the individual functions.

 Register settings listed are the ones used by the BIOS. Some functions will
return with garbage values in unused registers. Do not test for values in
unspecified registers; your program may exhibit odd behavior.


 Three sets of BIOS routines are available: PC BIOS, AT BIOS (also called
CBIOS or "Old compatibility BIOS", and the PS/2 ABIOS "Advanced BIOS".

 The Advanced BIOS is contained in PS/2 ROMs. It is primarily intended for OS
use rather than application use. OS/2 can take advantage of ABIOS routines to
reduce RAM use on PS/2 systems. The ABIOS can be replaced by disk and RAM based
ABIOS code if desired. There is a new BIOS Data Area defined in high memory
that occupies one K of RAM. In OS/2 systems, parts of the ABIOS are replaced
by OS/2 drivers.

 While the CBIOS must be addressed via pointers, the routines in the ABIOS are
fixed in absolute locations so they can be referenced directly by OS/2.

 The ABIOS can run in protected mode, and is fully reentrant. It supports three
types of function requests - single staged, discrete multistaged, or continuous
multistaged. A single-staged request does its job immediately and returns
control to the caller. A discrete multistaged request may happen in two or more
stages with pauses between the stages. The caller may regain control during the
pauses. A continuous multistaged request starts a staged operation that never
ends. (sometimes called a daemon).

 Unlike the CBIOS which is called with software interrupts, ABIOS is accessed
with FAR calls. ABIOS calls are completely reentrant in both real and
protected modes. To call an ABIOS function, the calling program must pass
pointers to two data structures - a request block and a common data area. The
request block specifies the desired function number and the common data area is
a table that contains pointers to all the ABIOS' other tables and data areas.
The common data area's internal structure contains the function transfer
tables which have the addresses of the BIOS routines.

ABIOS stack frame and calling conventions:
       bytes        stack contents
        2       common data area pointer (segment/selector only) required
        4       request block pointer - required
        4       function transfer table pointer - furnished by ABIOS or caller
        4       device block pointer - furnished by ABIOS or caller
        4       return address

 In ABIOS Transfer Convention, only the first two items are required. ABIOS
assigns the second two. In Operating System Transfer Convention, the caller
provides the second two. Since the parameters are not removed from the stack
on return to the caller, the operating system may save the function transfer
table and device addresses after they have been furnished by the ABIOS by a
call.

 ABIOS does no interrupt arbitration. It assumes all interrupts are handled by
the caller or the OS and it is called only for service. If more than one
device is sharing a hardware interrupt, the OS must determine which interrupt
is valid for the ABIOS.

 OS/2 may use the ABIOS if found, but otherwise duplicates the BIOS calls for
the DOS Compatibility Box by vectoring BIOS calls into its own device drivers.
This makes it rather difficult for DOS drivers for mass storage, high
resolution video boards, multitasking APIs using int 15h, etc. If your
software needs to manipulate hardware directly you might want to check if your
code is running under OS/2. The simplest method is to check for DOS version 10
or higher.


note    Some references list an "XT/2" machine, which was reputedly an 8mHz
        8088 with 640k and a clock on the motherboard. IBM doesn't list such
        a machine, and I have a late '86 XT, one of the last made. It is
        pretty much like the older ones.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 10h  Video Services                                          3**2  
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0040h)       The BIOS Video Services may be found in Chapter 16.

(internal) Coprocessor Error (80286+)
        Generated by the CPU when the -ERROR pin is asserted by the coprocessor
        (usually 80x87, but may be any multimaster CPU or alternate NDP such
        as Weitek, etc.). ATs and clones usually wire the coprocessor to use
        IRQ13, but not all get it right.



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 11h  Equipment Check                                         3**3  
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0044h)       Reads the BIOS Data Area and returns two bytes of setup info.
entry   no parameters are required
return  AX      Equipment listing word. Bits are:
                0       number of floppy drives
                        0       no drives
                        1       bootable (IPL) diskette drive installed
                1       math chip
                        0       no math coprocessor (80x87) present
                        1       math coprocessor (80x87) present
         (PS/2) 2       0       mouse not installed
                        1       mouse installed
          (PC)  2,3     system board RAM
                        0,0     16k    (PC-0, PC-1)
                        0,1     32k
                        1,0     48k
                        1,1     64k    (PC-2, XT)
                        note 1) not commonly used. Set both bits to 1
                             2) both bits always 1 in AT
                4,5     initial video mode
                        0,0     no video installed (use with dumb terminal)
                        0,1     40x25 color      (CGA)
                        1,0     80x25 color      (CGA, EGA, PGA, MCGA, VGA)
                        1,1     80x25 monochrome (MDA or Hercules, most super-
                                                  hires mono systems)
                6,7     number of diskette drives (only if bit 0 is 1)
                        0,0     1 drives
                        0,1     2 drives
                        1,0     3 drives
                        1,1     4 drives
                8       0       DMA present
                        1       no DMA (PCjr, some Tandy 1000s, 1400LT)
                9,A,B   number of RS232 serial ports (0-3)
                        0,0,0   none
                        0,0,1   1
                        0,1,0   2
                        0,1,1   3
                        1,0,0   4
                C       0       no game I/O attached
                        1       game I/O attached (default for PCjr)
                D       serial accessory installation
                        0       no serial accessories installed
                        1       Convertible - internal modem installed
                                or PCjr - serial printer attached
                E,F     number of parallel printers
                        0,0     none
                        0,1     one   (LPT1, PRN)
                        1,0     two   (LPT2)
                        1,1     three (LPT3)
                        note    Models before PS/2 would allow a fourth
                                parallel printer. Remapping of the BIOS in the
                                PS/2s does not allow the use of LPT4.
        (386 extended AX)
                23d     0       Weitek ABACUS - virtual '86 EMS page tables
                                not correctly initialized
                        1       Weitek ABACUS - virtual '86 EMS page tables OK

                24d     0       Weitek ABACUS NDP not present
                        1       Weitek ABACUS NDP present




旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 12h  Memory Size                                             3**4  
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0048h)       get system memory
entry   no parameters required
return  AX      number of contiguous 1K RAM blocks available for DOS
note 1) This is the same value stored in absolute address 04:13h.
     2) For some early PC models, the amount of memory returned by this call is
        determined by the settings of the dip switches on the motherboard and
        may not reflect all the memory that is physically present.
     3) For the PC/AT, the value returned is the amount of functional memory
        found during the power-on self-test, regardless of the memory size
        configuration information stored in CMOS RAM.
     4) The value returned does not reflect any extended memory (above the 1 Mb
        boundary) that may be present on 80286 or 80386 machines.




旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 13h  Disk Functions                                          3**5  
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0049h)       The service calls for BIOS disk functions are located in
                Chapter 8.




旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 14h  Initialize and Access Serial Port For Int 14            3**6  
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 Note:  Some IBM PS/2 Model 50Z machines were delivered with serial ports
        that did not meet specification.  Some cheap clone serial ports may
        also be troublesome.

(0:0050h)       the following status is defined:

        serial status byte:
        bits    0 delta clear to send
                1 delta data set ready
                2 trailing edge ring detector
                3 delta receive line signal detect
                4 clear to send
                5 data set ready
                6 ring indicator
                7 receive line signal detect

        line status byte:
        bits    0 data ready
                1 overrun error
                2 parity error
                3 framing error
                4 break detect
                5 transmit holding register empty
                6 transmit shift register empty
                7 time out  note: if bit 7 set then other bits are invalid

        Though present on the IBM PS/2s, COM3 and COM4 are not widely
        standardized across the industry. The most common definitions are:

        port    addr.   IRQ     interrupt

        COM1    3F8     IRQ4    int 0Ch
        COM2    2F8     IRQ3    int 0Bh
        COM3    3E8     IRQ4    int 0Ch
        COM4    2E8     IRQ3    int 0Bh

        As you can see, COM1/COM3 and COM2/COM4 are siamesed.  Since the ISA
        bus does not support shared interrupts, simultaneous access of two of
        a pair may cause conflict.  For example, a mouse and a modem would not
        coexist well on paired ports.


 All routines have AH=function number and DX=RS232 card number (0 based).
AL=character to send or received character on exit, unless otherwise noted.

entry   AH      00h     Initialize And Access Serial Communications Port
                        bit pattern: BBBPPSLL
                        BBB = baud rate:   110,150,300,600,1200,2400,4800,9600
                        PP  = parity:      01 = odd, 11 = even
                        S   = stop bits:   0 = 1, 1 = 2
                        LL  = word length: 10 = 7-bits, 11 = 8-bits
        AL      parms for initialization:
                bit pattern:
                0       word length
                1       word length
                2       stop bits
                3       parity
                4       parity
                5       baud rate
                6       baud rate
                7       baud rate
                word length     10      7 bits
                                11      8 bits
                stop bits       0       1 stop bit
                                1       2 stop bits
                parity          00      none
                                01      odd
                                11      even
                baud rate       000     110 baud
                                001     150 baud
                                010     300 baud
                                011     600 baud
                                100     1200 baud
                                101     2400 baud
                                110     4800 baud
                                111     9600 baud  (4800 on PCjr)
        DX      port number (0=COM1, 1=COM2, etc.)
return  AH      line status
        AL      modem status
note    To initialize the serial port to > 9600 baud on PS/2 machines, see
        fns 04h and 05h.


Function 01h    Send Character in AL to Comm Port
entry   AH      01h
        AL      character
        DX      port number (0 - 3)
return  AH      RS232 status code
                bit     0       data ready
                        1       overrun error
                        2       parity error
                        3       framing error
                        4       break detected
                        5       transmission buffer register empty
                        6       transmission shift register empty
                        7       timeout
        AL      modem status
                bit
                        0       delta clear-to-send
                        1       delta data-set-ready
                        2       trailing edge ring detected
                        3       change, receive line signal detected
                        4       clear-to-send
                        5       data-set-ready
                        6       ring received
                        7       receive line signal detected


Function 02h    Wait For A Character From Comm Port DX
entry   AH      02h
        DX      port number (0-3)
return  AL      character received
        AH      error code (see above)(00h for no error)


Function 03h    Fetch the Status of Comm Port DX (0 or 1)
entry   AH      03h
        DX      port (0-3)
return  AH      set bits (01h) indicate comm-line status
                bit     7       timeout
                bit     6       empty transmit shift register
                bit     5       empty transmit holding register
                bit     4       break detected ("long-space")
                bit     3       framing error
                bit     2       parity error
                bit     1       overrun error
                bit     0       data ready
        AL      set bits indicate modem status
                bit     7       received line signal detect
                bit     6       ring indicator
                bit     5       data set ready
                bit     4       clear to send
                bit     3       delta receive line signal detect
                bit     2       trailing edge ring detector
                bit     1       delta data set ready
                bit     0       delta clear to send


Function 04h    Extended Initialize                       (Convertible, PS/2)
entry   AH      04h
        AL      break status
                01h     if break
                00h     if no break
        BH      parity
                00h     no parity
                01h     odd parity
                02h     even parity
                03h     stick parity odd
                04h     stick parity even
        BL      number of stop bits
                00h     one stop bit
                01h     2 stop bits (1 if 5 bit word length)
        CH      word length
                00h     5 bits
                01h     6 bits
                02h     7 bits
                03h     8 bits
        CL      baud rate
                00h     110
                01h     150
                02h     300
                03h     600
                04h     1200
                05h     2400
                06h     4800
                07h     9600
                08h     19200
        DX      comm port (0-3)
return  AH      line control status
        AL      modem status
note    Provides a superset of fn 00h capabilities for PS/2 machines.


Function 05h    Extended Communication Port Control       (Convertible, PS/2)
entry   AH      05h
        AL      00h     read modem control register
                01h     write modem control register
        BL      modem control register
           bits 0       DTR data terminal ready
                1       RTS request to send
                2       out1
                3       out2
                4       loop
                5,6,7   reserved
        DX      port number (0=COM1, 1=COM2, etc.)
return  AH      port status (see 00h above)
        AL      modem status (see 00h above)
        BL      modem control register (see 01h above)



FOSSIL Drivers ........................................................ 3**7

Interrupt  14h  FOSSIL (Fido/Opus/Seadog Standard Interface Level) drivers
                A FOSSIL is a device driver for handling the IBM PC serial
                com?232 status code (see AH=00h above)
        AL      ASCII value of character received from serial port
note    Will timeout if DSR is not asserted, even if function 03h returns
        data ready.


entry   AH      03h     FOSSIL: Request status
        DX      port number  (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  AX      status bit mask
                AH      bit 0 set  RDA     input data is available in buffer
                            1 set  OVRN    input buffer overrun
                            2 N/A
                            3 N/A
                            4 N/A
                            5 set  THRE    room is available in output buffer
                            6 set  TSRE    output buffer is empty
                            7 N/A
                AL      bit 0 N/A
                            1 N/A
                            2 N/A
                            3 set          this bit is always set
                            4 N/A
                            5 N/A
                            6 N/A
                            7 set  DCD     carrier detect
note    Bit 3 of AL is always returned set to enable programs to use it as a
        carrier detect bit on hardwired (null modem) links.


entry   AH      04h     Initialize FOSSIL driver
        BX      4F50h                      (optional)
        DX      port number                (DX=00FFh special)
        ES:CX   pointer to ^C flag address (optional)
return  AX      1954h if successful
        BL      maximum function number supported (excluding 7Eh-0BFh)
        BH      revision of FOSSIL supported
note 1) DTR is raised when FOSSIL inits.
     2) Existing baudrate is preserved.
     3) If BX contains 4F50h, the address specified in ES:CX is that of a ^C
        flag byte in the application program, to be incremented when ^C is
        detected in the keyboard service routines. This is an optional service
        and only need be supported on machines where the keyboard service can't
        (or won't) perform an int 1Bh or int 23h when a control-C is entered.


entry   AH      05h     Deinitialize FOSSIL driver
        DX      port number  (DX=00FFh special)
return  none
note 1) DTR is not affected.
     2) Disengages driver from comm port. Should be done when operations on the
        port are complete.
     3) If DX=00FFh, the initialization that was performed when FOSSIL function
        04h with DX=00FFh should be undone.


entry   AH      06h     FOSSIL: Raise/lower DTR
        AL      DTR state to be set
                00h     lower DTR
                01h     raise DTR
        DX      comm port (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  none


entry   AH      07h     FOSSIL: Return timer tick parameters
return  AH      ticks per second on interrupt number shown in AL
        AL      timer tick interrupt number (not vector!)
        DX      milliseconds per tick (approximate)


entry   AH      08h     FOSSIL: Flush output buffer
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  none
note    Waits until all output is done.


entry   AH      09h     FOSSIL: Purge output buffer
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  none
note    Returns to caller immediately.


entry   AH      0Ah     FOSSIL: Purge input buffer
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  none
note 1) If any flow control restraint has been employed (dropping RTS or
        transmitting XOFF) the port will be "released" by doing the reverse,
        raising RTS or sending XON.
     2) Returns to caller immediately.


entry   AH      0Bh     FOSSIL: Transmit no wait
        AL      ASCII character value to be sent
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  AX      0000h   character not accepted
                0001h   character accepted
note    This is exactly the same as the "regular" transmit call except that if
        there is no space available in the output buffer a value of zero is
        returned in AX, if room is available a value 1 (one) is returned.


entry   AH      0Ch     FOSSIL: Nondestructive Read no Wait
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  AH      character
                0FFFFh  character not available
note 1) Reads async buffer.
     2) Does not remove keycode from buffer.


entry   AH      0Dh     FOSSIL: Keyboard read no wait
return  AX      IBM keyboard scan code or
                0FFFFh if no keyboard character available
note 1) Use IBM-style function key mapping in the high order byte.
     2) Scan codes for non function keys are not specifically required but may
        be included.
     3) Does not remove keycode from buffer.


entry   AH      0Eh     FOSSIL: Keyboard input with wait
return  AX      IBM keyboard scan code
note    Returns the next character from the keyboard or waits if no character
        is available.


entry   AH      0Fh     Enable or Disable flow control
        AL      bit mask describing requested flow control
           bits 0       XON/XOFF on transmit (watch for XOFF while sending)
                1       CTS/RTS (CTS on transmit/RTS on receive)
                2       reserved
                3       XON/XOFF on receive (send XOFF when buffer near full)
                4-7     not used, FOSSIL spec calls for setting to 1
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  none
note 1) Bit 2 is reserved for DSR/DTR,  but is not currently supported in any
        implementation.
     2) TRANSMIT flow control allows the other end to restrain the transmitter
        when you are overrunning it. RECEIVE flow control tells the FOSSIL to
        attempt to do just that if it is being overwhelmed.
     3) Enabling transmit Xon/Xoff will cause the FOSSIL to stop transmitting
        upon receiving an Xoff. The FOSSIL will resume transmitting when an Xon
        is received.
     4) Enabling CTS/RTS will cause the FOSSIL to cease transmitting when CTS
        is lowered. Transmission will resume when CTS is raised. The FOSSIL
        will drop RTS when the receive buffer reaches a predetermined
        percentage full. The FOSSIL will raise RTS when the receive buffer
        empties below the predetermined percentage full. The point(s) at which
        this occurs is left to the individual FOSSIL implementor.
     5) Enabling receive Xon/Xoff will cause the FOSSIL to send a Xoff when the
        receive buffer reaches a pre-determined percentage full. An Xon will be
        sent when the receive buffer empties below the predetermined percentage
        full. The point(s) at which this occurs is left to the individual
        FOSSIL implementor.
     6) Applications using this function should set all bits ON in the high
        nibble of AL as well. There is a compatible (but not identical) FOSSIL
        driver implementation that uses the high nibble as a control mask. If
        your application sets the high nibble to all ones, it will always work,
        regardless of the method used by any given driver.


entry   AH      10h     Extended Ctrl-C/Ctrl-K checking and transmit on/off
        AL      flags bit mask byte (bit set if activated)
           bits 0       enable/disable Ctrl-C/Ctrl-K checking
                1       disable/enable the transmitter
                2-7     not used
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  AX      status byte
                0000h   control-C/K has not been received
                0001h   control-C/K has been received
note    This is used primarily for programs that can't trust XON/XOFF at FOSSIL
        level (such as BBS software).


entry   AH      11h     FOSSIL: Set current cursor location.
        DH      row (line) 0-24
        DL      column     0-79
return  none
note 1) This function looks exactly like the int 10h, fn 02h on the IBM PC.
        The cursor location is passed in DX: row in DH and column in DL. This
        function treats the screen as a coordinate system whose origin (0,0) is
        the upper left hand corner of the screen.
     2) Row and column start at 0.


entry   AH      12h     FOSSIL: Read current cursor location.
return  DH      row (line)
        DL      column
note 1) Looks exactly like int 10h/fn 03h in the IBM PC BIOS. The current
        cursor location (same coordinate system as function 16h) is passed back
        in DX.
     2) Row and column start at 0.


entry   AH      13h     FOSSIL: Single character ANSI write to screen.
        AL      value of character to display
return  none
note    This call might not be reentrant since ANSI processing may be through
        DOS.


entry   AH      14h     FOSSIL: Enable or disable watchdog processing
        AL      00h     to disable watchdog
                01h     to enable watchdog
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  none
note 1) This call will cause the FOSSIL to reboot the system if Carrier Detect
        for the specified port drops while watchdog is turned on.
     2) The port need not be active for this function to work.


entry   AH      15h     Write character to screen using BIOS support routines
        AL      ASCII code of character to display
return  none
note 1) This function is reentrant.
     2) ANSI processing may not be assumed.


entry   AH      16h     Insert or Delete a function from the timer tick chain
        AL      00h     to delete a function
                01h     to add a function
        ES:DX   address of function
return  AX      0000h   successful
                0FFFFh  unsuccessful


entry   AH      17h     FOSSIL: Reboot system
        AL      boot type
                00h     cold boot
                01h     warm boot
return  none


entry   AH      18h     FOSSIL: Read block
        CX      maximum number of characters to transfer
        DX      port number (NOP if DX=00FFh)
        ES:DI   pointer to user buffer
return  AX      number of characters transferred
note 1) This function does not wait for more characters to become available if
        the value in CX exceeds the number of characters currently stored.
     2) ES:DI are left unchanged by the call; the count of bytes actually
        transferred will be returned in AX.


entry   AH      19h     FOSSIL: Write block
        CX      maximum number of characters to transfer
        DX      port number  (NOP if DX=00FFh)
        ES:DI   pointer to user buffer
return  AX      number of characters transfered
note    ES and DI are not modified by this call.


entry   AH      1Ah     FOSSIL: Break signal begin or end
        AL      00h     stop sending 'break'
                01h     start sending 'break'
        DX      port number  (NOP if DX=00FFh)
return  none
note 1) Resets all transmit flow control restraints such as an XOFF received
        from remote.
     2) Init (fn 04h) or UnInit (fn 05h) will stop an in-progress break.
     3) The application must determine the "length" of the break.


entry   AH      1Bh     FOSSIL: Return information about the driver
        CX      size of user buffer in bytes
        DX      port number  (if DX=00FFh, port data will not be valid)
        ES:DI   pointer to user buffer
return  AX      number of characters transferred
        ES:DI   user buffer structure:
                00h     word    size of structure in bytes
                02h     byte    FOSSIL driver version
                03h     byte    revision level of this specific driver
                04h     dword   FAR pointer to ASCII ID string
                08h     word    size of the input buffer in bytes
                0Ah     word    number of bytes in input buffer
                0Ch     word    size of the output buffer in bytes
                0Eh     word    number of bytes in output buffer
                10h     byte    width of screen in characters
                11h     byte    screen height in characters
                12h     byte    actual baud rate, computer to modem
                                (see mask in function 00h
note 1) The baud rate byte contains the bits that fn 00h would use to set the
        port to that speed.
     2) The fields related to a particular port (buffer size, space left in the
        buffer, baud rate) will be undefined if port=0FFh or an invalid port is
        contained in DX.
     3) Additional information will always be passed after these, so that the
        fields will never change with FOSSIL revision changes.


entry   AH      7Eh     FOSSIL: Install an external application function
        AL      code assigned to external application
        ES:DX   pointer to entry point
return  AX      1954h   FOSSIL driver present
            not 1954h   FOSSIL driver not present
        BH      00h     failed
                01h     successful
        BL      code assigned to application (same as input AL)
note 1) Application codes 80h-0BFh are supported. Codes 80h-83h are reserved.
     2) An error code of BH=00h with AX=1954h should mean that another external
        application has already been installed with the code specified in AL.
     3) Applications are entered via a FAR call and should make a FAR return.


entry   AH      7Fh     FOSSIL: Remove an external application function
        AL      code assigned to external application
        ES:DX   pointer to entry point
return  AX      1954h
        BH      00h     failed
                01h     successful
        BL      code assigned to application (same as input AL)



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 15h  Cassette I/O                                            3**8  
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0054h)    1) Renamed "System Services" on PS/2 line.
             2) Issuing int 15h on an XT may cause a system crash.
                On AT and after, interrupts are disabled with CLI when the
                interrupt service routine is called, but most ROM versions do
                not restore interrupts with STI.
             3) For the original IBM PC, int 15h returns AH=80h and CF set for
                all calls with AH not 0,1, or 2.
             4) For the PC/XT int 15h returns AH=86h, CF set if called at all.
                (the PC/XT ROM BIOS does not support int 15h)
             5) For the AT/339, int 15h returns AH=86h, CF set if called with
                an invalid function code.


Function 00h    Turn Cassette Motor On                          (PC, PCjr only)
entry   AH      00h
return  CF      set on error
                AH      error code
                        00h     no errors
                        01h     CRC error
                        02h     bad tape signals
                                no data transitions (PCjr)
                        03h     no data found on tape
                                not used (PCjr)
                        04h     no data
                                no leader (PCjr)
                        80h     invalid command
                        86h     no cassette present
                                not valid in PCjr
note    NOP for systems where cassette not supported.


Function 01h    Turn Cassette Motor Off                         (PC, PCjr only)
entry   AH      01h
return  CF      set on error
        AH      error code (86h)
note    NOP for systems where cassette not supported.


Function 02h    Read Blocks From Cassette                       (PC, PCjr only)
entry   AH      02h
        CX      number of bytes to read
        ES:BX   segment:offset + 1 of last byte read
return  CF      set on error
                AH      error code (01h, 02h, 04h, 80h, 86h)
        DX      count of bytes actually read
        ES:BX   pointer past last byte written
note 1) NOP for systems where cassette not supported.
     2) Cassette operations normally read 256 byte blocks.


Function 03h    Write Data Blocks to Cassette                   (PC, PCjr only)
entry   AH      03h
        CX      count of bytes to write
        ES:BX   pointer to data buffer
return  CF      set on error
                AH      error code (80h, 86h)
        CX      00h
        ES:BX   pointer to last byte written+1
note 1) NOP for systems where cassette not supported.
     2) The last block is padded to 256 bytes with zeroes if needed.
     3) No errors are returned by this service.


Function 0Fh    ESDI Format Unit Periodic Interrupt          (PS/2 50+)
entry   AH      0Fh
        AL      phase code
                00h     reserved
                01h     surface analysis
                02h     formatting
return  CF      clear   if formatting should continue
                set     if it should terminate
note 1) Called the BIOS on the ESDI Fixed Disk Drive Adapter/A during a format
        or surface analysis operation after each cylinder is completed.
     2) This function call can be captured by a program so that it will be
        notified as each cylinder is formatted or analyzed. The program can
        count interrupts for each phase to determine the current cylinder
        number.
     3) The BIOS default handler for this function returns with CF set.


Function 10h    TopView API Function Calls                      (TopView)
                see Chapter 17


Function 20h    PRINT.COM  (DOS 3.1+ internal)         (AT, XT/286, PS/2 50+)
entry   AH      20h
        AL      subfunction
                00h     disable critical region flag
                01h     set critical region flag
                        ES:BX   pointer to flag byte set while inside DOS calls
                10h     set up SysReq routine
                11h     completion of SysReq routine (software only)


Function 21h    Read Power-On Self Test (POST) Error Log           (PS/2 50+)
entry   AH      21h
        AL      00h     read POST log
                01h     write POST log
                        BH      device ID
                        BL      device error code
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status
                00h     successful read
                        BX      number of POST error codes stored
                        ES:DI   pointer to error log
                01h     list full
                80h     invalid command
                86h     function unsupported
note    The log is a series of words, the first byte of which identifies the
        error code and the second is the device ID.


Function 40h    Read/Modify Profiles                            (Convertible)
entry   AH      40h
        AL      00h     read system profile in CX,BX
                01h     write system profile from CX, BX
                02h     read internal modem profile in BX
                03h     write internal modem profile from BX
        BX      profile info
return  BX      internal modem profile (from 02h)
        CX,BX   system profile (from 00h)


Function 41h    Wait On External Event                          (Convertible)
entry   AH      41h
        AL      condition type
           bits 0-2     condition to wait for
                        0,0,0   any external event
                        0,0,1   compare and return if equal
                        0,1,0   compare and return if not equal
                        0,1,1   test and return if not zero
                        1,0,0   test and return if zero
                3       reserved
                4       0       user byte
                        1       port address
                5-7     reserved
        BH      condition compare or mask value
                condition codes:
                00h     any external event
                01h     compare and return if equal
                02h     compare and return if not equal
                03h     test and return if not zero
                04h     test and return if zero
        BL      timeout value times 55 milliseconds
                00h     if no time limit
        DX      I/O port address (if AL bit 4=1)
        ES:DI   pointer to user byte (if AL bit 4=0)


Function 42h    Request System Power Off                        (Convertible)
entry   AH      42h
        AL      00h     to use system profile
                01h     to force suspend regardless of profile
return  unknown


Function 43h    Read System Status                              (Convertible)
entry   AH      43h
return  AL      status byte
            bit 0       LCD detached
                1       reserved
                2       RS232/parallel powered on
                3       internal modem powered on
                4       power activated by alarm
                5       bad time
                6       external power in use
                7       battery low


Function 44h    (De)activate Internal Modem Power               (Convertible)
entry   AH      44h
        AL      00h      to power off
                01h      to power on
return  unknown


Function 4Fh    OS Hook - Keyboard Intercept          (except PC, PCjr, and XT)
entry   AH      4Fh
        AL      scan code, CF set
return  AL      scan code
        CF      set     processing desired
                clear   scan code should not be used
note 1) Called by int 9 handler for each keystroke to translate scan codes.
     2) An OS or a TSR can capture this function to filter the raw keyboard
        data stream. The new handler can substitute a new scan code, return the
        same scan code, or return the carry flag clear causing the keystroke to
        be discarded. The BIOS default routine simply returns the scan code
        unchanged.
     3) A program can call int 15h/fn0C0h to determine whether the host
        machine's BIOS supports keyboard intercept.
     4) Used internally by PC-MOS/386 v4.00+ for keyboard input.
     5) Some BIOSes do not properly support this call. However, some versions
        of KEYB.COM provide additional 4Fh support.


Function 52h    MicroSoft RAM-Resident Software Specification 1.0
                This standard was proposed by MicroSoft in 1986 as a common
                interface for TSR programs. It appears to have been largely
                unknown or disregarded.

Function 0: Get Program Information by Name
entry   DS:BX   The Program ID of the memory-resident program to look for
return  AL      0FFh    if the program we are looking for is installed
                00h     if it is not installed
        CX      The number of this program. The first program installed is
                number 0, with the second program being number 1, etc. By using
                a dynamic numbering system, we avoid conflicts between programs
                that might otherwise choose the same ID. We also provide a good
                way to scan all the resident programs using function 1.
        ES:DX   pointer to the Program ID Record (PIDR)
note    This function tests to see if a program is memory resident and returns
        a pointer to its program information if it is resident. To use this
        function, set DS:BX to point to the program ID. Each installed program
        will check to see if this program ID agrees with its own internal
        program ID.

Function 1: Get Program Information by Number
entry   CX      Number of the program we want the information for

return  AL      0FFh    if the program we are looking for is installed
                00h     if it is not installed
        ES:DX   pointer to the Program ID Record (PIDR)
note    This function returns exactly the same information as function 0. The
        only difference is how we identify the program we want, which is
        determined by its position in the interrupt chain; program 0 is the
        last program in the chain, and the first program in the chain (usually
        the most recently installed) has the highest number.

Function 2: Activate Program
entry   CX      The number of the program we want to activate
        DS:BX   Activation Record. This record will give program information on
                how and what it should activate within the program
return  none
note    This function activates one of the installed programs. It is useful
        if you want to control many desk accessories with a single control
        panel like the one used in SideKick. You can also use it with a
        program like ProKey to run a named macro under program control, or
        with SideKick to bring up one of the desk accessories from within a
        program or batch file.

Function 3: Deactivate Program
entry   CX      The number of the program we want to deactivate
        DS:BX   Deactivation Record. This record will give program information
                on how and what it should deactivate within the program
return  none
note    This function is the opposite of function 2 (activate program).

Function 4: Enable Program
entry   CX      The number of the program we want to enable
        DS:BX   Enable mask record. This mask describes what features we want
                to enable. A null record enables all the features.
return  none
note    This function is the opposite of function 5 (disable program).

Function 5: Disable Program
entry   CX      The number of the program we want to disable
        DS:BX   Disable mask record.  This mask describes what features we want
                to disable. A null record disables all the features.
return  none
note    Sometimes it becomes necessary to disable a program to prevent it from
        conflicting with another program, this function is designed to do that.
        This function is the opposite of function 4 (Enable Program).


Function 70h    EEROM handler                                (Tandy 1000HX)
entry   AH      00h     read from EEROM
                BL      00h
                01h     write to EEROM
                BL      word number to write (0-15)
                DX      word value to write
return  DX      (AH=00h) word value
        CF      set on error (system is not a Tandy 1000 HX)


Function 80h    OS Hook - Device Open                        (AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      80h
        BX      device ID
        CX      process ID
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status
note 1) Acquires ownership of a logical device for a process.
     2) This call, along with fns 81h and 82h, defines a simple protocol that
        can be used to arbitrate usage of devices by multiple processes. A
        multitasking program manager would be expected to capture int 15h and
        provide the appropriate service.
     3) The default BIOS routine for this function simply returns with CF clear
        and AH=00h.


Function 81h    Device Close                               (AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      81h
        BX      device ID
        CX      process ID
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status
note 1) Releases ownership of a logical device for a process.
     2) A multitasking program manager would be expected to capture int 15h and
        provide the appropriate service.
     3) The BIOS default routine for this function simply returns with the CF
        clear and AH=00h.


Function 82h    Program Termination                          (AT, XT/286, PS/2)
        AH      82h
        BX      device ID
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status
note 1) Closes all logical devices opened with function 80h.
     2) A multitasking program manager would be expected to capture int 15h and
        provide the appropriate service.
     3) The BIOS default routine for this function simply returns with CF clear
        and AH=00h.


Function 83h    Event Wait                 (AT, XT/286, Convertible, PS/2 50+)
entry   AH      83h
        AL      00h     to set interval
                01h     to cancel
        CX:DX   number of microseconds to wait (granularity is 976 microseconds)
        ES:BX   pointer to semaphore flag (bit 7 is set when interval expires)
                (pointer is to caller's memory) (some sources list bit 15 set)
return  CF      clear   OK
                set     function already busy
note 1) Requests setting of a semaphore after a specified interval or cancels a
        previous request.
     2) The calling program is responsible for clearing the semaphore before
        requesting this function.
     3) The actual duration of an event wait is always an integral multiple of
        976 microseconds. The CMOS date/clock chip interrupts are used to
        implement this function.
     4) Use of this function allows programmed, hardware-independent delays at
        a finer resolution than can be obtained through use of the MS-DOS Get
        Time function (int 21h/fn 2Ch) which returns time in hundredths of a
        second.
     5) CX:DX is a four-byte integer.
     7) This function is called by int 70h and is not the normal Int 08h/1Ch
        clock tick. It is generated by the MC146818A Real Time Clock chip.
        This is the battery backed up CMOS clock chip.


Function 84h    Read Joystick Input Settings                 (AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      84h
        DX      00h     to read the current switch settings  (return in AL)
                01h     to read the resistive inputs
return  CF      set on error
        (fn 00h)
        AL      switch settings (bits 7-4)
        (fn 01h)
        AX      stick A (X) value
        BX      stick A (Y) value
        CX      stick B (X) value
        DX      stick B (Y) value
note 1) An error is returned if DX does not contain a valid subfunction number.
     2) If no game adapter is installed, all returned values are 00h.
     3) Using a 250K Ohm joystick, the potentiometer values usually lie within
        the range 0-416 (0000h-01A0h).


Function 85h    System Request (SysReq) Key Pressed        (except PC, PCjr, XT)
entry   AH      85h
        AL      00h      key pressed
                01h      key released
return  CF      set on error
        AH      error code
note 1) Called by BIOS keyboard decode routine when the SysReq key is detected.
     2) The BIOS handler for this call is a dummy routine that always returns a
        success status unless called with an invalid subfunction number in AL.
     3) A multitasking program manager would be expected to capture int 15h so
        that it can be notified when the user strikes the SysReq key.


Function 86h    Delay                                 (except PC, PCjr, XT)
        AH      86h
        CX:DX   4-byte integer, number of microseconds to wait
                CX high word, DX low word
return  CF      clear   after wait elapses
        CF      set     immediately due to error
note 1) Suspends the calling program for a specified interval in microseconds.
     2) The actual duration of the wait is always an integral multiple of 976
        microseconds.
     3) Use of this function allows programmed, hardware-independent delays at
        a finer resolution than can be obtained through use of the MS-DOS Get
        Time function (int 21h fn 2Ch) which returns time in hundredths of a
        second).
     4) This function calls int 70h and is not the normal Int 08h/1Ch
        clock tick. It is generated by the MC146818A Real Time Clock chip.
        This is the battery backed up CMOS clock chip.


Function 87h    Memory Block Move                       (2-3-486 machines only)
        AH      87h
        CX      number of words to move
        ES:SI   pointer to Global Descriptor Table (GDT)
                offset 00h-0Fh  reserved, set to zero
                           00h  null descriptor
                           08h  uninitialized, will be made into GDT descriptor
                       10h-11h  source segment length in bytes
                                (2*CX-1 or greater)
                       12h-14h  24-bit linear source address
                       15h      access rights byte (always 93h)
                       16h-17h  reserved, set to zero
                       18h-19h  destination segment length in bytes
                                (2*CX-1 or greater)
                       1Ah-1Ch  24-bit linear destination address
                       1Dh      access rights byte (always 93h)
                       1Eh-1Fh  reserved, set to zero
                           20h *uninitialized, used by BIOS
                           28h *uninitialized, will be made into SS descriptor
                              (*) some sources say initialized to zero
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status
                00h     success - source copied into destination
                01h     RAM parity error
                02h     exception interrupt error
                03h     address line 20 gating failed
note 1) The GDT table is composed of six 8-byte descriptors to be used by the
        CPU in protected mode. The four descriptors in offsets 00h-0Fh and
        20h-2Fh are filled in by the BIOS before the CPU mode switch.
     2) The addresses used in the descriptor table are linear (physical)
        24-bit addresses in the range 000000h-0FFFFFFh - not segments and
        offsets - with the least significant byte at the lowest address and the
        most significant byte at the highest address.
     3) Interrupts are disabled during this call; use may interfere with the
        operation of comm programs, network drivers, or other software that
        relies on prompt servicing of hardware interrupts.
     4) This call is not valid in the OS/2 Compatibility Box.
     5) This call will move a memory block from any real or protected mode
        address to any other real or protected mode address.
     6) DESQview does not intercept function 87, but QEXT and QEMM do, thereby
        allowing function 87 to work correctly inside DV.  VDISK, which uses
        function 87, works inside DV.  If VDISK is sitting at the 1 MB mark,
        then the int 19h vector will have a VDISK signature in it.  The normal
        way to check for VDISK presence is by checking for the string "VDISK"
        at offset 12h of the segment of the int 19h vector.  If the string
        matches, then you can determine how much extended memory is reserved
        for VDISK by looking at offset 2Ch is the 3-byte address of the lowest
        extended memory address NOT in use by VDISK (i.e. if you see at 2Ch
        "00 00 14" then that means that VDISK is using memory up to 1 MB +
        256K).


Function 88h    Get Extended Memory Size                   (AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      88h
return  AX      number of contiguous 1K blocks of extended memory starting at
                address 1024k
note 1) This call will not work in the OS/2 Compatibility Box.
     2) Some BIOSes and software manipulate the Carry Flag when this function
        is called. When tested on a vanilla 386 with AMI BIOS the machine
        returned with the carry flag set. When 386-to-the-Max was loaded, the
        flag was not set.
     3) Used by IBM VDISK 4.0.


Function 89h    Switch Processor to Protected Mode         (AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      89h
        BH      interrupt number for IRQ0, written to ICW2 of 8259 PIC #1
                (must be evenly divisible by 8, determines IRQ0-IRQ7)
        BL      interrupt number for IRQ8, written to ICW2 of 8259 PIC #2
                (must be evenly divisible by 8, determines IRQ8-IRQ15)
        ES:SI   pointer to 8-entry Global Descriptor Table for protected mode:
                offset  00h     null descriptor, initialized to zero
                        08h     GDT descriptor
                        10h     IDT (Interrupt Descriptor Table) descriptor
                        18h     DS, user's data segment
                        20h     ES, user's extra segment
                        28h     SS, user's stack segment
                        30h     CS, user's code segment
                        38h     uninitialized, used to build descriptor for
                                BIOS code segment
return  CF      set on error
                AH      0FFh  error enabling address line 20
        CF      clear   function successful (CPU is in protected mode)
                AH      00h
                CS      user-defined selector
                DS      user-defined selector
                ES      user-defined selector
                SS      user-defined selector
note 1) The user must initialize the first seven descriptors; the eighth is
        filled in by the BIOS to provide addressability for its own execution.
        The calling program may modify and use the eighth descriptor for any
        purpose after return from this function call.
     2) Intercepted by Microsoft's HIMEM.SYS and Quarterdeck's QEMM.SYS.


Function 90h    Device Busy Loop                         (except PC, PCjr, XT)
entry   AH      90h
        AL      predefined device type code:
                00h     disk                                     (may timeout)
                01h     diskette                                 (may timeout)
                02h     keyboard                                 (no timeout)
                03h     PS/2 pointing device                     (may timeout)
                80h     network
                                                                 (no timeout)
                0FCh    hard disk reset (PS/2)                   (may timeout)
                0FDh    diskette motor start                     (may timeout)
                0FEh    printer                                  (may timeout)
        ES:BX   pointer to request block for type codes 80h through 0FFh
                (for network adapters ES:BX is a pointer to network control
                block)
return  CF      set     if wait time satisfied
                clear   if driver must perform wait
note 1) Used by NETBIOS, TOPS Network, Tom Wagner's CTASK multitasker.
     2) Generic type codes are allocated as follows:
        00h-7Fh   non-reentrant devices; OS must arbitrate access
                  serially reusable devices
        80h-0BFh  reentrant devices; ES:BX points to a unique control block
        0C0h-0FFh wait-only calls, no complementary POST int 15/fn 91h call
     3) Invoked by the BIOS disk, printer, network, and keyboard handlers prior
        to performing a programmed wait for I/O completion.
     4) A multitasking program manager would be expected to capture int 15h/
        fn 90h so that it can dispatch other tasks while I/O is in progress.
     5) The default BIOS routine for this function simply returns with the CF
        clear and AH=00h.


Function 91h    Interrupt Completed                     (AT, XT/286, PS/2 50+)
entry   AH      91h
        AL      type code (see AH=90h above)
                00h-7Fh  serially reusable devices
                80h-0BFh reentrant devices
        ES:BX   pointer to request block for type codes 80h through 0BFh
return  AH       00h
note 1) Used by NETBIOS and TOPS network, Tom Wagner's CTASK multitasker.
     2) Invoked by the BIOS disk network, and keyboard handlers to signal that
        I/O is complete and/or the device is ready.
     3) Predefined device types that may use Device POST are:
        00H  disk                   (may timeout)
        01H  floppy disk            (may timeout)
        02H  keyboard               (no timeout)
        03H  PS/2 pointing device   (may timeout)
        80H  network                (no timeout)
     4) The BIOS printer routine does not invoke this function because printer
        output is not interrupt driven.
     5) A multitasking program manager would be expected to capture int 15h/
        fn 91h so that it can be notified when I/O is completed and awaken the
        requesting task.
     6) The default BIOS routine for this function simply returns with the CF
        flag clear and AH=00h.


Function 0C0h   Get System Configuration      (XT after 1/10/86, PC Convertible,
                                               XT/286, AT, PS/2)
entry   AH      0C0h
return  CF      set     if BIOS doesn't support call
        ES:BX   pointer to ROM system descriptor table
          bytes 00h-01h number of bytes in the following table (norm. 16 bytes)
                02h     system ID byte; see Chapter 2 for interpretation
                03h     secondary ID distingushes between AT and XT/286, etc.
                04h     BIOS revision level, 0 for 1st release, 1 for 2nd, etc.
                05h     feature information byte
                   bits 0       reserved
                        1       Micro Channel bus (instead of ISA or EISA)
                        2       extended BIOS area allocated at 640k
                        3       wait for external event supported (int 15fn41)
                                 used on Convertible; reserved on PS/2 systems
                        4       kbd intrcpt:int 15h, fn 04h called upon int 09h
                        5       realtime clock installed
                        6       second 8259 installed (cascaded IRQ2)
                        7       DMA channel 3 - used by hard disk BIOS
                06h     unknown (set to 0) (reserved by IBM)
                07h     unknown (set to 0) (reserved by IBM)
                08h     unknown (set to 0)
                09h     unknown (set to 0) (Award BIOS copyright here)
note 1) Int 15h is also used for the Multitask Hook on PS/2 machines. No
        register settings available yet.
     2) The 1/10/86 XT BIOS returns an incorrect value for the feature byte.
     3) Novell documents some versions of Netware prior to 2.2 as having
        problems on PS/2 machines due to a bug which did not return from the
        interrupt correctly.
     4) Some AMI BIOSes do not support this function. (early Dell machines)


Function 0C1h   Return Extended BIOS Data Area Segment Address         (PS/2)
entry   AH      0C1h
return  CF      set on error
        ES      segment of XBIOS data area
note 1) The XBIOS Data Area is allocated at the high end of conventional memory
        during the POST (Power-On-Self-Test) sequence.
     2) The word at 0040:0013h (memory size) is updated to reflect the reduced
        amount of memory available for DOS and application programs.
     3) The 1st byte in the XBIOS Data Area is initialized to its length in K.
     4) A program can determine whether the XBIOS Data Area exists by using
        int 15h/fn 0C0h.


Function 0C2h   Pointing Device BIOS Interface      (DesQview 2.x)    (PS/2)
entry   AH      0C2h
        AL      00h     Enable/Disable Pointing Device
                        BH      00h     disable
                                01h     enable
                01h     Reset Pointing Device
                         Resets the system's mouse or other pointing device,
                        sets the sample rate, resolution, and other
                        characteristics to their default values.
                        return  BH      device ID (0=first)
                        note 1) After a reset operation, the state of the
                                 pointing device is as follows:
                                 disabled;
                                 sample rate at 100 reports per second;
                                 resolution at 4 counts per millimeter;
                                 scaling at 1 to 1.
                             2) The data package size is unchanged by this fn.
                             3) Apps can use the fn 0C2h subfunctions to
                                initialize the pointing device to other parms,
                                then enable the device with fn 00h.
                             4) BL is altered on return.
                02h     Set Sampling Rate
                        BH      00h     10/second
                                01h     20/second
                                02h     40/second
                                03h     60/second
                                04h     80/second
                                05h     100/second  (default)
                                06h     200/second
                03h     Set Pointing Device Resolution
                        BH      00h     one count per mm
                                01h     two counts per mm
                                02h     four counts per mm  (default)
                                03h     eight counts per mm
                04h     Get Pointing Device Type
                        return  BH      ID code for the mouse or other pointing
                                        device
                05h     Initialize Pointing Device Interface
                         Sets the data package size for the system's mouse or
                        other pointing device, and initializes the resolution,
                        sampling rate, and scaling to their default values.
                        BH      data package size (1 - 8 bytes)
                        note    After this operation, the state of the pointing
                                device is as follows:
                                a) disabled;
                                b) sample rate at 100 reports per second;
                                c) resolution at 4 counts per millimeter;
                                d) scaling set at 1 to 1.
                06h     Get Status or Set Scaling Factor
                         Returns the current status of the system's mouse or
                        other pointing device or sets the device's scaling
                        factor.
                        BH      00h     return device status
                                return  BL      status byte
                                  bits  0       set if right button pressed
                                        1       reserved
                                        2       set if left button pressed
                                        3       reserved
                                        4       0       1:1 scaling
                                                1       2:1 scaling
                                        5       0       device disabled
                                                1       device enabled
                                        6       0       stream mode
                                                1       remote mode
                                        7       reserved
                                        CL      resolution
                                                00h     1 count per millimeter
                                                01h     2 counts per millimeter
                                                02h     4 counts per millimeter
                                                03h     8 counts per millimeter
                                        DL      sample rate (hex count)
                                                0Ah     10  reports per second
                                                14h     20  reports per second
                                                28h     40  reports per second
                                                3Ch     60  reports per second
                                                50h     80  reports per second
                                                64h     100 reports per second
                                                0C8h    200 reports per second
                                01h     set scaling to 1:1
                                02h     set scaling to 2:1
                07h     Set Pointing Device Handler Address
                         Notifies BIOS pointing device driver of the address
                        for a routine to be called each time pointing device
                        data is available.
                        ES:BX   address of user device handler
                        return  AL      00h
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status
                00h     successful
                01h     invalid function
                02h     invalid input
                03h     interface error
                04h     need to resend
                05h     no device handler installed
note 1) The values in BH for those functions that take it as input are stored
        in different locations for each subfunction.
     2) The user's handler for pointing device data is entered via a far call
        with four parameters on the stack:
        SS:SP+0Ah    status
        SS:SP+08h    x coordinate
        SS:SP+06h    y coordinate
        SS:SP+04h    z coordinate (always 0)
         The handler must exit via a far return without removing the parameters
        from the stack.
     3) The status parameter word passed to the user's handler is interpreted
        as follows:
        bits    0       left button pressed
                1       right button pressed
                2-3     reserved
                4       sign of x data is negative
                5       sign of y data is negative
                6       x data has overflowed
                7       y data has overflowed
                8-0Fh   reserved


Function 0C3h   Enable/Disable Watchdog Timeout                 (PS/2 50+)
entry   AH      0C3h
        AL      00h     disable watchdog
                01h     enable watchdog
                        BX      timer counter
return  CF      set on error
note 1) The watchdog timer generates an NMI.
     2) This would be subject to protection with a real OS so temporary masters
        would not be able to seize the bus forever.


Function 0C4h   Programmable Option Select                      (PS/2 50+)
entry   AH      0C4h
        AL      00h     return base POS register address
                01h     enable slot
                        BL      slot number
                02h     enable adapter
return  CF      set on error
        DX      base POS register address (if function 00h)
note 1) Fn 00h returns the base Programmable Option Select register address,
        enables a slot for setup, or enables an adapter.
     2) Valid on machines with Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) bus only.
     3) After a slot is enabled with fn 01h, specific information can be
        obtained for the adapter in that slot by performing port input
        operations:
        Port    Function
        100h    MCA ID (low byte)
        101h    MCA ID (high byte)
        102h    Option Select Byte 1
            bit 0       0       if disabled
                        1       if enabled
        103h    Option Select Byte 2
        104h    Option Select Byte 3
        105h    Option Select Byte 4
                bits 6-7 are channel check indicators
        106h    Subaddress Extension (low byte)
        107h    Subaddress Extension (high byte)


Function 0C5h   Used by PS/2 Model 50+ and Olivetti MCA machines
                Used by Desqview 2.2
                Used by Lotus 123 Release 2.2
                Used by Microsoft Word 5.0
note    Functions unknown. Reported by InfoWorld Nov 13 1989's Micro Channel
        386 test as a conflict between the above software packages. InfoWorld
        said that Quarterdeck (Desqview) was working on a fix for their
        product. No other information.


Function 0DEh   DesQview Services                             (DesQview)


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 16h  Keyboard I/O                                            3**9  
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0058h)       Access the keyboard. Scancodes are found in Appendix 1. ASCII
                codes are found in Appendix 2.

                IBM's original keyboard layout is referred to as the 84-key
                or "old style". It has the function keys on the left and an
                embedded cursor/numeric keypad on the right. The 101-key "new
                style" or "enhanced" keyboard (such as used on the PS/2s) adds
                several keys. The early BIOS will not detect the new scancodes
                and the new BIOS for some reason added new function calls for
                this purpose instead of enhancing the old ones. This causes
                some hassle when writing programs which need to support both
                keyboards fully. Most programs limit themselves to the 84-key
                functions in the interest of backward compatibility.

                The SWITCHES CONFIG.SYS command forces DOS 4.0 to use the
                standard int 16h requests for keyboard I/O rather than the
                extended int 16h requests.

                The DOS KEYB command does not hook into the BIOS. It is a total
                replacement for the BIOS int9 driver. The only good thing about
                this is that you can use 101-key keyboards on old ATs without
                support for enhanced keyboards. KEYB is very peculiar in its
                handling of the keyboard, causing some programs to break. It
                also tends to disable interrupts for a long time while process-
                ing each scan code.

                There are machines such as the Toshiba 5200 which have 84-key
                layouts but "simulate" being 101-key, at least as far as int 16
                goes.  (always good for confusing your software...)


Function  00h   Get Keyboard Input - read the next character in keyboard buffer,
                if no key ready, wait for one.
entry   AH      00h
return  AH      scan code
        AL      ASCII character
note 1) Removes keystroke from buffer (destructive read).
     2) Does not work with the extra keys on the 101-key "enhanced" keyboard.


Function  01h   Check Keystroke Buffer - Do Not Clear
entry   AH      01h
return  ZF      0 (clear) if character in buffer
                1 (set)   if no character in buffer
        AH      scan code of character (if ZF=0)
        AL      ASCII character if applicable
note 1) Keystroke is not removed from buffer. The same character and scan code
        will be returned by the next call to Int 16h/fn 00h.
     2) This call flushes the 101-key codes from the buffer if they precede
        an 84-key code.


Function  02h   Shift Status - fetch bit flags indicating shift status
entry   AH      02h
return  AL      status byte (same as [0040:0017])
           bits 7       Insert on
                6       CapsLock on
                5       NumLock on
                4       ScrollLock on
                3       Alt key down
                2       Control key down
                1       Left shift (left caps-shift key) down
                0       Right shift (right caps-shift key) down
note    The Keyboard Flags Byte is stored in the BIOS Data Area at 0000:0417h.


Function 03h    Keyboard - Set Repeat Rate            (PCjr, AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      03h
        AL      00h     reset typematic defaults                     (PCjr)
                01h     increase initial delay                       (PCjr)
                02h     decrease repeat rate by 1/2                  (PCjr)
                03h     increase both delays by 1/2                  (PCjr)
                04h     turn off typematic                           (PCjr)
                05h     set typematic rate                           (AT, PS/2)
        BH      00h-03h for delays of 250ms, 500ms, 750ms, or 1 second
                        0,0     250ms
                        0,1     500ms
                        1,0     750ms
                        1,1     1 second
        BL      00h-1Fh for typematic rates of 30cps down to 2cps
                        00000 30     01011 10.9   10101 4.5
                        00001 26.7   01100 10     10110 4.3
                        00010 24     01101 9.2    10111 4
                        00011 21.8   01110 8.6    11000 3.7
                        00100 20     01111 8      11001 3.3
                        00101 18.5   10000 7.5    11010 3
                        00110 17.1   10001 6.7    11011 2.7
                        00111 16     10010 6      11100 2.5
                        01000 15     10011 5.5    11101 2.3
                        01001 13.3   10011 5.5    11110 2.1
                        01010 12     10100 5      11111 2
return  nothing
note 1) Subfunction 05h is available on ATs with ROM BIOS dated 11/15/85 and
        later, the XT/286, and the PS/2.
     2) Subfunction 0 (Return to Default Keyboard State) restores the keyboard
        to its original state. The original state at power-on is typematic on,
        normal initial delay and normal typematic rate.
     3) Subfunction 1 (Increase Initial Delay) increases the delay between the
        first character typed and the burst of typematic characters.
     4) For Subfunctions 0 through 4, each time the typematic rate is changed,
        all previous states are removed.
     5) Some clone keyboards (Northgate Omnikey and Focus) have much higher
        repeat rates for the same bit values.


Function 04h    Keyboard Click Toggle                 (PCjr and Convertible)
entry   AH      04h
        AL      00h     for click off
                01h     for click on
return  nothing


Function 05h    Load Keyboard Buffer            (AT or PS/2 with enhanced kbd)
entry   AH      05h
        CH      scan code
        CL      ASCII character
return  CF      set on error
        AL      00h     success
                01h     if buffer full
note    Places a character and scan code at the end of the keyboard type-ahead
        buffer.


Function 06h    Keyboard Buffer Write                (Fansi-Console to 2.00)
entry   AH      06h
        BX      extended key value to place in typeahead buffer
return  unknown
note    This call may be dropped since it now duplicates function 05h.


Function 07h    Change Shift Key Status              (Fansi-Console to 2.00)
entry   AH      07h
        AL      shift key status value
return  unknown
note    Status byte is same as function 02h.


Function 10h    Get Enhanced Keystroke And Read      (F11, F12 Enhanced Keyb'd)
                (XT/286, PS/2, AT with "Enhanced" keyboard)
entry   AH      10h
return  AH      scan code
        AL      ASCII character if applicable
note 1) Reads a character and scan code from the keyboard type-ahead buffer.
     2) Use this function for the enhanced keyboard instead of int 16h fn 00h.
        It allows applications to obtain the scan codes for the additional F11,
        F12, and cursor control keys.
     3) This is the enhanced version of function 00h.


Function 11h    Check Enhanced Keystroke         (F11-F12 on enhanced keyboard)
                (XT/286, PS/2, AT with "Enhanced" keyboard)
entry   AH      11h
return  ZF      0       (clear) if key pressed
                        AH      scan code
                        AL      ASCII character if applicable
                1       if buffer is empty
note 1) Keystroke is not removed from buffer. The same char and scan code will
        be returned by the next call to Int 16h/fn 10h.
     2) Use this function for the enhanced keyboard instead of int 16h/fn 00h.
        It allows applications to test for the additional F11, F12, and cursor
        control keys.


Function 12h    Extended Get Shift Status         (F11, F12 Enhanced keyboard)
entry   AH      12h
return  AX      status word
                AL bit  0       right Shift key depressed
                        1       left Shift key depressed
                        2       Control key depressed
                        3       Alt key depressed
                        4       ScrollLock state active
                        5       NumLock state active
                        6       CapsLock state active
                        7       insert state is active
                AH bit  0       left Control key pressed
                        1       left Alt key depressed
                        2       right Control key pressed
                        3       right Alt key depressed
                        4       Scroll Lock key depressed
                        5       NumLock key depressed
                        6       CapsLock key depressed
                        7       SysReq key depressed
note    Use this function for the enhanced keyboard instead of int 16h/fn 02h.


Function  70h, 71h, 72h  Internal Functions       (SEAware's FAKEY.COM)
note    FAKEY.COM is a TSR keyboard utility distributed to registered users
        of SEAware products.


Function  75h   Set Tick Count for Scanning       (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      75h
        AL      tick count
return  none
note 1) Sets count of 55ms timer ticks between checks for new screen changes.
     2) pcAnywhere is a program that allows operation of a remote machine
        over a serial link.


Function  76h   Set Error Checking Mode           (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      76h
        AL      error checking type
                00h     none
                01h     fast
                02h     slow
return  none


Function  77h   reserved                          (pcAnywhere 2.00)
pcAnywhere API - reserved


Function  78h   Log Off                           (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AL      00h     wait for another call
                01h     exit but remain TSR
                02h     automatic mode - watches DTR
                0FFh    leave in current operating mode (pcAnywhere 2.1)
return  none


Function  79h   Installation Check                (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      79h
        AL      00h     installation check
return  AX      0FFFFh  resident and active
                0FFFEh  resident but not active
                0FFFDh  resident TSR
                0FFFCh  automatic mode
                any other value - not resident


Function  7Ah   Cancel pcAnywhere Session         (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      7Ah
return  none
note    Leaves pcAnywhere resident but unable to answer another call.


Function  7Bh   Enable/Disable Operation          (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      7Bh
        AL      state
                00h     disabled
                01h     enabled
return  none
note    Remote screen is automatically refreshed when session is enabled.


Function  7Ch   Get Port Configuration            (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      7Ch
return  AH      port number in binary (0-15)
        AL      baud rate
                00h     50
                01h     75
                02h     110
                03h     134.5
                04h     150
                05h     300
                06h     600
                07h     1200
                08h     1800
                09h     2000
                0Ah     2400
                0Bh     4800
                0Ch     7200
                0Dh     9600
                0Fh     19,200


Function  7Dh   Get/Set Terminal Parameters       (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      7Dh
        AL      00h     set parameters
                01h     get parameters
                02h     get configuration header and terminal parameters
        CX:DS   address of Terminal Parameter Block
return  AL      00h     nothing
                01h     current Terminal Parameter Block in CX:DS
                02h     configuration header and Terminal Parameter Block
                        in CX:DS
note    Terminal Parameter Block format:   (1152 bytes) (decimal)
        384 bytes  CRT Control Information
                bytes   function
                1-8     cursor up
               9-16     cursor down
              17-24     cursor left
              25-32     cursor right
              33-40     cursor home
              41-48     clear screen
              49-56     clear to end of line
              57-64     clear to end of page
              65-72     insert line
              73-80     delete line
              81-88     insert character
              89-96     delete character
             97-104     cursor position lead in
            105-112     between row and column
            113-120     after cursor position
            121-128     CRT initialization
        256 bytes  Character Translation Table
                translates ASCII characters from host. Normally changes IBM
                graphics characters to other displayable symbols
        512 bytes  keyboard sequences
            641-644     cursor up
            645-648     cursor down
            649-652     cursor left
            653-656     cursor right
            657-660     home
            661-664     end
            665-668     PgUp
            669-672     PgDn
            673-676     insert
            677-680     delete
            681-684     control-home
            685-688     control-end
            689-692     control-PgUp
            693-696     control-PgDn
            697-700     escape
            701-740     F1...F10
            741-780     sF1...sF10
            781-820     ^F1...^F10
            821-860     aF1...aF10
            861-964     alt A-Z
           965-1004     alt 0-9
          1005-1008     alt =
          1009-1012     alt -
          1013-1016     print screen
          1017-1020     ctrl-left arrow
          1021-1024     ctrl-right arrow
          1025-1120     reserved
          1121-1124     begin conv. mode
          1125-1128     remote printing off
          1129-1132     remote printing on
          1133-1136     backspace
          1137-1140     refresh screen
          1141-1144     send next code
          1145-1148     display top 24 lines
          1149-1152     display bottom 24 lines


Function  7Eh   Serial I/O Through pcAnywhere Port   (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      7Eh
        AL      I/O function
                01h     get port input status
                02h     get port input character
                03h     output character
                04h     hang up phone
        CX      ASCII character to output (fn 03h)
return  (if AL=01h)
        AX      00h     no character ready
                01h     character is available
        (if AL=02h)
        AL      ASCII code received


Function  7Fh   Set Keyboard/Screen Mode            (pcAnywhere 2.00)
entry   AH      7Fh
        AL      parameters
                00h     enable remote keyboard only  |
                01h     enable host keyboard only    |  keyboard group
                02h     enable both keyboards        |

                08h     display top 24 lines         |  screen group
                09h     display bottom 24 lines      |

                10h     Hayes modem                  |
                11h     other modems                 |  modem group
                12h     direct connect               |


Function 0EDh   Borland Turbo Lightning API  (partial)
entry   AH      0EDh
        BH      0EDh
        BL      function
                00h     installation check
                02h     pointer to Lightning internal data structure lobyte
                03h     pointer to Lightning internal data structure hibyte
                04h     load auxiliary dictionary
                06h     autoproof mode
                0Fh     get number of substitutions (segment)
        DS:DI   pointer to string to be processed
return  AX      error code (unknown)
note    I've made several attempts to get a copy of the Turbo Lightning API,
        which was originally supposed to be available for developers in 1985.
        In 1988 Borland sent me a letter saying they were still working on it.
        In late 1989 the Borland rep on BIX told me basically that there were
        no plans for releasing the API any more. The information here was
        dredged from Chris Dunford's LSPELL.PAS interface into Lighting.


Function 0F0h   Set CPU speed                                     (Compaq 386)
entry   AH      0F0h    set speed
        AL      speed
                00h     equivalent to 6 mHz 80286 (COMMON)
                01h     equivalent to 8 mHz 80286 (FAST)
                02h     full 16 mHz (HIGH)
                03h     toggles between 8 mHz-equivalent and speed set by
                        system board switch (AUTO or HIGH)
                04h-07h unknown
                08h     full 16 mHz except 8 mHz-equivalent during floppy disk
                        access
                09h     specify speed directly
                        CX      speed value, 1 (slowest) to 50 (full), 3 ~=8088
return  none?
note 1) Used by Compaq DOS MODE command.


Function 0F1h   Read Current CPU Speed                            (Compaq 386)
entry   AH      0F1h
return  AL      speed code (see function 0F0h above)
                if AL=09h, CX=speed code


Function 0F2h   Determine Attached Keyboard Type                  (Compaq 386)
entry   AH      0F2h
return  AL      type
                00h     if 11-bit AT keyboard is in use
                01h     if 9-bit PC keyboard is in use


Function 0FFh   PC-Tools API
entry   AH      0FFh
other parameters unknown
note    PC-Tools is a Swiss-army-knife software package with an editor, DOS
        shell, cache, disk optimizer, and several other functions from Central
        Point Software.


Function 0FFh   2-The-Max VGA-16 Board
entry   AH      0FFh    query zoom interrupt
return  AL      zoom interrupt number
        AL+1    old BIOS keyboard handler interrupt number
        BX      hot key



Function 0FFh   Programmer Interface to Carbon Copy Plus (5.0)
entry   AH      0FFh
        AL      00h     check connection between CC and CCHELP
return  BL      00h     Carbon Copy not connected to CCHELP
                01h     Carbon Copy is connected to CCHELP

entry   AL      01h     disconnects and resets the line if the Host or CC
                        side is connected to CCHELP

entry   AL      02h     return a pointer to the last phone number dialed by CC
return  ES:DI           dword pointer to ASCIIZ phone number string



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 17h  Printer                                                 3**10 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:005Ch)       access the parallel printer(s)
                AH is changed. All other registers left alone.

                Printer ports vary widely in compatibility, since the original
                IBM MDA's parallel port did not match its own spec.  Many
                parallel ports do not use IRQ7 at all.

                The parallel port on a monochrome adapter is at 3BCh.  The port
                on a parallel printer adapter is at 378h or 278h.  At boot time,
                the BIOS looks at them in the order 3BCh, 378h, 278h, and
                assigns the first port it finds to LPT1, the second to LPT2,
                etc.  If you have a monochrome adapter, LPT1 is probably 3BCh;
                otherwise, it is probably 378h.


Function  00h   Print Character/send AL to printer DX (0, 1, or 2)
entry   AH      00h
        AL      ASCII character code
        DX      printer to be used
                00h     PRN or LPT1
                01h     LPT2
                02h     LPT3
return  AH      status byte
           bits 0       time out
                1       unused
                2       unused
                3       I/O error
                4       printer selected
                5       out of paper
                6       acknowledge
                7       not busy


Function 01h    Initialize Printer - set init line low, send 0Ch to printer DX
entry   AH      01h
        DX      printer port to be initialized (0,1,2)
return  status as below


Function  02h   Printer Status - read status of printer DX into AH
entry   AH      02h
        DX      printer port to be used (0,1,2)
return  AH      status byte
           bits 7       0       busy/paused: the printer cannot immediately
                                take more data because it is in the middle of
                                accepting a character, printing a line, is
                                offline, or it is in error status.
                        1       ready
                6   ACKnowledge line toggled: reflects the state of the ACK
                    line on the printer port at the moment the status was read.
                    ACK is a strobe: it goes low for a very short time (12
                    microseconds on an Epson) when the printer is ready for
                    another character. As far as printer status is concerned,
                    this is useless; it's only useful for something like an
                    interrupt-driven interface. Most of the time, you'll see
                    ACK high (bit 6 on), but occasionally, if you check status
                    just after sending a character, you might see it low.
                    ACK is low when the printer is powered off.
                5   out-of-paper line toggled
                4   printer selected: printer is selected/ready/online. There
                    is usually a button on the printer to control this.
                3   I/O error: offline, out of paper or other error condition
                    such as out of ribbon.
                2   unused
                1   unused
                0   timeout error: printer failed to send ACK and drop busy
                    after being sent a character.
note 1) You can expect to see these states in a properly functioning printer:
        Normal                Offline                Power off
        ======                =======                =========
        not busy/paused       busy/paused            busy/paused
        not out of paper      not out of paper       not out of paper
        selected/online       not selected/online    not selected/online
        not I/O error         I/O error (usually)    I/O error
        not timeout error     not timeout error      not timeout error
     2) Not all printers return the status codes properly. That's OK, not all
        clone BIOS do it right either. If your program depends on the return
        codes, you might want to make the code easily patched or configured
        for nonstandard hardware.


Function   03h  Versa-Spool print spooler
entry   AH      03h     Versa-Spool
        AL      00h     Return Signature
                01h     Toggle Pause
                02h     Clear Buffer
                03h     Request Pause Condition
                04h     Request Free Buffer Space
                05h     Request Total Buffer Size
                06h     Redirect Output to LPT1
                07h     Redirect Output to LPT2
                08h     Redirect Output to LPT3
                09h     Request Output Device
                0Ah     Request Output Speed
                0Bh     Request Device Spooled Status

return  (AH=00h)        AX      1234h   if Versa-Spool is installed
                                        undefined if not installed
        (AH=01h)        AX      0001h   if paused
                                0000h   if resumed
        (AH=02h)        AX      0302h   not cleared
                                0000h   cleared
        (AH=03h)        AX      0001h   if paused
                                0000h   if resumed
        (AH=04h)        AX      remaining buffer space (in Kbytes)
        (AH=05h)        AX      total buffer space (in Kbytes)
        (AH=06h)        AX      nothing
        (AH=07h)        AX      nothing
        (AH=08h)        AX      nothing
        (AH=09h)        AX      printer output (0..2)
        (AH=0Ah)        AX      output speed in CPS
        (AH=0Bh)        AX      0001h   is spooled
                                0000h   otherwise

Function  0C0h  PC Magazine PCSPOOL - get printer status
entry   AH      0C0h
        DX      printer port to be used (0,1,2)
return  ES:BX   address of printer control block
note    PC Magazine, January 15, 1991. (Vol 10, Number 1)


Function  0C1h  PC Magazine PCSPOOL - add pause to spool queue
entry   AH      0C1h
        DX      printer port to be used (0,1,2)
        DS:SI   pointer to ASCIIZ string to display
return  AH      printer status


Function  0C2h  PC Magazine PCSPOOL - flush queue record
entry   AH      0C2h
        DX      printer port to be used (0,1,2)
return  AH      printer status


Function  0C3h  PC Magazine PCSPOOL - cancel printer queue
entry   AH      0C3h
        DX      printer port to be used (0,1,2)
return  AH      printer status


Function  0C4h  PC Magazine PCSPOOL - determine of spooler is active
entry   AH      0C4h
return  DI      0B0BFh  if PCSPOOL is loaded
        SI      segment of the PSP of the active PCSPOOL


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 18h  ROM BASIC                                               3**11 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0060h)       Execute ROM BASIC at address 0F600h:0000h
entry   no parameters used
return  jumps into ROM BASIC on IBM systems
note 1) Often reboots a compatible.
     2) Used by Turbo C 1.5. 2.0 and later do not use it.
     3) On IBM systems, this interrupt is called if disk boot failure occurs.
     4) Video interrupt on DEC Rainbow.
     5) Digital Research's ROM-based implementation of DR-DOS uses int 18h as
        the initial entry vector into the operating system code. Note that
        some clone BIOSes may not properly implement int 18h in the ROM and
        use of DR-DOS ROMs may not always work.
     6) Maxon 286/HD laptop: called by BIOS power management routines to
        communicate with applications.



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 19h  Bootstrap Loader / Extended Memory VDISK ID             3**12 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0064h)
entry   no parameters used
return  none
note 1) Reads track 0, sector 1 into address 0000h:7C00h, then transfers
        control to that address. If no diskette drive available, looks at
        absolute address C:800 for a valid hard disk or other ROM. If none,
        transfers to ROM-BASIC via int 18h or displays loader error message.
     2) Causes reboot of disk system if invoked while running. (no memory test
        performed).
     3) If location 0000:0472h does not contain the value 1234h, a memory test
        (POST) will be performed before reading the boot sector.
     4) VDISK from DOS 3.0+ traps this vector to determine when the CPU has
        shifted from protected mode to real mode. A detailed discussion can
        be found by Ray Duncan in PC Magazine, May 30, 1989.
     5) Reportedly, some versions of DOS 2.x and all versions of DOS 3.x+
        intercept int 19h in order to restore some interrupt vectors DOS takes
        over, in order to put the machine back to a cleaner state for the
        reboot, since the POST will not be run on the int 19h. These vectors
        are reported to be: 02h, 08h, 09h, 0Ah, 0Bh, 0Ch, 0Dh, 0Eh, 70h, 72h,
        73h, 74h, 75h, 76h, and 77h. After restoring these, it restores the
        original int 19h vector and calls int 19h.
     6) The system checks for installed ROMs by searching memory from 0C000h to
        the beginning of the BIOS, in 2k chunks. ROM memory is identified if it
        starts with the word 0AA55h. It is followed a one byte field length of
        the ROM (divided by 512). If ROM is found, the BIOS will call the ROM
        at an offset of 3 from the beginning. This feature was not supported in
        the earliest PC machines. The last task turns control over to the
        bootstrap loader (assuming the floppy controller is operational).
     7) 8255 port 60h bit 0 = 1 if booting from diskette.



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 1Ah  Time of Day                                             3**13 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

(0:0068h)    1) Accesses the PC internal clock.
             2) This interrupt is not supported on some machines, such as
                the HP150 PC.
             3) Some "turbo" BIOSes run the clock slower than normal in order
                to throw off benchmark software, which usually uses int 1Ah
                for timekeeping.
             4) Counts occur at the rate of 1193180/65536 counts/sec (about
                18.2 per second).

Function 00h    Read System Timer Tick Counter                 (except PC)
entry   AH      00h
return  AL      00h     if clock was read or written (via AH=0,1) within the
                        current 24-hour period.
                <>0     midnight was passed since last read
        CX:DX   32-bit tick count (high 16 bits in CX)
note 1) The returned value is the cumulative number of clock ticks since
        midnight. There are 18.2 clock ticks per second, or one every 54.92ms.
        When the counter reaches 1,573,040, it is cleared to zero, and the
        rollover flag is set.
     2) The rollover flag is cleared by this function call, so the flag will
        only be returned nonzero once per day.
     3) Int 1Ah/fn 01h can be used to set the counter to an arbitrary 32 bit
        value.
     4) This function does not return seconds/100 in DL. The best you can do
        is set it to zero (or any value <=99). This means that your DOS clock
        could be up to 1 second off from the BIOS clock, however the effect is
        not cumulative.


Function 01h    Set Clock Tick Counter Value                    (except PC)
entry   AH      01h
        CX:DX   32-bit high word/low word count of timer ticks
return  none
note 1) The clock ticks are incremented by timer interrupt at 18.2065 times
        per second or 54.9254 milliseconds/count. Therefore:
                counts per second   18      (12h)
                counts per minute   1092    (444h)
                counts per hour     65543   (10011h)
                counts per day      1573040 (1800B0h)
     2) The counter is zeroed when system is rebooted.
     3) Stores a 32-bit value in the clock tick counter.
     4) The rollover flag is cleared by this call.


Function 02h    Read Real Time Clock Time                       (AT and after)
entry   AH      02h
return  CH      hours in BCD
        CL      minutes in BCD
        DH      seconds in BCD
        DL      00h     standard time
                01h     daylight savings time
        CF      0       if clock running
                1       if clock not operating
note 1) Reads the current time from the CMOS time/date chip.
     2) Also for Leading Edge Model M.
     3) According to Phoenix this call will fail if the BIOS is "updating" its
        clock value. You should check the carry flag and retry if it is set
        following the call.


Function 03h    Set Real Time Clock Time                        (AT and after)
entry   AH      03h
        CH      hours in BCD
        CL      minutes in BCD
        DH      seconds in BCD
        DL      0 (clear) if standard time
                1 (set)   if daylight savings time option
return  none
note 1) Sets the time in the CMOS time/date chip.
     2) Also for Leading Edge Model M.


Function 04h    Read Real Time Clock Date                       (AT and after)
entry   AH      04h
return  CH      century in BCD (19 or 20)
        CL      year in BCD
        DH      month in BCD
        DL      day in BCD
        CF      0 (clear) if clock is running
                1 (set)   if clock is not operating
note 1) Reads the current date from the CMOS time/date chip.
     2) Also for Leading Edge Model M.


Function 05h    Set Real Time Clock Date                        (AT and after)
entry   AH      05h
        CH      century in BCD (19 or 20)
        CL      year in BCD
        DH      month in BCD
        DL      day in BCD
return  none
note 1) Sets the date in the CMOS time/date chip.
     2) Also for Leading Edge Model M.


Function 06h    Set Real Time Clock Alarm                       (AT and after)
entry   AH      06h
        CH      hours in BCD
        CL      minutes in BCD
        DH      seconds in BCD
return  CF      set if alarm already set or clock inoperable
note 1) Sets alarm in the CMOS date/time chip. Int 4Ah occurs at specified
        alarm time every 24hrs until reset with Int 1Ah/fn 07h.
     2) A side effect of this function is that the clock chip's interrupt
        level (IRQ8) is enabled.
     3) Only one alarm may be active at any given time.
     4) The program using this function must place the address of its interrupt
        handler for the alarm in the vector for Int 4Ah.


Function 07h    Reset Real Time Clock Alarm                     (AT and after)
entry   AH      07h
return  none
note 1) Cancels any pending alarm request on the CMOS date/time chip.
     2) This function does not disable the clock chip's interrupt level (IRQ8).


Function 08h    Set Real Time Clock Activated Power On Mode     (Convertible)
entry   AH      08h
        CH      hours in BCD
        CL      minutes in BCD
        DH      seconds in BCD


Function 09h    Read Real Time Clock Alarm Time and Status
                                                (Convertible and PS/2 Model 30)
entry   AH      09h
return  CH      hours in BCD
        CL      minutes in BCD
        DH      seconds in BCD
        DL      alarm status:
                00h     if alarm not enabled
                01h     if alarm enabled but will not power up system
                02h     if alarm will power up system


Function 0Ah    Read System-Timer Day Counter                          (PS/2)
entry   AH      0Ah
return  CF      set on error
        CX      count of days since Jan 1,1980
note    Returns the contents of the system's day counter.


Function 0Bh    Set System-Timer Day Counter                           (PS/2)
entry   AH      0Bh
        CX      count of days since Jan 1,1980
return  CF      set on error
note    Stores an arbitrary value in the system's day counter.


Function 80h    Set Up Sound Multiplexor                (PCjr) (Tandy 1000?)
entry   AH      80h
        AL      sound source
                00h     source is 8253 timer chip, channel 2
                01h     source is cassette input
                02h     source is I/O channel "audio in" line
                03h     source is TI sound generator chip
return  none
note    Sets up the source for tones that will appear on the PCjr's Audio Out
        bus line or RF modulator.


Function 1Ah    Read Time and Date                                 (AT&T 6300)
entry   AH      0FEh
return  BX      days count (1=Jan 1, 1984)
        CH      hours
        CL      minutes
        DH      seconds
        DL      hundredths
note    Day count in BX is unique to AT&T/Olivetti computers.



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 1Bh  Control-Break                                           3**14 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:006Ch)       This interrupt is called when the keyboard handler of the IBM
                machines detects Ctrl and Break pressed at the same time. DOS
                normally point this interrupt at its own Ctrl-Break handler.

note 1) If the break occurred while processing an interrupt, one or more
        end of interrupt commands must be send to the 8259 Programmable
        Interrupt Controller.
     2) All I/O devices should be reset in case an operation was underway at
        the time.
     3) It is normally pointed to an IRET during system initialization so that
        it does nothing, but some programs change it to return a Ctrl-C scan
        code and thus invoke int 23h.



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 1Ch  Timer Tick                                              3**15 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0070h)
note 1) Taken 18.2065 times per second by the int 08h interrupt.
     2) Normally vectors to dummy IRET unless PRINT.COM has been installed.
     3) If an application moves the interrupt pointer, it is the responsibility
        of that application to save and restore all registers that may be
        modified.
     4) returns values at absolute address 40:6x (BIOS Data Area); number of
        ticks since midnight
        40:6C   word    timer counter high word
        40:6E   word    timer counter low word
     5) Ventura Publisher 2.0 grabs this interrupt and does not pass subsequent
        vector reassignments along. This causes problems with some TSRs and
        network software.
     6) When installing a user interrupt for int 1Ch, the external interrupts
        must be disabled before the vector is altered. If a timer interrupt
        occurs between the setting of the offset and segment, an incorrect
        address will result.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 1Dh  Vector of Video Initialization Parameters               3**16 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0074h)       This doubleword address points to 3 sets of 16-bytes containing
                data to initialize for video modes for video modes 0 & 1 (40
                column), 2 & 3 (80 column), and 4, 5 & 6 (graphics) on the
                Motorola 6845 CRT controller chip.
 6845 registers:
        R0      horizontal total                (horizontal sync in characters)
        R1      horizontal displayed                      (characters per line)
        R2      horizontal sync position           (move display left or right)
        R3      sync width         (vertical and horizontal pulse: 4-bits each)
        R4      vertical total                          (total character lines)
        R5      vertical adjust                (adjust for 50 or 60 Hz refresh)
        R6      vertical displayed                   (lines of chars displayed)
        R7      vertical sync position               (lines shifted up or down)
        R8      interlace (bits 4 and 5) and skew (bits 6 and 7)
        R9      max scan line addr               (scan lines per character row)
        R10     cursor start                     (starting scan line of cursor)
        R11     cursor stop                        (ending scan line of cursor)
        R12     video memory start address high byte                   (6 bits)
        R13     video memory start address low byte                    (8 bits)
        R14     cursor address high byte                               (6 bits)
        R15     cursor address low byte                                (8 bits)

 6845 Video Init Tables:
        table for modes 0 and 1   \
        table for modes 2 and 3    \ each table is 16 bytes long and
        table for modes 4,5, and 6 / contains values for 6845 registers
        table for mode 7          /
      4 words   size of video RAM for modes 0/1, 2/3, 4/5, and 6/7
      8 bytes   number of columns in each mode
      8 bytes   video controller mode byte for each mode
note 1) There are 4 separate tables, and all 4 must be initialized if all
        video modes will be used.
     2) The power-on initialization code of the computer points this vector
        to the ROM BIOS video routines.
     3) IBM recommends that if this table needs to be modified, it should be
        copied into RAM and only the necessary changes made.




旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 1Eh  Vector of Diskette Controller Parameters                3**17 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0078h)       Dword address points to data base table that is used by BIOS.
                Default location is at 0F000:0EFC7h. 11-byte table format:
          bytes:
                00h     4-bit step rate, 4-bit head unload time
                01h     7-bit head load time, 1-bit DMA flag
                02h     54.9254 ms ticks - delay til motor off (36-38 typical)
                03h     sector size:
                        00h     128 bytes
                        01h     256 bytes
                        02h     512 bytes
                        03h     1024 bytes
                04h     last sector on track                  (8 or 9 typical)
                05h     inter-sector gap on read/write            (42 typical)
                06h     data length for DMA transfers           (0FFh typical)
                07h     gap length between sectors for format     (80 typical)
                08h     sector fill byte for format             (0F6h typical)
                09h     head settle time (in milliseconds)  (15 to 25 typical)
                        DOS 1.0   0
                        DOS 1.10  0
                        DOS 2.10  15
                        DOS 3.1   1
                0Ah     motor start time (in 1/8 sec intervals)  (2-4 typical)
                        DOS 2.10  2
note 1) This vector is pointed to the ROM BIOS diskette tables on system
        initialization
     2) IBM recommends that if this table needs to be modified, it should be
        copied into RAM and only the necessary changes made.
     3) Some versions of DOS 3.2 may contain a bug. DOS 3.2 assumes that the
        dword at 0070:0F37 contains the address of the diskette parameter
        block and changes values in that block. The location does contain a
        copy of the value at 0:78 (int 1Eh, DISK_POINTER) if DOS is booted from
        diskette, but when booted from the hard disk, the location contains
        0:0. This leads to strange things, especially when running under a
        debugger since DOS overwrites parts of the interrupt vectors for
        interrupts 1 to 3. The solution to the problem is to either upgrade
        to DOS 3.3 or to copy the disk parameter vector to 70:0F37 before
        running or at the start of your program.



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 1Fh  Ptr to Graphics Character Extensions (Graphics Set 2)   3**18 
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:007Ch)       This is the pointer to data used by the ROM video routines to
                display characters above ASCII 127 while in CGA medium and high
                res graphics modes.

note 1) Doubleword address points to 1K table composed of 28 8-byte character
        definition bit-patterns. First byte of each entry is top row, last byte
        is bottom row.
     2) The first 128 character patterns are located in system ROM.
     3) This vector is set to 000:0 at system initialization.
     4) Used by DOS' external GRAFTABL command.


       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                           C H A P T E R    F O U R

                       DOS INTERRUPTS AND FUNCTION CALLS

       note: The registered version of this chapter is twice this size.



DOS REGISTERS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 DOS uses the following registers, pointers, and flags when it executes
interrupts and function calls:
旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
쿒ENERAL REGISTERS   register                   definition                   
                   쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                       AX      accumulator (16 bit)                         
                       AH      accumulator high-order byte (8 bit)          
                       AL      accumulator low order byte (8 bit)           
                       BX      base (16 bit)                                
                       BH      base high-order byte (8 bit)                 
                       BL      base low-order byte (8 bit)                  
                       CX      count (16 bit)                               
                       CH      count high order byte (8 bit)                
                       CL      count low order byte (8 bit)                 
                       DX      data (16 bit)                                
                       DH      date high order byte (8 bit)                 
                       DL      data low order byte (8 bit)                  
쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿞EGMENT REGISTERS   register                   definition                   
                   쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                       CS      code  segment (16 bit)                       
                       DS      data  segment (16 bit)                       
                       SS      stack segment (16 bit)                       
                       ES      extra segment (16 bit)                       
쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿔NDEX REGISTERS     register                   definition                   
                   쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                       DI      destination index (16 bit)                   
                       SI      stack       index (16 bit)                   
쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿞EGMENT REGISTERS   register                   definition                   
                   쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                       CS      code  segment (16 bit)                       
                       DS      data  segment (16 bit)                       
                       SS      stack segment (16 bit)                       
                       ES      extra segment (16 bit)                       
쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿔NDEX REGISTERS     register                   definition                   
                   쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                       DI      destination index (16 bit)                   
                       SI      stack       index (16 bit)                   
쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿛OINTERS            register                   definition                   
                   쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                       SP      stack pointer (16 bit)                       
                       BP      base pointer (16 bit)                        
                       IP      instruction pointer (16 bit)                 
쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿑LAGS                   AF, CF, DF, IF, OF, PF, SF, TF, ZF                    
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

 These registers, pointers, and flags are "lowest common denominator" 8088-8086
CPU oriented. DOS makes no attempt to use any of the special or enhanced
instructions availible on the later CPUs which will execute 8088 code, such as
the 80186, 80286, 80386, or NEV V20, V30, V40, or V50.

 When DOS takes control after a function call, it switches to an internal
stack. Registers which are not used to return information (other than AX) are
preserved. The calling program's stack must be large enough to accomodate the
interrupt system - at least 128 bytes in addition to other interrupts.
 DOS actually maintains three stacks -
stack 1: 384 bytes (in DOS 3.1)
         for functions 00h and for 0Dh and up, and for ints 25h and 26h.

stack 2: 384 bytes (in DOS 3.1)
         for function calls 01h through 0Ch.

stack 3: 48 bytes (in DOS 3.1)
         for functions 0Dh and above. This stack is the initial stack used by
         the int 21h handler before it decides which of the other two to use.
         It is also used by function 59h (get extended error), and 01h to 0Ch if
         they are called during an int 24h (critical error) handler. Functions
         33h (get/set break flag), 50h (set process ID), 51h (get process ID)
         and 62h (get PSP address) do not use any DOS stack under DOS 3.x
         (under 2.x, 50h and 51h use stack number 2).

 IBM and Microsoft made a change back in DOS 3.0 or 3.1 to reduce the size of
DOS. They reduced the space allocated for scratch areas when interrupts are
being processed. The default seems to vary with the DOS version and the
machine, but 8 stack frames seems to ring a bell. That means that if you get
more than 8 interrupts at the same time, clock, disk, printer spooler,
keyboard, com port, etc., the system will crash. It seems to happen usually on
a network. STACKS=16,256 means allow 16 interrupts to interrupt each other and
allow 256 bytes for each for scratch area. Eight is marginal.

 DOS 3.2 does some different stack switching than previous versions. The
interrupts which are switched are 02h, 08h, 09h, 0Ah, 0Bh, 0Ch, 0Dh, 0Eh, 70h,
72h, 73h, 74h, 75h, 76h, and 77h. DOS 3.2 has a special check in the
initialization code for a PCjr and don't enable stack switching on that machine.



INTERRUPTS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 Microsoft recommends that a program wishing to examine or set the contents of
any interrupt vector use the DOS function calls 35h and 25h provided for those
purposes and avoid referencing the interrupt vector locations directly.
 DOS reserves interrupt numbers 20h to 3Fh for its own use. This means absolute
memory locations 80h to 0FFh are reserved by DOS. The defined interrupts are as
follows with all values in hexadecimal.


旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 21h  Function Call Request                                         
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:0084h)
 DOS provides a wide variety of function calls for character device I/O, file
management, memory management, date and time functions,execution of other
programs, and more. They are grouped as follows:

          call              description
        00h             program terminate
        01h-0Ch         character device I/O, CP/M compatibility format
        0Dh-24h         file management,      CP/M compatibility format
        25h-26h         nondevice functions,  CP/M compatibility format
        27h-29h         file management,      CP/M compatibility format
        2Ah-2Eh         nondevice functions,  CP/M compatibility format
        2Fh-38h         extended functions
        39h-3Bh         directory group
        3Ch-46h         extended file management
        47h             directory group
        48h-4Bh         extended memory management
        54h-57h         extended functions
        5Eh-5Fh         networking
        60h-62h         extended functions
        63h-66h         enhanced foreign language support


List of DOS services:   * = undocumented
        00h     terminate program
        01h     get keyboard input
        02h     display character to STDIO
        03h     get character from STDAUX
        04h     output character to STDAUX
        05h     output character to STDPRN
        06h     direct console I/O - keyboard to screen
        07h     get char from std I/O without echo
        08h     get char from std I/O without echo, checks for ^C
        09h     display a string to STDOUT
        0Ah     buffered keyboard input
        0Bh     check STDIN status
        0Ch     clear keyboard buffer and invoke keyboard function
        0Dh     flush all disk buffers
        0Eh     select disk
        0Fh     open file with File Control Block
        10h     close file opened with File Control Block
        11h     search for first matching file entry
        12h     search for next matching file entry
        13h     delete file specified by File Control Block
        14h     sequential read from file specified by File Control Block
        15h     sequential write to file specified by File Control Block
        16h     find or create firectory entry for file
        17h     rename file specified by file control block
        18h*    unknown
        19h     return current disk drive
        1Ah     set disk transfer area (DTA)
        1Bh     get current disk drive FAT
        1Ch     get disk FAT for any drive
        1Dh*    unknown
        1Eh*    unknown
        1Fh*    read DOS disk block, default drive
        20h*    unknown
        21h     random read from file specified by FCB
        22h     random write to file specified by FCB
        23h     return number of records in file specified by FCB
        24h     set relative file record size field for file specified by FCB
        25h     set interrupt vector
        26h     create new Program Segment Prefix (PSP)
        27h     random file block read from file specified by FCB
        28h     random file block write to file specified by FCB
        29h     parse the command line for file name
        2Ah     get the system date
        2Bh     set the system date
        2Ch     get the system time
        2Dh     set the system time
        2Eh     set/clear disk write VERIFY
        2Fh     get the Disk Transfer Address (DTA)
        30h     get DOS version number
        31h     TSR, files opened remain open
        32h*    read DOS Disk Block
        33h     get or set Ctrl-Break
        34h*    INDOS  Critical Section Flag
        35h     get segment and offset address for an interrupt
        36h     get free disk space
        37h*    get/set option marking character (SWITCHAR)
        38h     return country-dependent information
        39h     create subdirectory
        3Ah     remove subdirectory
        3Bh     change current directory
        3Ch     create and return file handle
        3Dh     open file and return file handle
        3Eh     close file referenced by file handle
        3Fh     read from file referenced by file handle
        40h     write to file referenced by file handle
        41h     delete file
        42h     move file pointer (move read-write pointer for file)
        43h     set/return file attributes
        44h     device IOCTL (I/O control) info
        45h     duplicate file handle
        46h     force a duplicate file handle
        47h     get current directory
        48h     allocate memory
        49h     release allocated memory
        4Ah     modify allocated memory
        4Bh     load or execute a program
        4Ch     terminate prog and return to DOS
        4Dh     get return code of subprocess created by 4Bh
        4Eh     find first matching file
        4Fh     find next matching file
        50h*    set new current Program Segment Prefix (PSP)
        51h*    puts current PSP into BX
        52h*    pointer to the DOS list of lists
        53h*    translates BPB (Bios Parameter Block, see below)
        54h     get disk verification status (VERIFY)
        55h*    create PSP: similar to function 26h
        56h     rename a file
        57h     get/set file date and time
        58h     get/set allocation strategy             (DOS 3.x)
        59h     get extended error information
        5Ah     create a unique filename
        5Bh     create a DOS file
        5Ch     lock/unlock file contents
        5Dh*    network
        5Eh*    network printer
        5Fh*    network redirection
        60h*    parse pathname
        61h*    unknown
        62h     get program segment prefix (PSP)
        63h*    get lead byte table                     (DOS 2.25)
        64h*    unknown
        65h     get extended country information        (DOS 3.3)
        66h     get/set global code page table          (DOS 3.3)
        67h     set handle count                        (DOS 3.3)
        68h     commit file                             (DOS 3.3)
        69h     disk serial number                      (DOS 4.0)
        6Ah     unknown
        6Bh     unknown
        6Ch     extended open/create                    (DOS 4.0)


CALLING THE DOS SERVICES쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The DOS services are invoked by placing the number of the desired function in
register AH, subfunction in AL, setting the other registers to any specific
requirements of the function, and invoking int 21h.

 On return, the requested service will be performed if possible. Most codes
will return an error; some return more information. Details are contained in
the listings for the individual functions. Extended error return may be
obtained by calling function 59h (see 59h).

 Register settings listed are the ones used by DOS. Some functions will return
with garbage values in unused registers. Do not test for values in unspecified
registers; your program may exhibit odd behavior.

 DS:DX pointers are the data segment register (DS) indexed to the DH and DL
registers (DX). DX always contains the offset address, DS contains the segment
address.

 The File Control Block services (FCB services) were part of DOS 1.0. Since
the release of DOS 2.0, Microsoft has recommended that these services not be
used. A set of considerably more enhanced services (handle services) were
introduced with DOS 2.0. The handle services provide support for wildcards and
subdirectories, and enhanced error detection via function 59h.

 The data for the following calls was compiled from various Intel, Microsoft,
IBM, and other publications. There are many subtle differences between MSDOS
and PCDOS and between the individual versions. Differences between the
versions are noted as they occur.

 There are various ways of calling the DOS functions. For all methods, the
function number is loaded into register AH, subfunctions and/or parameters are
loaded into AL or other registers, and call int 21 by one of the following
methods:
 A) call interrupt 21h directly  (the recommended procedure)
 B) perform a long call to offset 50h in the program's PSP.
     1) This method will not work under DOS 1.x
     2) Though recommended by Microsoft for DOS 2.0, this method takes more
        time and is no longer recommended.
 C) place the function number in CL and perform an intrasegment call to
    location 05h in the current code segment. This location contains a long
    call to the DOS function dispatcher.
     1) IBM recommends this method be used only when using existing programs
        written for different calling conventions. (such as converting CP/M
        programs). This method should be avoided unless you have some specific
        use for it.
     2) AX is always destroyed by this method.
     3) This method is valid only for functions 00h-24h.

 There are also various ways of exiting from a program. (assuming it is not
intended to be a TSR). All methods except call 4Ch must ensure that the
segment register contains the segment address of the PSP.
 A) Interrupt 21h, function 4Ch (Terminate with Result Code). This is the
    "official" recommended method of returning to DOS.
 B) Interrupt 21h, function 00h (Exit Program). This is the early style
    int 21 function call. It simply calls int 20h.
 C) Interrupt 20h (Exit).
 D) A JMP instruction to offset 00h (int 20h vector) in the Program Segment
    Prefix. This is just a roundabout method to call int 20h. This method
    was set up in DOS 1.0 for ease of conversion for CP/M programs. It is no
    longer recommended for use.
 E) A JMP instruction to offset 05h (int 21 vector) in the Program Segment
    Prefix, with AH set to 00h or 4Ch. This is another CP/M type function.




INT 21H   DOS services
          Function (hex)

* Indicates Functions not documented in the IBM DOS Technical Reference.
 Note some functions have been documented in other Microsoft or licensed OEM
documentation.


Function  00h   Terminate Program
      Ends program, updates, FAT, flushes buffers, restores registers
entry   AH      00h
        CS      segment address of PSP
return  none
note 1) Program must place the segment address of the PSP control block in CS
        before calling this function.
     2) The terminate, ctrl-break,and critical error exit addresses (0Ah, 0Eh,
        12h) are restored to the values they had on entry to the terminating
        program, from the values saved in the program segment prefix at
        locations PSP:000Ah, PSP:000Eh, and PSP:0012h.
     3) All file buffers are flushed and the handles opened by the process are
        closed.
     4) Any files that have changed in length and are not closed are not
        recorded properly in the directory.
     5) Control transfers to the terminate address.
     6) This call performs exactly the same function as int 20h.
     7) All memory used by the program is returned to DOS.


Function  01h     Get Keyboard Input
        Waits for char at STDIN (if nescessary), echoes to STDOUT
entry   AH      01h
return  AL      ASCII character from STDIN (8 bits)
note 1) Checks char for Ctrl-C, if char is Ctrl-C, executes int 23h.
     2) For function call 06h, extended ASCII codes require two function calls.
        The first call returns 00h as an indicator that the next call will be an
        extended ASCII code.
     3) Input and output are redirectable. If redirected, there is no way to
        detect EOF.


Function  02h   Display Output
      Outputs char in DL to STDOUT
entry   AH      02h
        DL      8 bit data (usually ASCII character)
return  none
note 1) If char is 08 (backspace) the cursor is moved 1 char to the left
        (nondestructive backspace).
     2) If Ctrl-C is detected after input, int 23h is executed.
     3) Input and output are redirectable. If redirected, there is no way to
        detect disk full.


Function  03h   Auxiliary Input
      Get (or wait until) character from STDAUX
entry   AH      03h
return  AL      char from auxiliary device
note 1) AUX, COM1, COM2 is unbuffered and not interrupt driven
     2) This function call does not return status or error codes. For greater
        control it is recommended that you use ROM BIOS routine (int 14h) or
        write an AUX device driver and use IOCTL.
     3) At startup, PC-DOS initializes the first auxiliary port (COM1) to 2400
        baud, no parity, one stop bit, and an 8-bit word. MSDOS may differ.
     4) If Ctrl-C is has been entered from STDIN, int 23h is executed.


Function  04h   Auxiliary Output
      Write character to STDAUX
entry   AH      04h
        DL      char to send to AUX
return  none
note 1) This function call does not return status or error codes. For greater
        control it is recommended that you use ROM BIOS routine (int 14h) or
        write an AUX device driver and use IOCTL.
     2) If Ctrl-C is has been entered from STDIN, int 23h is executed.
     3) Default is COM1 unless redirected by DOS.
     4) If the device is busy, this function will wait until it is ready.


Function  05h   Printer Output
      Write character to STDPRN
entry   AL      05h
        DL      character to send
return  none
note 1) If Ctrl-C is has been entered from STDIN, int 23h is executed.
     2) Default is PRN or LPT1 unless redirected with the MODE command.
     3) If the printer is busy, this function will wait until it is ready.


Function  06h   Direct Console I/O
      Get character from STDIN; echo character to STDOUT
entry   AH      06h
        DL      0FFh for console input, or 00h-0FEh for console output
return  ZF      set   (1) = no character
                clear (0) = character recieved
        AL      character
note 1) Extended ASCII codes require two function calls. The first call returns
        00h to indicate the next call will return an extended code.
     2) If DL is not 0FFh, DL is assumed to have a valid character that is
        output to STDOUT.
     3) This function does not check for Ctrl-C or Ctrl-PrtSc.
     4) Does not echo input to screen
     5) If I/O is redirected, EOF or disk full cannot be detected.


Function  07h   Direct Console Input Without Echo         (does not check BREAK)
      Get or wait for char at STDIN, returns char in AL
entry   AH      07h
return  AL      character from standard input device
note 1) Extended ASCII codes require two function calls. The first call returns
        00h to indicate the next call will return an extended code.
     2) No checking for Ctrl-C or Ctrl-PrtSc is done.
     3) Input is redirectable.


Function  08h   Console Input Without Echo                (checks BREAK)
      Get or Wait for char at STDIN, return char in AL
entry   AH      08h
return  AL      char from standard input device
note 1) Char is checked for ctrl-C. If ctrl-C is detected, executes int 23h.
     2) For function call 08h, extended ASCII characters require two function
        calls. The first call returns 00h to signify an extended ASCII code.
        The next call returns the actual code.
     3) Input is redirectable. If redirected, there is no way to check EOF.


Function  09h   Print String
      Outputs Characters in the Print String to the STDOUT
entry   AH      09h
        DS:DX   pointer to the Character String to be displayed
return  none
note 1) The character string in memory must be terminated by a $ (24h)
        The $ is not displayed.
     2) Output to STDOUT is the same as function call 02h.


Function  0Ah   Buffered Keyboard Input
      Reads characters from STDIN and places them in the buffer beginning
      at the third byte.
entry   AH      0Ah
        DS:DX   pointer to an input buffer
return  none
note 1) Min buffer size = 1, max = 255
     2) Char is checked for ctrl-C. If ctrl-C is detected, executes int 23h.
     3) Format of buffer DX:
        byte       contents
         1      Maximum number of chars the buffer will take, including CR.
                Reading STDIN and filling the buffer continues until a carriage
                return ( or 0Dh) is read. If the buffer fills to one less
                than the maximum number the buffer can hold, each additional
                number read is ignored and ASCII 7 (BEL) is output to the
                display until a carriage return is read. (you must set this
                value)
         2      Actual number of characters received, excluding the carriage
                return, which is always the last character. (the function sets
                this value)
         3-n    Characters received are placed into the buffer starting here.
                Buffer must be at least as long as the number in byte 1.
     4) Input is redirectable. If redirected, there is no way to check EOF.
     5) The string may be edited with the standard DOS editing commands as it
        is being entered.
     6) Extended ASCII characters are stored as 2 bytes, the first byte being
        zero.


Function  0Bh   Check Standard Input (STDIN) status
      Checks for character availible at STDIN
entry   AH      0Bh
return  AL      0FFh    if a character is availible from STDIN
                00h     if no character is availible from STDIN
note 1) Checks for Ctrl-C. If Ctrl-C is detected, int 23h is executed
     2) Input can be redirected.
     3) Checks for character only, it is not read into the application
     4) IBM reports that this call does not work properly under the DOSSHELL
        program in DOS 4.00 and 4.01. DOSSHELL will return all zeroes. This
        function works correctly from the command line or application.


Function  0Ch   Clear Keyboard Buffer & Invoke a Keyboard Function       (FCB)
      Dumps buffer, executes function in AL (01h,06h,07h,08h,0Ah only)
entry   AH      0Ch
        AL      function number (must be 01h, 06h, 07h, 08h, or 0Ah)
return  AL      00h     buffer was flushed, no other processing performed
                other   any other value has no meaning
note 1) Forces system to wait until a character is typed.
     2) Flushes all typeahead input, then executes function specified by AL (by
        moving it to AH and repeating the int 21 call).
     3) If AL contains a value not in the list above, the keyboard buffer is
        flushed and no other action is taken.


Function  0Dh   Disk Reset
      Flushes all currently open file buffers to disk
entry   AH      0Dh
return          none
note 1) Does not close files. Does not update directory entries; files changed
        in size but not closed are not properly recorded in the directory
     2) Sets DTA address to DS:0080h
     3) Should be used before a disk change, Ctrl-C handlers, and to flush
        the buffers to disk.


Function  0Eh   Select Disk
      Sets the drive specified in DL (if valid) as the default drive
entry   AL      0Eh
        DL      new default drive number (0=A:,1=B:,2=C:,etc.)
return  AL      total number of logical drives (not nescessarily physical)
note 1) For DOS 1.x and 2.x, the minimum value for AL is 2.
     2) For DOS 3.x and 4.x, the minimum value for AL is 5.
     3) The drive number returned is not nescessarily a valid drive.
     4) For DOS 1.x: 16 logical drives are availible, A-P.
        For DOS 2.x: 63 logical drives are availible. (Letters are only used for
                     the first 26 drives. If more than 26 logical drives are
                     used, further drive letters will be other ASCII characters
                     ie {,], etc.
        For DOS 3.x: 26 logical drives are availible, A-Z.
        For DOS 4.x: 26 logical drives are availible, A-Z.


Function  0Fh   Open Disk File                                            (FCB)
      Searches current directory for specified filename and opens it
entry   AH      0Fh
        DS:DX   pointer to an unopened FCB
return  AL      00h     if file found
                0FFh    if file not not found
note 1) If the drive code was 0 (default drive) it is changed to the actual
        drive used (1=A:,2=B:,3=C:, etc). This allows changing the default drive
        without interfering with subsequent operations on this file.
     2) The current block field (FCB bytes C-D, offset 0Ch) is set to zero.
     3) The size of the record to be worked with (FCB bytes E-F, offset 0Eh) is
        set to the system default of 80h. The size of the file (offset 10h) and
        the date (offset 14h) are set from information obtained in the root
        directory. You can change the default value for the record size (FCB
        bytes E-F) or set the random record size and/or current record field.
        Perform these actions after the open but before any disk operations.
     4) The file is opened in compatibility mode.
     5) Microsoft recommends handle function call 3Dh be used instead.
     6) This call is also used by the APPEND command in DOS 3.2+
     7) Before performing a sequential disk operation on the file, you must
        set the Current Record field (offset 20h). Before performing a random
        disk operation on the file, you must set the Relative Record field
        (offset 21h). If the default record size of 128 bytes is incorrect, set
        it to the correct value.


Function  10h  Close File                                              (FCB)
     Closes a File After a File Write
entry   AH      10h
        DS:DX   pointer to an opened FCB
return  AL      00h     if the file is found and closed
                0FFh    if the file is not found in the current directory
note 1) This function call must be done on open files that are no longer needed,
        and after file writes to insure all directory information is updated.
     2) If the file is not found in its correct position in the current
        directory, it is assumed that the diskette was changed and AL returns
        0FFh. This error return is reportedly not completely reliable with DOS
        version 2.x.
     3) If found, the directory is updated to reflect the status in the FCB, the
        buffers to that file are flushed, and AL returns 00h.


Function  11h   Search For First Matching Entry                           (FCB)
      Searches current disk & directory for first matching filename
entry   AH      11h
        DS:DX   pointer to address of FCB
return  AL      00h     successful match
                0FFh    no matching filename found
note 1) The FCB may contain the wildcard character ? under Dos 2.x, and ? or *
        under 3.x and 4.x.
     2) The original FCB at DS:DX contains information to continue the search
        with function 12h, and should not be modified.
     3) If a matching filename is found, AL returns 00h and the locations at the
        Disk Transfer Address are set as follows:
        a) If the FCB provided for searching was an extended FCB, then the first
           byte at the disk transfer address is set to 0FFh followed by 5 bytes
           of zeroes, then the attribute byte from the search FCB, then the
           drive number used (1=A, 2=B, etc) then the 32 bytes of the directory
           entry. Thus, the disk transfer address contains a valid unopened FCB
           with the same search attributes as the search FCB.
        b) If the FCB provided for searching was a standard FCB, then the first
           byte is set to the drive number used (1=A,2=b,etc), and the next 32
           bytes contain the matching directory entry. Thus, the disk transfer
           address contains a valid unopened normal FCB.
     4) If an extended FCB is used, the following search pattern is used:
        a) If the FCB attribute byte is zero, only normal file entries are
           found. Entries for volume label, subdirectories, hidden or system
           files, are not returned.
        b) If the attribute byte is set for hidden or system files, or
           subdirectory entries, it is to be considered as an inclusive search.
           All normal file entries plus all entries matching the specified
           attributes are returned. To look at all directory entries except the
           volume label, the attribute byte may be set to hidden + system +
           directory (all 3 bits on).
        c) If the attribute field is set for the volume label, it is considered
           an exclusive search, and ONLY the volume label entry is returned.
     5) This call is also used by the APPEND command in DOS 3.2+


Function  12h   Search For Next Entry Using FCB                          (FCB)
      Search for next matching filename
entry   AH      12h
        DS:DX   pointer to the unopened FCB specified from the previous Search
                First (11h) or Search Next (12h)
return  AL      00h     if matching filename found
                0FFh    if matching filename was not found
note 1) After a matching filename has been found using function call 11h,
        function 12h may be called to find the next match to an ambiguous
        request. For DOS 2.x, ?'s are allowed in the filename. For DOS 3.x
        and 4.x, global (*) filename characters are allowed.
     2) The DTA contains info from the previous Search First or Search Next.
     3) All of the FCB except for the name/extension field is used to keep
        information nescessary for continuing the search, so no disk operations
        may be performed with this FCB between a previous function 11h or 12h
        call and this one.
     4) If the file is found, an FCB is created at the DTA address and set up to
        open or delete it.


Function  13h   Delete File Via FCB                                       (FCB)
      Deletes file specified in FCB from current directory
entry   AH      13h
        DS:DX   pointer to address of FCB
return  AL      00h     file deleted
                0FFh    if file not found or was read-only
note 1) All matching current directory entries are deleted. The global filename
        character "?" is allowed in the filename.
     2) Will not delete files with read-only attribute set
     3) Close open files before deleting them.
     4) Requires Network Access Rights


Function  14h   Sequential Disk File Read                                 (FCB)
      Reads record sequentially from disk via FCB
entry   AH  14h
        DS:DX   pointer to an opened FCB
return  AL      00h     successful read
                01h     end of file (no data read)
                02h     Data Transfer Area too small for record size specified
                        or segment overflow
                03h     partial record read, EOF found
note 1) The record size is set to the value at offset 0Eh in the FCB.
     2) The record pointed to by the Current Block (offset 0Ch) and the Current
        Record (offset 20h) fields is loaded at the DTA, then the Current Block
        and Current Record fields are incremented.
     3) The record is read into memory at the current DTA address as specified
        by the most recent call to function 1Ah. If the size of the record and
        location of the DTA are such that a segment overflow or wraparound would
        occur, the error return is set to AL=02h
     4) If a partial record is read at the end of the file, it is passed to the
        requested size with zeroes and the error return is set to AL=03h.


Function  15h   Sequential Disk Write                                     (FCB)
      Writes record specified by FCB sequentially to disk
entry   AH      15h
        DS:DX   pointer to address of FCB
return  AL      00h     successful write
                01h     diskette full, write canceled
                02h     disk transfer area (DTA) too small or segment wrap
note 1) The data to write is obtained from the disk transfer area
     2) The record size is set to the value at offset 0Eh in the FCB.
     3) This service cannot write to files set as read-only
     4) The record pointed to by the Current Block (offset 0Ch) and the Current
        Record (offset 20h) fields is loaded at the DTA, then the Current Block
        and Current Record fields are incremented.
     5) If the record size is less than a sector, the data in the DTA is written
        to a buffer; the buffer is written to disk when it contains a full
        sector of data, the file is closed, or a Reset Disk (function 0Dh) is
        issued.
     6) The record is written to disk at the current DTA address as specified
        by the most recent call to function 1Ah. If the size of the record and
        location of the DTA are such that a segment overflow or wraparound would
        occur, the error return is set to AL=02h


Function  16h   Create A Disk File                                        (FCB)
      Search and open or create directory entry for file
entry   AH      16h
        DS:DX   pointer to an FCB
return  AL      00h     successful creation
                0FFh    no room in directory
note 1) If a matching directory entry is found, the file is truncated to zero
        bytes.
     2) If there is no matching filename, a filename is created.
     3) This function calls function 0Fh (Open File) after creating or
        truncating a file.
     4) A hidden file can be created by using an extended FCB with the attribute
        byte (offset FCB-1) set to 2.


Function  17h   Rename File Specified by File Control Block              (FCB)
      Renames file in current directory
entry   AH      17h
        DS:DX   pointer to an FCB (see note 4)
return  AL      00h     successfully renamed
                0FFh    file not found or filename already exists
note 1) This service cannot rename read-only files
     2) The "?" wildcard may be used.
     3) If the "?" wildcard is used in the second filename, the corresponding
        letters in the filename of the directory entry are not changed.
     4) The FCB must have a drive number, filename, and extension in the usual
        position, and a second filename starting 6 bytes after the first, at
        offset 11h.
     5) The two filenames cannot have the same name.
     6) FCB contains new name starting at byte 17h.


Function  18h  Internal to DOS
 *   Unknown
entry   AH      18h
return  AL      0


Function  19h   Get Current Disk Drive
      Return designation of current default disk drive
entry   AH      19h
return  AL      current default drive (0=A, 1=B,etc.)
note    Some other DOS functions use 0 for default, 1=A, 2=B, etc.


Function  1Ah   Set Disk Transfer Area Address (DTA)
      Sets DTA address to the address specified in DS:DX
entry   AH      1Ah
        DS:DX   pointer to buffer
return  none
note 1) The default DTA is 128 bytes at offset 80h in the PSP. DOS uses the
        DTA for all file I/O.
     2) Registers are unchanged.
     3) No error codes are returned.
     2) Disk transfers cannot wrap around from the end of the segment to the
        beginning or overflow into another segment.


Function  1Bh   Get Current Drive File Allocation Table Information
      Returns information from the FAT on the current drive
entry   AH      1Bh
exit    AL      number of sectors per allocation unit (cluster)
        DS:BX   address of the current drive's media descriptor byte
        CX      number of bytes per sector
        DX      number of allocation units (clusters) for default drive
note 1) Save DS before calling this function.
     2) This call returned a pointer to the FAT in DOS 1.x. Beginning with
        DOS 2.00, it returns a pointer only to the table's ID byte.
     3) IBM recommends programmers avoid this call and use int 25h instead.


Function  1Ch   Get File Allocation Table Information for Specific Device
      Returns information on specified drive
entry   AH      1Ch
        DL      drive number (1=A, 2=B, 3=C, etc)
return  AL      number of sectors per allocation unit (cluster)
        DS:BX   address of media descriptor byte for drive in DL
        CX      sector size in bytes
        DX      number of allocation units (clusters)
note 1) DL = 0 for default.
     2) Save DS before calling this function.
     3) Format of media-descriptor byte:
        bits:   0       0   (clear)   not double sided
                        1   (set)     double sided
                1       0   (clear)   not 8 sector
                        1   (set)     8 sector
                2       0   (clear)   nonremovable device
                        1   (set)     removable device
                3-7     always set (1)
     4) This call returned a pointer to the FAT in DOS 1.x. Beginning with
        DOS 2.00, it returns a pointer only to the table's ID byte.
     5) IBM recommends programmers avoid this call and use int 25h instead.


Function  1Dh   Not Documented by Microsoft
 *    Unknown
entry   AH      1Dh
return  AL      0


Function  1Eh   Not Documented by Microsoft
 *    Unknown
entry   AH      1Eh
return  AL      0
note    Apparently does nothing


Function  1Fh Get Default Drive Parameter Block
 *  Same as function call 32h (below), except that the table is accessed from
    the default drive
entry   AH      1Fh
        other registers unknown
return  AL      00h     no error
                0FFh    error
        DS:BX   points to DOS Disk Parameter Block for default drive.
note 1) Unknown vector returned in ES:BX.
     2) For DOS 2.x and 3.x, this just invokes function 32h (undocumented,
        Read DOS Disk Block) with DL=0


Function  20h  Unknown
 *   Internal - does nothing?
entry   AH      20h
return  AL      0


Function  21h  Random Read from File Specified by File Control Block     (FCB)
     Reads one record as specified in the FCB into the current DTA.
entry   AH      21h
        DS:DX   address of the opened FCB
return  AL      00h     successful read operation
                01h     end of file (EOF), no data read
                02h     DTA too small for the record size specified
                03h     end of file (EOF), partial data read
note 1) The current block and current record fields are set to agree with the
        random record field. Then the record addressed by these fields is read
        into memory at the current Disk Transfer Address.
     2) The current file pointers are NOT incremented this function.
     3) If the DTA is larger than the file, the file is padded to the requested
        length with zeroes.


Function  22h  Random Write to File Specified by FCB                      (FCB)
     Writes one record as specified in the FCB to the current DTA
entry   AH      22h
        DS:DX   address of the opened FCB
return  AL      00h     successful write operation
                01h     disk full; no data written (write was canceled)
                02h     DTA too small for the record size specified (write was
                        canceled)
note 1) This service cannot write to read-only files.
     2) The record pointed to by the Current Block (offset 0Ch) and the Current
        Record (offset 20h) fields is loaded at the DTA, then the Current Block
        and Current Record fields are incremented.
     3) If the record size is less than a sector, the data in the DTA is written
        to a buffer; the buffer is written to disk when it contains a full
        sector of data, the file is closed, or a Reset Disk (function 0Dh) is
        issued.
     4) The current file pointers are NOT incremented this function.
     5) The record is written to disk at the current DTA address as specified
        by the most recent call to function 1Ah. If the size of the record and
        location of the DTA are such that a segment overflow or wraparound would
        occur, the error return is set to AL=02h


Function  23h  Get File Size                                             (FCB)
     Searches current subdirectory for matching file, returns size in FCB
entry   AH      23h
        DS:DX   address of an unopened FCB
return  AL      00h file found
                0FFh file not found
note 1) Record size field (offset 0Eh) must be set before invoking this function
     2) The disk directory is searched for the matching entry. If a matching
        entry is found, the random record field is set to the number of records
        in the file. If the value of the Record Size field is not an even
        divisor of the file size, the value set in the relative record field is
        rounded up. This gives a returned value larger than the actual file size
     3) This call is used by the APPEND command in DOS 3.2+


Function  24h  Set Relative Record Field                                  (FCB)
     Set random record field specified by an FCB
entry   AH      24h
        DS:DX   address of an opened FCB
return  Random Record Field of FCB is set to be same as Current Block
        and Current Record.
note 1) You must invoke this function before performing random file access.
     2) The relative record field of FCB (offset 21h) is set to be same as the
        Current Block (offset 0Ch) and Current Record (offset 20h).
     3) No error codes are returned.
     4) The FCB must already be opened.


Function  25h  Set Interrupt Vector
     Sets the address of the code DOS is to perform each time the specified
     interrupt is invoked.
entry   AH      25h
        AL      int number to reassign the handler to
        DS:DX   address of new interrupt vector
return  none
note 1) Registers are unchanged.
     2) No error codes are returned.
     3) The interrupt vector table for the interrupt number specified in AL
        is set to the address contained in DS:DX. Use function 35h (Get Vector)
        to get the contents of the interrupt vector and save it for later use.
     4) When you use function 25 to set an interrupt vector, DOS 3.2 doesn't
        point the actual interrupt vector to what you requested. Instead, it
        sets the interrupt vector to point to a routine inside DOS, which does
        this:
                1. Save old stack pointer
                2. Switch to new stack pointer allocated from DOS's stack pool
                3. Call your routine
                4. Restore old stack pointer
        The purpose for this was to avoid possible stack overflows when there
        are a large number of active interrupts. IBM was concerned (this was an
        IBM change, not Microsoft) that on a Token Ring network there would be
        a lot of interrupts going on, and applications that hadn't allocated
        very much stack space would get clobbered.


Function  26h  Create New Program Segment Prefix (PSP)
     This service copies the current program-segment prefix to a new memory
     location for the creation of a new program or overlay. Once the new PSP is
     in place, a DOS program can read a DOS COM or overlay file into the memory
     location immediately following the new PSP and pass control to it.
entry   AH      26h
        DX      segment number for the new PSP
return  none
note 1) Microsoft recommends you use the newer DOS service 4Bh (EXEC) instead.
     2) The entire 100h area at location 0 in the current PSP is copied into
        location 0 of the new PSP. The memory size information at location 6
        in the new segment is updated and the current termination, ctrl-break,
        and critical error addresses from interrupt vector table entries for
        ints 22h, 23h, and 24 are saved in the new program segment starting at
        0Ah. They are restored from this area when the program terminates.
     3) Current PSP is copied to specified segment


Function  27h  Random Block Read From File Specified by FCB
     Similar to 21h (Random Read) except allows multiple files to be read.
entry   AH      27h
        CX      number of records to be read
        DS:DX   address of an opened FCB
return  AL      00h     successful read
                01h     end of file, no data read
                02h     DTA too small for record size specified (read canceled)
                03h     end of file
        CX      actual number of records read (includes partial if AL=03h)
note 1) The record size is specified in the FCB. The service updates the Current
        Block (offset 0Ch) and Current Record (offset 20h) fields to the next
        record not read.
     2) If CX contained 0 on entry, this is a NOP.
     3) If the DTA is larger than the file, the file is padded to the requested
        length with zeroes.
     4) This function assumes that the FCB record size field (0Eh) is correctly
        set. If not set by the user, the default is 128 bytes.
     5) The record is written to disk at the current DTA address as specified
        by the most recent call to function 1Ah. If the size of the record and
        location of the DTA are such that a segment overflow or wraparound would
        occur, the error return is set to AL=02h


Function  28h  Random Block Write to File Specified in FCB
     Similar to 27h (Random Write) except allows multiple files to be read.
entry   AH      28h
        CX      number of records to write
        DS:DX   address of an opened FCB
return  AL      00h     successful write
                01h     disk full, no data written
                02h     DTA too small for record size specified (write canceled)
        CX      number of records written
note 1) The record size is specified in the FCB.
     2) This service allocates disk clusters as required.
     3) This function assumes that the FCB Record Size field (offset 0Eh) is
        correctly set. If not set by the user, the default is 128 bytes.
     4) The record size is specified in the FCB. The service updates the Current
        Block (offset 0Ch) and Current Record (offset 20h) fields to the next
        record not read.
     5) The record is written to disk at the current DTA address as specified
        by the most recent call to function 1Ah. If the size of the record and
        location of the DTA are such that a segment overflow or wraparound would
        occur, the error return is set to AL=02h
     6) If called with CX=0, no records are written, but the FCB's File Size
        entry (offset 1Ch) is set to the size specified by the FCB's Relative
        Record field (offset 21h).


Function  29h  Parse the Command Line for Filename
     Parses a text string into the fields of a File Control Block
entry   AH      29h
        DS:SI   pointer to string to parse
        ES:DI   pointer to memory buffer to fill with unopened FCB
        AL      bit mask to control parsing
                bit 0 = 0: parsing stops if file seperator found
                        1: causes service to scan past leading chars such as
                           blanks. Otherwise assumes the filename begins in
                           the first byte
                    1 = 0: drive number in FCB set to default (0) if string
                           contains no drive number
                        1: drive number in FCB not changed
                    2 = 0: filename in FCB set to 8 blanks if no filename in
                           string
                        1: filename in FCB not changed if string does not
                           contain a filename
                    3 = 0: extension in FCB set to 3 blanks if no extension in
                           string
                        1: extension left unchanged
                    4-7    must be zero
return  AL      00h     no wildcards in name or extension
                01h     wildcards appeared in name or extension
                0FFh    invalid drive specifier
        DS:SI   pointer to the first byte after the parsed string
        ES:DI   pointer to a buffer filled with the unopened FCB
note 1) If the * wildcard characters are found in the command line, this service
        will replace all subsequent chars in the FCB with question marks.
     2) This service uses the characters as filename separators
        DOS 1       : ; . , + / [ ] = " TAB SPACE
        DOS 2,3     : ; . , + = TAB SPACE
     3) This service uses the characters
        : ; . , + < > | / \ [ ] = " TAB SPACE
        or any control characters as valid filename separators
     4) A filename cannot contain a filename terminator. If one is encountered,
        all processing stops. The handle functions will allow use of some of
        these characters.
     5) If no valid filename was found on the command line, ES:DI +1 points
        to a blank (ASCII 32).
     6) This function cannot be used with filespecs which include a path
     7) Parsing is in the form D:FILENAME.EXT. If one is found, a corresponding
        unopened FCB is built at ES:DI


Function  2Ah  Get Date
     Returns day of the week, year, month, and date
entry   AH      2Ah
return  CX      year    (1980-2099)
        DH      month   (1-12)
        DL      day     (1-31)
        AL      weekday 00h     Sunday
                        01h     Monday
                        02h     Tuesday
                        03h     Wednesday
                        04h     Thursday
                        05h     Friday
                        06h     Saturday
note 1) Date is adjusted automatically if clock rolls over to the next day,
        and takes leap years and number of days in each month into account.
     2) Although DOS cannot set an invalid date, it can read one, such as
        1/32/80, etc.
     3) DesQview also accepts CX = 4445h and DX = 5351h, i.e. 'DESQ' as valid
     4) DOS will accept CH=0 (midnight) as a valid time, but if a file's time
        is set to exactly midnight the time will not be displayed by the DIR
        command.


Function  2Bh  Set Date
     set current system date
entry   AH      2Bh
        CX      year    (1980-2099)
        DH      month   (1-12)
        DL      day     (1-31)
return  AL      00h     no error (valid date)
                0FFh    invalid date specified
note 1) On entry, CX:DX must have a valid date in the same format as returned
        by function call 2Ah
     2) DOS 3.3 also sets CMOS clock


Function  2Ch  Get Time
     Get current system time from CLOCK$ driver
entry   AH      2Ch
return  CH      hours   (0-23)
        CL      minutes (0-59)
        DH      seconds (0-59)
        DL      hundredths of a second (0-99)
note 1) Time is updated every 5/100 second.
     2) The date and time are in binary format


Function  2Dh  Set Time
     Sets current system time
entry   AH      2Dh
        CH      hours   (0-23)
        CL      minutes (0-59)
        DH      seconds (0-59)
        DL      hundredths of seconds (0-99)
return  AL      00h     if no error
                0FFh    if bad value sent to routine
note 1) DOS 3.3 also sets CMOS clock
     2) CX and DX must contain a valid time in binary


Function  2Eh  Set/Reset Verify Switch
     Set verify flag
entry   AH      2Eh
        AL      00      to turn verify off (default)
                01      to turn verify on
return  none
note 1) This is the call invoked by the DOS VERIFY command
     2) Setting of the verify switch can be obtained by calling call 54h
     3) This call is not supported on network drives
     4) DOS checks this flag each time it accesses a disk


Function  2Fh  Get Disk Transfer Address (DTA)
     Returns current disk transfer address used by all DOS read/write operations
entry   AH      2Fh
return  ES:BX   address of DTA
note 1) The DTA is set by function call 1Ah
     2) Default DTA address is a 128 byte buffer at offset 80h in that program's
        Program Segment Prefix


Function  30h  Get DOS Version Number
     Return DOS version and/or user number
entry   AH      30h
return  AH      minor version number  (i.e., DOS 2.10 returns AX = 0A02h)
        AL      major version number
        BH      OEM ID number
                00h     IBM
                16h     DEC    (others not known)
        BL:CX   24-bit user serial number
note 1) If AL returns a major version number of zero, the DOS version is
        below 1.28 for MSDOS and below 2.00 for PCDOS.
     2) IBM PC-DOS always returns 0000h in BX and CX.
     3) OS/2 v1.0 Compatibility Box returns a value of 10 for major version.
     4) Due to the OS/2 return and the fact that some European versions of DOS
        carry higher version numbers than IBM's DOS, utilities which check
        for a DOS version should not abort if a higher version than required
        is found unless some specific problems are known.


Function  31h  Terminate Process and Stay Resident
     KEEP, or TSR
entry   AH      31h

        AL      exit code
        DX      program memory requirement in 16 byte paragraphs
return  AX      return code (retrieveable by function 4Dh)
note 1) Files opened by the application are not closed when this call is made
     2) Memory can be used more efficiently if the block containing the copy of
        the DOS environment is deallocated before terminating. This can be done
        by loading ES with the segment contained in 2Ch of the PSP and issuing
        function call 49h (Free Allocated Memory).
     3) Unlike int 27h, more than 64k may be made resident with this call


Function  32h  Read DOS Disk Block
 *   Retrieve the pointer to the drive parameter block for a drive
entry   AH      32h
        DL      drive (0=default, 1=A:, etc.).
return  AL      00h     if drive is valid
                0FFh    if drive is not valid
        DS:BX   pointer to DOS Drive Parameter Table. Format of block:
                Bytes   Type        Value
                00h     byte    Drive: 0=A:, 1=B:, etc.
                01h     byte    Unit within drive (0, 1, 2, etc.)
                02h-03h word    Bytes per sector
                04h     byte    Sectors per cluster - 1
                05h     byte    Cluster to sector shift (i.e., how far to shift-
                                left the bytes/sector to get bytes/cluster)
                06h-07h word    Number of reserved (boot) sectors
                08h     byte    Number of FATs
                09h-0Ah word    Number of root directory entries
                0Bh-0Ch word    Sector # of 1st data. Should be same as # of
                                sectors/track.
                0Dh-0Eh word    # of clusters + 1 (=last cluster #)
                0Fh     byte    Sectors for FAT
                10h-11h word    First sector of root directory
                12h-15h dword   Address of device driver header for this drive
                16h     byte    Media Descriptor Byte for this drive
                17h     byte    0FFh indicates block must be rebuilt
                                (DOS 3.x) 00h indicates block device has
                                been accessed
                18h-1Bh dword   address of next DOS Disk Block (0FFFFh means
                                last in chain)
                22h     byte    Current Working Directory (2.0 only) (64 bytes)
note 1) Use [BX+0D] to find no. of clusters (>1000H, 16-bit FAT; if not, 12-bit
        (exact dividing line is probably a little below 1000h to allow for
        bad sectors, EOF markers, etc.)
     2) Short article by C.Petzold, PC Magazine  Vol.5,no.8, and the article
        "Finding Disk Parameters" in the May 1986 issue of PC Tech Journal.
     3) This call is mostly supported in OS/2 1.0's DOS Compatibility Box. The
        dword at 12h will not return the address of the next device driver when
        in the Compatibility Box.
     4) used by CHKDSK


Function  33h  Control-Break Check
     Get or set control-break checking at CON
entry   AH      33h
        AL      00h     to test for break checking
                01h     to set break checking
                        DL      00h     to disable break checking
                                01h     to enable break checking
                02h     internal, called by PRINT.COM (DOS 3.1)
                03h     unknown
                04h     unknown
                05h     boot drive (DOS 4.0+)
return  DL      00h     if break=off
                01h     if break=on
                (if AL=05h) boot drive, A=1, B=2, etc)
        AL      0FFh    error


Function  34h  Return INDOS Flag
 *   Returns ES:BX pointing to Critical Section Flag, byte indicating whether
     it is safe to interrupt DOS.
entry   AH      34h
return  ES:BX   points to DOS "critical section flag"
note 1) If byte is 0, it is safe to interrupt DOS. This was mentioned in some
        documentation by Microsoft on a TSR standard, and PC Magazine reports
        it functions reliably under DOS versions 2.0 through 3.3. Chris
        Dunford (of CED fame) and a number of anonymous messages on the BBSs
        indicate it may not be totally reliable.
     2) The byte at ES:BX+1 is used by the Print program for this same purpose,
        so it's probably safer to check the WORD at ES:BX.
     3) Reportedly, examination of DOS 2.10 code in this area indicates that the
        byte immediately following this "critical section flag" must be 00h to
        permit the PRINT.COM interrupt to be called. For DOS 3.0 and 3.1 (except
        Compaq DOS 3.0), the byte before the "critical section flag" must be
        zero; for Compaq DOS 3.0, the byte 01AAh before it must be zero.
     4) In DOS 3.10 this reportedly changed to word value, with preceding byte.
     5) This call is supported in OS/2 1.0's DOS Compatibility Box
     6) Gordon Letwin of Microsoft discussed this call on ARPAnet in 1984. He
        stated:
        a) this is not supported under any version of the DOS
        b) it usually works under DOS 2, but there may be circumstances
           when it doesn't (general disclaimer, don't know of a specific
           circumstance)
        c) it will usually not work under DOS 3 and DOS 3.1; the DOS is
           considerably restructured and this flag takes on additional
           meanings and uses
        d) it will fail catastrophically under DOS 4.0 and forward.
           Obviously this information is incorrect since the call works fine
           through DOS 3.3. Microsoft glasnost?


Function  35h  Get Vector
     Get interrupt vector
entry   AH      35h
        AL      interrupt number (hexadecimal)
return  ES:BX   address of interrupt vector
note    Use function call 25h to set the interrupt vectors


Function  36h  Get Disk Free Space
     get information on specified drive
entry   AH      36h
        DL      drive number (0=default, 1=A:, 2=B:, etc)
return  AX      number of sectors per cluster
                0FFFFh means drive specified in DL is invalid
        BX      number of availible clusters
        CX      bytes per sector
        DX      clusters per drive
note 1) Mult AX * CX * BX for free space on disk
     2) Mult AX * CX * DX for total disk space
     3) Function 36h returns an incorrect value after an ASSIGN command. Prior
        to ASSIGN, the DX register contains 0943h on return, which is the free
        space in clusters on the HC diskette. After ASSIGN, even with no
        parameters, 0901h is returned in the DX register; this is an incorrect
        value. Similar results occur with DD diskettes on a PC-XT or a PC-AT.
        This occurs only when the disk is not the default drive. Results are as
        expected when the drive is the default drive. Therefore, the
        circumvention is to make the desired drive the default drive prior to
        issuing this function call.
     4) Int 21h, function call 36h returns an incorrect value after an ASSIGN
        command. Prior to ASSIGN, the DX register contains 0943h on return,
        which is the free space in clusters on the HC diskette. After ASSIGN,
        even with no parameters, 0901h is returned in the DX register; this is
        an incorrect value. Similar results occur with DD diskettes on a PC-XT
        or a PC-AT. This occurs only when the disk is not the default drive.
        Results are as expected when the drive is the default drive. Therefore,
        the circumvention is to make the desired drive the default drive prior
        to issuing this function call.
     5) This function supercedes functions 1Bh and 1Ch.


Function  37h  SWITCHAR / AVAILDEV
 *   Get/set option marking character (is usually "/"), and device type
entry   AH      37h
        AL      00h     read switch character (returns current character in DL)
                01h     set character in DL as new switch character
      (DOS 2.x) 02h     read device availability (as set by function AL=3) into
                        DL. A 0 means devices that devices must be accessed in
                        file I/O calls by /dev/device. A non-zero value means
                        that devices are accessible at every level of the
                        directory tree (e.g., PRN is the printer and not a file
                        PRN).
                        AL=2 to return flag in DL, AL=3 to set from DL (0 = set,
                        1 = not set).
      (DOS 2.x) 03h     get device availability, where:
        DL      00h     means /dev/ must precede device names
                01h     means /dev/ need not precede device names
return  DL      switch character (if AL=0 or 1)
                device availability flag (if AL=2 or 3)
        AL      0FFh    the value in AL was not in the range 0-3.
note 1) Functions 2 & 3 appear not to be implemented for DOS 3.x.
     2) It is documented on page 4.324 of the MS-DOS (version 2) Programmer's
        Utility Pack (Microsoft - published by Zenith).
     3) Works on all versions of IBM PC-DOS from 2.0 through 3.3.1.
     4) The SWITCHAR is the character used for "switches" in DOS command
        arguments (defaults to '/', as in "DIR/P"). '-' is popular to make a
        system look more like UNIX; if the SWITCHAR is anything other than '/',
        then '/' may be used instead of '\' for pathnames
     5) Ignored by XCOPY, PKARC, LIST
     6) SWITCHAR may not be set to any character used in a filename
     7) In DOS 3.x you can still read the "AVAILDEV" byte with subfunction 02h
        but it always returns 0FFh even if you try to change it to 0 with
        subfunction 03h.
     8) AVAILDEV=0 means that devices must be referenced in an imaginary
        subdirectory "\dev" (similar to UNIX's /dev/*); a filename "PRN.DAT"
        can be created on disk and manipulated like any other. If AVAILDEV != 0
        then device names are recognized anywhere (this is the default):
        "PRN.DAT" is synonymous with "PRN:".
     9) These functions reportedly are not supported in the same fashion in
        various implementations of DOS.
    10) used by DOS 3.3 CHKDSK, BASIC, DEBUG


Function  38h   Return Country Dependent Information
                (PCDOS 2.0, 2.1, MSDOS 2.00 only)
entry   AH      38h
        AL      function code  (must be 0 in DOS 2.x)
        DS:DX   pointer to 32 byte memory buffer for returned information
return  CF      set on error
                AX      error code (02h)
        BX      country code
        DS:DX   pointer to buffer filled with country information:
                bytes 0,1       date/time format
                                0       USA standard       H:M:S   M/D/Y
                                1       European standard  H:M:S   D/M/Y
                                2       Japanese standard  H:M:S   D:M:Y
                byte2   ASCIIZ string currency symbol
                byte3   zeroes
                byte4   ASCIIZ string thousands separator
                byte5   zeroes
                byte6   ASCIIZ string decimal separator
                byte7   zeroes
                bytes 8,1Fh  24 bytes   reserved


Function  38h   Get Country Dependent Information
                (PCDOS 3.x+, MSDOS 2.01+)
entry   AH      38h
        AL      function code
                00h     to get current country information
                01h-0FEh country code to get information for, for countries
                        with codes less than 255
                0FFh    to get country information for countries with a code
                        greater than 255
                        BX      16 bit country code if AL=0FFh
        DS:DX   pointer to the memory buffer where the data will be returned
                DX      0FFFFh if setting country code rather than getting info
return  CF      0 (clear) function completed
                1 (set) error
                   AX   error code
                        02h     invalid country code (no table for it)
        (if DX <> 0FFFFh)
        BX      country code (usually international telephone code)
        DS:DX   pointer to country data buffer
          bytes 0,1     date/time format
                        0       USA standard       H:M:S   M/D/Y
                        1       European standard  H:M:S   D/M/Y
                        2       Japanese standard  H:M:S   D:M:Y
          bytes 2-6     currency symbol null terminated
          byte  07h     thousands separator null terminated
          byte  08h     zeroes
          byte  09h     decimal separator null terminated
          byte  0Ah     zeroes
          byte  0Bh     date separator null terminated
          byte  0Ch     zeroes
          byte  0Dh     time separator null terminated
          byte  0Eh     zeroes
          byte  0Fh     bit field currency format
                        bit 0 = 0  if currency symbol precedes the value
                                1  if currency symbol is after the value
                        bit 1 = 0  no spaces between value and currency symbol
                                1  one space between value and currency symbol
                        bit 2 = 1  set if currency symbol replaces decimal pt
                        bits 3-7   not defined by Microsoft
          byte  10h     number of significant decimal digits in currency
                        (number of places to right of decimal point)
          byte  11h     time format
                        bit 0 = 0       12 hour clock
                                1       24 hour clock
                        bits 1-7 unknown, probably not used
          bytes 12h-15h address of case map routine (FAR CALL, AL = char)
                        entry   AL  ASCII code of character to be converted to
                                    uppercase
                        return  AL  ASCII code of the uppercase input character
          byte  16h     data-list separator character
          byte  17h     zeroes
          bytes 18h-21h 5 words reserved
note 1) When an alternate keyboard handler is invoked, the keyboard routine is
        loaded into user memory starting at the lowest portion of availible
        user memory. The BIOS interrupt vector that services the keyboard is
        redirected to the memory area where the new routine resides. Each new
        routine takes up about 1.6K of memory and has lookup tables that return
        values unique to each language. (KEYBxx in the DOS book)
         Once the keyboard interrupt vector is changed by the DOS keyboard
        routine, the new routine services all calls unless the system is
        returned to the US format by the ctrl-alt-F1 keystroke combination. This
        does not change the interrupt vector back to the BIOS location; it
        merely passes the table lookup to the ROM locations.
     2) Ctrl-Alt-F1 will only change systems with US ROMS to the US layout.
        Some systems are delivered with non-US keyboard handler routines in ROM
     3) Case mapping call: the segment/offset of a FAR procedure that performs
        country-specific lower-to-upper case mapping on ASCII characters 80h to
        0FFh. It is called with the character to be mapped in AL. If there is
        an uppercase code for the letter, it is returned in AL, if there is no
        code or the function was called with a value of less than 80h AL is
        returned unchanged.
     4) This call is fully implemented in MS-DOS version 2.01 and higher. It
        is in version 2.00 but not fully implemented (according to Microsoft)


Function  38h   Set Country Dependent Information
entry   AH      38h
        AL      code    country code to set information for, for countries
                        with codes less than 255
                0FFh    to set country information for countries with a code
                        greater than 255
        BX      16 bit country code if AL=0FFh
        DX      0FFFFh
return  CF      clear   successful
                set     if error
                        AX      error code (02h)


Function  39h   Create Subdirectory (MKDIR)
                Makes a subdirectory along the indicated path
entry   AH      39h
        DS:DX   address of ASCIIZ pathname string
return  flag CF 0       successful
                1       error
                        AX      error code if any  (3, 5)
note 1) The ASCIIZ string may contain drive and subdirectory.
     2) Drive may be any valid drive (not nescessarily current drive)
     3) The pathname cannot exceed 64 characters


Function  3Ah   Remove Subdirectory  (RMDIR)
entry   AH      3Ah
        DS:DX   address of ASCIIZ pathname string
return  CF      clear     successful
                set       AX      error code if any  (3, 5, 16)
note 1) The ASCIIZ string may contain drive and subdirectory.
     2) Drive may be any valid drive (not nescessarily current drive)
     3) The pathname cannot exceed 64 characters


Function  3Bh   Change Current Directory  (CHDIR)
entry   AH      3Bh
        DS:DX   address of ASCIIZ string
return  flag CF 0       successful
                1       error
        AX      error code if any (3)
note 1) The pathname cannot exceed 64 characters
     2) The ASCIIZ string may contain drive and subdirectory.
     3) Drive may be any valid drive (not nescessarily current drive)


Function  3Ch   Create A File (CREAT)
                Create a file with handle
entry   AH      3Ch
        CX      attributes for file
                00h     normal
                01h     read only
                02h     hidden
                03h     system
        DS:DX   address of ASCIIZ filename string
return  flag CF 0       successful creation
                1       error
        AX      16 bit file handle
                or error code  (3, 4, 5)
note 1) The ASCIIZ string may contain drive and subdirectory.
     2) Drive may be any valid drive (not nescessarily current drive)
     3) If the volume label or subdirectory bits are set in CX, they are ignored
     4) The file is opened in read/write mode
     5) If the file does not exist, it is created. If one of the same name
        exists, it is truncated to a length of 0.
     6) Good practice is to attempt to open a file with fn 3Dh and jump to an
        error routine if successful, create file if 3Dh fails. That way an
        existing file will not be truncated and overwritten.


Function  3Dh   Open A File
                Open disk file with handle
entry   AH      3Dh
        AL      access code byte
(DOS 2.x)       bits 0-2  file attribute
                000     read only
                001     write only
                010     read/write
                bits 3-7 should be set to zero
(DOS 3.x)       bits 0-2  file attribute
                000     read only
                001     write only
                010     read/write
                bit 3   reserved
                0       should be set to zero
                bits 4-6 sharing mode (network)
                000     compatibility mode (the way FCBs open files)
                001     read/write access denied (exclusive)
                010     write access denied
                011     read access denied
                100     full access permitted
                bit 7   inheritance flag
                0       file inherited by child process
                1       file private to child process
        DS:DX   address of ASCIIZ pathname string
return  flag CF set on error
                AX      error code
                1       error
        AX      16 bit file handle
                or error code (1, 2, 4, 5, 0Ch)
note 1) Opens any normal, system, or hidden file
     2) Files that end in a colon are not opened
     3) The rear/write pointer is set at the first byte of the file and the
        record size of the file is 1 byte (the read/write pointer can be changed
        through function call 42h). The returned file handle must be used for
        all subsequent input and output to the file.
     4) If the file handle was inherited from a parent process or was
        duplicated by DUP or FORCEDUP, all sharing and access restrictions are
        also inherited.
     5) A file sharing error (error 1) causes an int 24h to execute with an
        error code of 2


Function  3Eh   Close A File Handle
                Close a file and release handle for reuse
entry   AH      3Eh
        BX      file handle
return  flag CF 0       successful close
                1       error
        AX      error code if error (6)
note 1) When executed, the file is closed, the directory is updated, and all
        buffers for that file are flushed. If the file was changed, the time
        and date stamps are changed to current
     2) If called with the handle 00000, it will close STDIN (normally the
        keyboard).


Function  3Fh   Read From A File Or Device
                Read from file with handle
entry   AH      3Fh
        BX      file handle
        CX      number of bytes to read
        DS:DX   address of buffer
return  flag CF 0       successful read
                1       error
        AX      0       pointer was already at end of file
                        or number of bytes read
                        or error code (5, 6)
note 1) This function attempts to transfer the number of bytes specified in CX
        to a buffer location. It is not guaranteed that all bytes will be read.
        If AX < CX a partial record was read.
     2) If performed from STDIN (file handle 0000), the input can be redirected
     3) If used to read the keyboard, it will only read to the first CR
     4) The file pointer is incremented to the last byte read.


Function  40h   Write To A File Or Device
                Write to file with handle
entry   AH      40h
        BX      file handle
        CX      number of bytes to write
        DS:DX   address of buffer
return  flag CF 0       successful write
                1       error
        AX      number of bytes written
                or error code  (5, 6)
note 1) This call attempts to transfer the number of bytes indicated in CX
        from a buffer to a file. If CX and AX do not match after the write,
        an error has taken place; however no error code will be returned for
        this problem. This is usually caused by a full disk.
     2) If the write is performed to STDOUT (handle 0001), it may be redirected
     3) To truncate the file at the current position of the file pointer, set
        the number of bytes in CX to zero before calling int 21h. The pointer
        can be moved to any desired position with function 42h.
     4) This function will not write to a file or device marked read-only.
     5) May also be used to display strings to CON instead of fn 09h. This
        function will write CX bytes and stop; fn 09h will continue to write
        until a $ character is found.
     6) This is the call that DOS actually uses to write to the screen in DOS
        2.x and above.


Function  41h   Delete A File From A Specified Subdirectory  (UNLINK)
entry   AH      41h
        DS:DX   pointer to ASCIIZ filespec to delete
return  CF      0       successful
                1       error
                AX      error code if any  (2, 5)
note 1) This function will not work on a file marked read-only
     2) Wildcards are not accepted


Function  42h   Move a File Read/Write Pointer  (LSEEK)
entry   AH      42h
        AL      method code
                00h     offset from beginning of file
                01h     offset from present location
                02h     offset from end of file
        BX      file handle
        CX      most significant half of offset
        DX      least significant half of offset
return  AX      low offset of new file pointer
        DX      high offset of new file pointer
        CF      0       successful move
                1       error
                AX      error code (1, 6)
note 1) If pointer is at end of file, reflects file size in bytes.
     2) The value in DX:AX is the absolute 32 bit byte offset from the beginning
        of the file


Function   43h  Get/Set file attributes  (CHMOD)
entry   AH      43h
        AL      00h     get file attributes
                01h     set file attributes
                CX      file attributes to set
                    bit 0       read only
                        1       hidden file
                        2       system file
                        3       volume label
                        4       subdirectory
                        5       written since backup
        DS:DX   pointer to full ASCIIZ file name
return  CF      set if error
        AX      error code  (1, 2, 3, 5)
        CX      file attributes on get
                attributes:
                01h     read only
                02h     hidden
                04h     system
                0FFh    archive
note 1) This call will not change the volume label or directory bits


Function  44h   I/O Control for Devices (IOCTL)
                Get or Set Device Information
entry   AH      44h
        AL      00h     Get Device Information (from DX)
                        BX      file or device handle
                        return  DX      device info
                                        If bit 7 set: (character device)
                                           bit 0: console input device
                                               1: console output device
                                               2: NUL device
                                               3: CLOCK$ device
                                               4: device is special
                                               5: binary (raw) mode
                                               6: not EOF
                                              12: network device (DOS 3.x)
                                              14: can process IOCTL control
                                                  strings (func 2-5)
                                        If bit 7 clear: (file)
                                           bits 0-5: block device number
                                                6: file has not been written
                                               12: Network device (DOS 3.x)
                                               15: file is remote (DOS 3.x)
                01h     Set Device Information (DH must be zero for this call)
                        DX bits:
                        0    1  console input device
                        1    1  console output device
                        2    1  null device
                        3    1  clock device
                        4    1  reserved
                        5    0  binary mode - don't check for control chars
                             1  cooked mode - check for control chars
                        6    0  EOF - End Of File on input
                        7       device is character device if set, if not, EOF
                                is 0 if channel has been written, bits 0-5 are
                                block device number
                        12      network device
                        14   1  can process control strings (AL 2-5, can only be
                                read, cannot be set)
                        15   n  reserved
                02h     Read CX bytes to device in DS:DX from BX control chan
                03h     Write Device Control String
                        BX      device handle
                        CX      number of bytes to write
                        DS:DX   pointer to buffer
                        return  AX      number of bytes written
                04h     Read From Block Device (drive number in BL)
                        BL      drive number (0=default)
                        CX      number of bytes to read
                        DS:DX   pointer to buffer
                        return  AX      number of bytes read
                05h     Write to Block Device  (drive number in BL)
                        AX      number of bytes transfered
                06h     Get Input Handle Status
                        BX      file or device handle
                        return  AL      0FFh    device ready
                                        00h     device not ready
                07h     Get Output Handle Status
                        return  AL      00h     not ready
                                        0FFh    ready
                         note: for DOS 2.x, files are always ready for output
                08h     Removable Media Bit (DOS 3.x+)
                        return  AX      00h     device is removable
                                        01h     device is nonremovable
                                        0Fh     invalid drive specification
                09h     Test whether Local or Network Device in BL (DOS 3.x+)
                        BL      drive number (0=default)
                        return  DX      attribute word, bit 12 set if device is
                                        remote
                0Ah     Is Handle in BX Local or Remote? (DOS 3.x+)
                        BX     file handle
                        return DX (attribute word) bit 15 set if file is remote
                0Bh     Change Sharing Retry Count to DX (default=3), (DOS 3.x+)
                        CX     delay (default=1)
                        DX     retry count (default=3)
                0Ch     General IOCTL (DOS 3.3 [3.2?]) allows a device driver to
                        prepare, select, refresh, and query Code Pages
                0Dh     Block Device Request (DOS 3.3+)
                        BL      drive number (0=default)
                        CH      major subfunction
                        CL      minor subfunction
                                40h set device parameters
                                41h write logical device track
                                42h format and verify logical device track
                                60h get device parameters
                                61h read logical device track
                                62h verify logical device track
                        DS:DX   pointer to parameter block
                0Eh     Get Logical Device (DOS 3.3+)
                        BL      drive number (0=default)
                        return  AL=0 block device has only one logical drive
                                assigned 1..n the last letter used to reference
                                the device (1=A:,etc)
                0Fh     Set Logical Device (DOS 3.3+)
        BL      drive number:  0=default, 1=A:, 2=B:, etc.
        BX      file handle
        CX      number of bytes to read or write
        DS:DX   data or buffer
        DX      data
return  AX      number of bytes transferred
                or error code (call function 59h for extended error codes)
                or status  00h     not ready
                           0FFh    ready
        CF      set if error


Function  45h   Duplicate a File Handle (DUP)
entry   AH      45h
        BX      file handle to duplicate
return  CF      clear   AX      duplicate handle
                set     AX      error code  (4, 6)
note 1) If you move the pointed of one handle, the pointer of the other will
        also be moved.
     2) The handle in BX must be open


Function  46h   Force Duplicate of a Handle (FORCEDUP or CDUP)
                Forces handle in CX to refer to the same file at the same
                position as BX
entry   AH      46h
        BX      existing file handle
        CX      new file handle
return  CF      clear   both handles now refer to existing file
                set     error
                AX      error code (4, 6)
note 1) If CX was an open file, it is closed first
     2) If you move the read/write pointer of either file, both will move
     3) The handle in BX must be open


Function  47h   Get Current Directory
                Places full pathname of current directory/drive into a buffer
entry   AH      47h
        DL      drive (0=default, 1=A:, etc.)
        DS:SI   points to 64-byte buffer area
return  CF      clear   DS:DI   pointer to ASCIIZ pathname of current directory
                set     AX      error code (0Fh)
note   String does not begin with a drive identifier or a backslash


Function  48h   Allocate Memory
                Allocates requested number of 16-byte paragraphs of memory
entry   AH      48h
        BX      number of 16-byte paragraphs desired
return  CF      clear   AX      segment address of allocated space
                        BX      maximum number paragraphs available
                set     AX      error code (7, 8)
note    BX indicates maximum memory availible only if allocation fails


Function  49h   Free Allocated Memory
                Frees specified memory blocks
entry   AH      49h
        ES      segment address of area to be freed
return  CF      clear   successful
                set     AX      error code (7, 9)
note 1) This call is only valid when freeing memory obtained by function 48h.
     2) A program should not try to release memory not belonging to it.


Function  4Ah   Modify Allocated Memory Blocks (SETBLOCK)
                Expand or shrink memory for a program
entry   AH      4AH
        BX      new size in 16 byte paragraphs
        ES      segment address of block to change
return  CF      clear   nothing
                set     AX      error code (7, 8, 9)
                    or  BX      max number paragraphs available
note 1) Max number paragraphs availible is returned only if the call fails
     2) Memory can be expanded only if there is memory availible


Function  4Bh   Load or Execute a Program  (EXEC)
entry   AH      4Bh
        AL      00h     load and execute program. A PSP is built for the program
                        the ctrl-break and terminate addresses are set to the
                        new PSP.
               *01h     load but don't execute  (note 1)
               *01h     load but don't execute (internal, DOS 3.x & DESQview)
               *02h     load but do not execute (internal, DOS 2.x only)
                03h     load overlay (do not create PSP, do not begin execution)
        DS:DX   points to the ASCIIZ string with the drive, path, and filename
                to be loaded
        ES:BX   points to a parameter block for the load
               (AL=00h) word    segment address of environment string to be
                                passed
                       dword    pointer to the command line to be placed at
                                PSP+80h
                       dword    pointer to default FCB to be passed at PSP+5Ch
                       dword    pointer to default FCB to be passed at PSP+6Ch
              (*AL=01h) word    segment of environment (0 = use current)
                       dword    pointer to command line
                       dword    pointer to FCB 1
                       dword    pointer to FCB 2
                       dword    will hold SS:SP on return
                       dword    will hold program entry point (CS:IP) on return
              (*AL=02h) word    segment of environment (0 = use current)
                       dword    pointer to command line
                       dword    pointer to FCB 1
                       dword    pointer to FCB 2
               (AL=03h) word    segment address where file will be loaded
                        word    relocation factor to be applied to the image
return  CF      set     error
                        AX      error code (1, 2, 8, 0Ah, 0Bh)
note 1) If you make this call with AL=1 the program will be loaded as if you
        made the call with AL=0 except that the program will not be executed.
        Additionally, with AL=1 the stack segment and pointer along with the
        program's CS:IP entry point are returned to the program which made the
        4B01h call. These values are put in the four words at ES:BX+0Eh. On
        entry to the call ES:BX points to the environment address, the command
        line and the two default FCBs. This form of EXEC is used by DEBUG.COM.
     2) Application programs may invoke a secondary copy of the command
        processor (normally COMMAND.COM) by using the EXEC function.  Your
        program may pass a DOS command as a parameter that the secondary
        command processor will execute as though it had been entered from the
        standard input device.
        The procedure is:
         A. Assure that adequate free memory (17k for 2.x and 3.0, 23k for 3.1
            up) exists to contain the second copy of the command processor and
            the command it is to execute. This is accomplished by executing
            function call 4Ah to shrink memory allocated to that of your current
            requirements. Next, execute function call 48h with BX=0FFFFh. This
            returns the amount of memory availible.
        B. Build a parameter string for the secondary command processor in the
           form:
                         1 byte   length of parameter string
                        xx bytes  parameter string
                         1 byte   0Dh (carriage return)
           For example, the assembly language statement below would build the
           string to cause execution of the command FOO.EXE:
                              DB 19,"/C C:FOO",13
        C. Use the EXEC function call (4Bh), function value 0 to cause execution
           of the secondary copy of the command processor. (The drive,
           directory, and name of the command processor can be gotten from the
           COMSPEC variable in the DOS environment passed to you at PSP+2Ch.)
        D. Remember to set offset 2 of the EXEC control block to point to the
           string built above.
     3) All open files of a process are duplicated in the newly created
        process after an EXEC, except for files originally opened with the
        inheritance bit set to 1.
     4) The environment is a copy of the original command processor's
        environment. Changes to the EXECed environment are not passed back to
        the original. The environment is followed by a copy of the DS:DX
        filename passed to the child process. A zero value will cause the
        child process to inherit the environment of the calling process. The
        segment address of the environment is placed at offset 2Ch of the
        PSP of the program being invoked.
     5) This function uses the same resident part of COMMAND.COM, but makes a
        duplicate of the transient part.
     6) How EXEC knows where to return to: Basically the vector for int 22h
        holds the terminate address for the current process. When a process
        gets started, the previous contents of int 22h get tucked away in the
        PSP for that process, then int 22h gets modified. So if Process A
        EXECs process B, while Process B is running, the vector for int 22h
        holds the address to return to in Process A, while the save location in
        Process B's PSP holds the address that process A will return to when
        *it* terminates. When Process B terminates by one of the usual legal
        means, the contents of int 22h are (surmising) shoved onto the stack,
        the old terminate vector contents are copied back to int 22h vector from
        Process B's PSP, then a RETF or equivalent is executed to return control
        to process A.
     7) To load an overlay file with 4B: first, don't de-allocate the memory
        that the overlay will load into. With the other 4Bh functions, the
        opposite is true--you have to free the memory first, with function 4Ah.
        Second, the "segment address where the file will be loaded" (first item
        in the parameter block for sub-function 03) should be a paragraph
        boundary within your currently-allocated memory. Third, if the
        procedures within the overlay are FAR procs (while they execute, CS will
        be equal to the segment address of the overlay area), the relocation
        factor should be set to zero. On the other hand, if the CS register
        will be different from the overlay area's segment address, the
        relocation factor should be set to represent the difference. You
        determine where in memory the overlay file will load by using the
        segment address mentioned above. Overlay files are .EXEs (containing
        header, relocation table, and memory image).
     8) When function 00h returns, all registers are changed, including the
        stack. You must resore SS, SP, and any other required registers.


Function  4Ch   Terminate a Process (EXIT)
                Quit with ERRORLEVEL exit code
entry   AH      4Ch
        AL      exit code in AL when called, if any, is passed to next process
return  none
note 1) Control passes to DOS or calling program
     2) return code from AL can be retrieved by ERRORLEVEL or function 4Dh
     3) all files opened by this process are closed, buffers are flushed, and
        the disk directory is updated
     4) Restores Terminate vector from PSP:000Ah
                 Ctrl-C vector from PSP:000Eh
                 Critical Error vector from PSP:0012h


Function  4Dh   Get Return Code of a Subprocess (WAIT)
                Gets return code from functions 31h and 4Dh  (ERRORLEVEL)
entry   AH      4Dh
return  AL      exit code of subprogram (functions 31h or 4Ch)
        AH      circumstance which caused termination
                00h     normal termination
                01h     control-break
                02h     critical device error
                03h     terminate and stay resident (function 31h)
note    The exit code is only returned once


Function  4Eh   Find First Matching File (FIND FIRST)
entry   AH      4Eh
        CX      search attributes
        DS:DX   pointer to ASCIIZ filename (with attributes)
return  CF      set     AX      error code (2, 12h)
                clear   data block written at current DTA
                        format of block is:  (info from BIX)
  documented by Micro-  |00h   1 byte   attribute byte of search
  soft as "reserved for |01h   1 byte   drive letter for search
  DOS' use on subsquent |02h   11 bytes the search name used
  Find Next calls"      |0Ch   2 bytes  word value of last entry
  function 4Fh          |0Fh   4 bytes  dword pointer to this DTA
                        |13h   2 bytes  word directory start
                        | PC-DOS 3.10 (from INTERRUP.ARC)
                        |00h   1 byte   drive letter
                        |01h-0Bh    bytes  search template
                        |0Ch   1 byte   search attributes
                        | DOS 2.x (and DOS 3.x except 3.1?) (from INTERRUP.ARC)
                        |00h   1 byte   search attributes
                        |01h   1 byte   drive letter
                        |02h-0Ch bytes  search template
                        |0Dh-0Eh 2 bytes entry count within directory
                        |0Fh-12h   bytes reserved
                        |13h-14h 2 bytes cluster number of parent directory

                         15h   1 byte   file attribute
                         16h   2 bytes  file time
                         18h   2 bytes  file date
                         1Ah   2 bytes  low word of file size
                         1Ch   2 bytes  high word of file size
                         1Eh  13 bytes  name and extension of file found, plus
                                        1 byte of 0s. All blanks are removed
                                        from the name and extension, and if an
                                        extension is present it is preceded by a
                                        period.
note 1) Will not find volume label
     2) This function does not support network operations
     3) Wildcards are allowed in the filespec
     4) If the attribute is zero, only ordinary files are found. If the volume
        label bit is set, only volume labels will be found. Any other attribute
        will return that attribute and all normal files together.
     5) To look for everything except the volume label, set the hidden, system,
        and subdirectory bits all to 1


Function  4Fh   Find Next Matching File (FIND NEXT)
                Find next ASCIIZ file
entry   AH      4Fh
return  CF      clear   data block written at current DTA
                set     AX      error code (2, 12h)
note 1) If file found, DTA is formatted as in call 4Eh
     2) Volume label searches using 4Eh/4Fh reportedly aren't 100% reliable
        under DOS 2.x. The calls sometime report there's a volume label and
        point to a garbage DTA, and if the volume label is the only item they
        often won't find it
     3) This function does not support network operations
     4) Use of this call assumes that the original filespec contained wildcards


Function  50h   "Used Internally by DOS" - Set PSP
 *              Set new Program Segment Prefix (current Process ID)
entry   AH      50h
        BX      segment address of new PSP
return  none - swaps PSP's regarded as current by DOS
note 1) By putting the PSP segment value into BX and issuing call 50h DOS stores
        that value into a variable and uses that value whenever a file call is
        made.
     2) Note that in the PSP (or PDB) is a table of 20 (decimal) open file
        handles. The table starts at offset 18h into the PSP. If there is an
        0FFh in a byte then that handle is not in use. A number in one of the
        bytes is an index into an internal FB table for that handle. For
        instance the byte at offset 18h is for handle 0, at offset 19h handle
        1, etc. up to 13h. If the high bit is set then the file associated by
        the handle is not shared by child processes EXEC'd with call 4Bh.
     3) Function 50h is dangerous in background operations prior to DOS 3.x as
        it uses the wrong stack for saving registers.  (same as functions
        0..0Ch in DOS 2.x)
     4) Under DOS 2.x, this function cannot be invoked inside an int 28h handler
        without setting the Critical Error flag
     5) Open File information, etc. is stored in the PSP DOS views as current.
        If a program (eg. a resident program) creates a need for a second PSP,
        then the second PSP should be set as current to make sure DOS closes
        that as opposed to the first when the second application finishes.
     6) See PC Mag Vol.5, No 9, p.314 for discussion.
     7) Used by DOS 3.3 PRINT & DEBUG, DesQview 2.01, Windows 1.03, SYMDEB
        from MASM 4.0


Function  51h    "Used Internally by DOS" - Get Program Segment Prefix
 *               Returns the PSP address of currently executing program
entry   AH      51h
return  BX      address of currently executing program
                offset
                00h     program exit point
                02h     memory size in paragraphs
                04h     unused (0)
                05h     CP/M style entry point (far call to DOS)
                0Ah     terminate address (old int 22h)
                0Ch     terminate segment
                0Eh     break address (old int 23h)
                10h     break segment
                12h     error address (old int 24h)
                14h     error segment
                16h     parent PSP segment
                18h     DOS 2.0+ open files, 0FFh = unused
                2Ch     DOS 2.0+ environment segment
                2Eh     far ptr to process's SS:SP
                32h     DOS 3.x max open files
                34h     DOS 3.x openfile table address
                36h     DOS 3.x openfile table segment
                38h     unused by DOS versions <= 3.3
                50h     DOS function dispatcher (FAR routine)
                53h     unused
                55h     FCB #1 extension
                5Ch     FCB #1
                6Ch     FCB #2
                80h     command tail / default DTA buffer
note 1) Used in DOS 2.x, 3.x uses 62h
     2) Function 51h is dangerous in background operations prior to DOS 3.x as
        it uses the wrong stack for saving registers.  (same as functions
        0..0Ch in DOS 2.x)
     3) 50h and 51h might be used if you have more than one process in a PC.
        For instance if you have a resident program that needs to open a file
        you could first call 51h to save the current id and then call 50h to set
        the ID to your PSP.
     4) Under DOS 2.x, this function cannot be invoked inside an int 28h handler
        without setting the Critical Error flag
     5) Used by DOS 3.3 PRINT, DEBUG


Function  52h   "Used Internally by DOS" - IN-VARS
 *              Returns a pointer to a set of DOS data variables MCB chain,
                pointer to first device driver and a pointer to disk parameter
                blocks (first one)
entry   AH      52h
return  ES:BX   pointer to the DOS list of lists, for disk information. Does not
                access the disk, so information in tables might be incorrect if
                disk has been changed. Returns a pointer to the following array
                of longword pointers:
                Bytes   Value
                -2h,-1h segment of first memory control block
                00h-03h pointer to first DOS disk block (see function 36h)
                04h-07h Pointer to list of DOS file tables
                        dword   pointer to next file table
                        word    number of files in this table
                                35h bytes per file
                                00h-01h number of file handles referring to
                                        this file
                                02h-06h unknown
                                07h-0Ah pointer to device driver header if
                                        character device; pointer to DOS Device
                                        Control Block if block device (see
                                        fn 32h for format)
                                0Bh-1Fh unknown
                                20h-2Ah filename in FCB format (no path, no
                                        period, blank-padded)
                                2Bh-2Ch PSP segment of file's owner
                                2Dh-30h unknown -  0 always
                                31h-32h unknown
                                33h-34h unknown
                8h-0Bh  pointer to CLOCK$ device driver, whether installable or
                        resident
                0Ch-0Fh pointer to actual CON: device driver, whether
                        installable or resident
        (DOS 2.x)
                10      number of logical drives in system
                11-12   maximum bytes/block of any block device
                13-16   unknown
                17      beginning (not a pointer. The real beginning!) of NUL
                        device driver. This is the first device on DOS's linked
                        list of device drivers.
        (DOS 3.x)
                10h-11h maximum bytes/block of any block device (0200h)
                12h-15h pointer to first disk buffer
                16h-19h partially undefined: Pointer to array of drive info:
                        51h bytes per drive, starting with A: ...
                        00h-3Fh current path as ASCIIZ, starting with 'x:\'
                        40h-43h unknown    zeros always
                        44h     unknown    flags? Usually 40h, except for
                                entry after last valid entry = 00h
                        45h-48h pointer to DOS disk block for this drive
                        49h-4Ah unknown. Current track or block?
                                -1 if never accessed
                        4Bh-4Eh unknown  -1 always
                        4Fh-52h unknown   2 always
                1Ah-1Dh pointer to FCB table (if CONFIG.SYS contains FCBS=)
                1Eh-1Fh size of FCB table
                20h     number of block devices
                21h     value of LASTDRIVE command in CONFIG.SYS (default 5)
                22h     beginning (not a pointer. The real beginning!) of NUL
                        device driver. This is the first device on DOS's linked
                        list of device drivers.
note 1) This call is not supported in OS/2 1.0's DOS Compatibility Box
     2) Used by DOS 4.0 MEM.EXE, DOS 3.3 ASSIGN.COM, PRINT.COM, SUBST.EXE
     3) IMPORTANT:  The structure of this list changes with EVERY version of
        DOS.  It is only partially supported by DR-DOS, and isn't supported
        under PC-MOS, OS/2's DOS box, or Wendin-DOS.  Since the information
        changes so much, I feel it should be put in the "interesting, but
        not real useful" category.  If you depend on this stuff in production
        code, you're going to regret it.


Function  53h   "Used Internally by DOS" - Translate BPB
 *              Translates BPB (BIOS Parameter Block, see below) into a DOS Disk
                Block (see function call 32h).
entry   AH      53h
        DS:SI   pointer to BPB
        ES:BP   pointer to area for DOS Disk Block.
                Layout of Disk Block:
                bytes   value
                00h-01h bytes per sector, get from DDB bytes 02h-03h.
                02h     sectors per cluster, get from (DDB byte 4) + 1
                03h-04h reserved sectors, get from DDB bytes 06h-07h
                05h     number of FATs, get from DDB byte 08h
                06h-07h number of root dir entries, get from DDB bytes 09h-0Ah
                08h-09h total number of sectors, get from:
                        ((DDB bytes 0Dh-0Eh) - 1) * (sectors per cluster (BPB
                        byte 2)) + (DDB bytes 0Bh-0Ch)
                0Ah     media descriptor byte, get from DDB byte 16h
                0Bh-0Ch number of sectors per FAT, get from DDB byte 0Fh
return  unknown


Function  54h   Get Verify Setting
                Get verify flag status
entry   AH      54h
return  AL      00h if flag off
                01h if flag on
note    Flag can be set with function 2Eh


Function  55h   "Used Internally by DOS" - Create "Child" PSP
 *              Create PSP: similar to function 26h (which creates a new Program
                Segment Prefix at segment in DX) except creates a "child" PSP
                rather than copying the existing one.
entry   AH      55h
        DX      segment number at which to create new PSP.
return  unknown
note 1) This call is similar to call 26h which creates a PSP except that unlike
        call 26h the segment address of the parent process is obtained from the
        current process ID rather than from the CS value on the stack (from the
        INT 21h call). DX has the new PSP value and SI contains the value to be
        placed into PSP:2 (top of memory).
     2) Function 55 is merely a substitute for function 26h. It will copy the
        current PSP to the segment address DX with the addition that SI is
        assumed to hold the new memory top segment. This means that function
        26h sets SI to the segment found in the current PSP and then calls
        function 55h.


Function  56h   Rename a File
entry   AH      56h
        DS:DX   pointer to ASCIIZ old pathname
        ES:DI   pointer to ASCIIZ new pathname
return  CF      clear   successful rename
                set     AX      error code (2, 3, 5, 11h)
note 1) Works with files in same drive only
     2) Global characters not allowed in filename
     3) The name of a file is its full pathname. The file's full pathname can
        be changed, while leaving the actual FILENAME.EXT unchanged. Changing
        the pathname allows the file to be "moved" from subdirectory to
        subdirectory on a logical drive without actually copying the file.
     4) DOS 3.x allows renaming of directories



       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                            C H A P T E R   F I V E

                          Interrupts 22h Through 86h

note: the registered version of this chapter is more than twice this size.


Interrupt 22h   Terminate Address
(0:0088h)
 This interrupt transfers control to the far (dword) address at this interrupt
location when an application program terminates. The default address for this
interrupt is 0:0088h through 0:008Bh. This address is copied into the program's
Program Segment Prefix at bytes 0Ah through 0Dh at the time the segment is
created and is restored from the PSP when the program terminates. The calling
program is normally COMMAND.COM or an application. Do not issue this interrupt
directly, as the EXEC function call does this for you. If an application
spawns a child process, it must set the Terminate Address prior to issuing the
EXEC function call, otherwise when the second program terminated it would
return to the calling program's Terminate Address rather than its own. This
address may be set with int 21, function 25h.


Interrupt 23h   Ctrl-Break Exit Address
(0:008Ch)
 If the user enters a Ctrl-Break during STDIN, STDOUT, STDPRN, or STDAUX, int
23h is executed. If BREAK is on, int 23h is checked on MOST function calls
(notably 06h). If the user written Ctrl-Break routine saves all registers, it
may end with a return-from-interrupt instruction (IRET) to continue program
execution. If the user-written interrupt program returns with a long return, the
carry flag is used to determine whether the program will be aborted. If the
carry flag is set, the program is aborted, otherwise execution continues (as
with a return by IRET). If the user-written Ctrl-Break interrupt uses function
calls 09h or 0Ah, (Display String or Buffered Keyboard Input) then a three-byte
string of 03h-0Dh-0Ah (ETX/CR/LF) is sent to STDOUT. If execution is continued
with an IRET, I/O continues from the start of the line. When the interrupt
occurs, all registers are set to the value they had when the original function
call to DOS was made. There are no restrictions on what the Ctrl-Break handler
is allowed to do, including DOS function calls, as long as the registers are
unchanged if an IRET is used. If the program creates a new segment and loads a
second program which itself changes the Ctrl-Break address, the termination of
the second program and return to the first causes the Ctrl-Break address to
be restored from the PSP to the value it had before execution of the second
program.


Interrupt 24h   Critical Error Handler
(0:0090h)

 When a critical error occurs within DOS, control is transferred to an error
handler with an int 24h. This may be the standard DOS error handler (ABORT,
RETRY, IGNORE) or a user-written routine.
 On entry to the error handler, AH will have its bit 7=0 (high order bit)
if the error was a disk error (probably the most common error), bit 7=1 if
not.
 BP:SI contains the address of a Device Header Control Block from which
additional information can be retrieved (see below).
 The register is set up for a retry operation and an error code is in the
lower half of the DI register with the upper half undefined. These are the
error codes:

 The user stack is in effect and contains the following from top to bottom:

        IP      DOS registers from issuing int 24h
        CS      int 24h
        flags
        AX      user registers at time of signal
        BX      int 21h request
        CX
        DX
        SI
        DI
        BP
        DS
        ES
        IP      from original int 21h
        CS
        flags

 To reroute the critical error handler to a user-writen critical error handler,
the following should be done:

Before an int 24h occurs:
1) The user application initialization code should save the int 24h vector and
   replace the vector with one pointing to the user error routine.

When the int 24h occurs:
2) When the user error routine received control it should push the flag
   registers onto the stack and execute a far call to the original int 24h
   vector saved in step 1.
3) DOS gives the appropriate prompt, and waits for user input (Abort, Retry,
   Ignore, Fail). After the user input, DOS returns control to the user error
   routine instruction following the far call.
4) The user error routine can now do any tasks nescessary. To return to the
   original application at the point the error occurred, the error routine needs
   to execute an IRET instruction. Otherwise, the user error routine should
   remove the IP, CS, and flag registers from the stack. Control can then be
   passed to the desired point.

 Int 24h provides the following values in registers on entry to the interrupt
handler:

entry   AH      status byte (bits)
                7       0       disk I/O hard error
                        1       other error - if block device, bad FAT
                                - if char device, code in DI
                6       unused
                5       0       if IGNORE is not allowed
                        1       if IGNORE is allowed
                4       0       if RETRY  is not allowed
                        1       if RETRY  is allowed
                3       0       if FAIL   is not allowed
                        1       if FAIL   is allowed
                2 \     disk area of error  00 = DOS area  01 = FAT
                1 /                         10 = root dir  11 = data area
                0       0       if read operation
                        1       if write operation
        AL      drive number if AH bit 7 = 1, otherwise undefined
                If it is as hard error on disk (AH bit 7=0), register AL
                contains the failing drive number (0=A:, 1=B:, etc.).
        BP:SI   address of a Device Header Control Block for which error
                occurred block device if high bit of BP:SI+4 = 1
 low byte of DI: error code (note: high byte is undefined)
               error code      description
                00h             attempt to write on write-protected diskette
                01h             unknown unit
                02h             drive not ready
                03h             unknown command
                04h             data error (bad CRC)
                05h             bad request structure length
                06h             seek error
                07h             unknown media type
                08h             sector not found
                09h             printer out of paper
                0Ah             write fault
                0Bh             read fault
                0Ch             general failure
                0Fh             invalid disk change (DOS 3.x+)
                10h     (DOS 3.x) FCB unavailable
                11h     (DOS 3.x) sharing buffer overflow

The handler must return this information:

 The registers are set such that if an IRET is executed, DOS responds according
to (AL) as follows:
 AL     00h  ignore the error
        01h  retry the operation
        02h  terminate via int 22h
        03h  fail the system call that is in progress (DOS 3.x+)
note 1) Be careful when choosing to ignore a response because this causes DOS to
        beleive that an operation has completed successfully when it may not
        have.
     2) If the error was a character device, the contents of AL are invalid.



OTHER ERRORS

 If AH bit 7=1, the error occurred on a character device, or was the result of
a bad memory image of the FAT. The device header passed in BP:SI can be examined
to determine which case exists. If the attribute byte high-order bit indicates
a block device, then the error was a bad FAT. Otherwise, the error is on a
character device.
 If a character device is involved, the contents of AL are unpredictable, the
error code is in DI as above.

Notes:
1.  Before giving this routine control for disk errors, DOS performs several
    retries. The number of retries varies according to the DOS version.
2.  For disk errors, this exit is taken only for errors occurring during an
    int 21h function call. It is not used for errors during an int 25h or 26h.
3.  This routine is entered in a disabled state.
4.  All registers must be preserved.
5.  This interrupt handler should refrain from using DOS function calls. If
    necessary, it may use calls 01h through 12h. Use of any other call destroys
    the DOS stack and leaves DOS in an unpredictable state.
6.  The interrupt handler must not change the contents of the device header.
7.  If the interrupt handler handles errors itself rather than returning to DOS,
    it should restore the application program's registers from the stack,
    remove all but the last three words on the stack, then issue an IRET. This
    will return to the program immediately after the int 21h that experienced
    the error. Note that if this is done DOS will be in an unstable state until
    a function call higher than 12h is issued, therefore not recommended.
8.  For DOS 3.x, IGNORE requests (AL=0) are converted to FAIL for critical
    errors that occur on FAT or DIR sectors.
9.  For DOS 3.10 up, IGNORE requests (AL=0) are converted to FAIL requests
    for network critical errors (50-79).

The device header pointed to by BP:SI is as follows:

DWORD Pointer to next device (0FFFFh if last device)

WORD Attributes:

Bit     15      1       if character device.
                        If bit 15 is 1:
                        Bit 0 = 1 if current standard input
                        Bit 1 = 1 if current standard output
                        Bit 2 = 1 if current NULL device
                        Bit 3 = 1 if current CLOCK device
                0       if block device
Bit 14 is the IOCTL bit
WORD pointer to device driver strategy entry point
WORD pointer to device driver interrupt entry point
8-BYTE character device named field for block devices. The first byte is the
number of units.
 To tell if the error occurred on a block or character device, look at bit 15
in the attribute field (WORD at BP:SI+4).
 If the name of the character device is desired, look at the eight bytes
starting at BP:SI+10.


HANDLING OF INVALID RESPONSES (DOS 3.x)

        A) If IGNORE (AL=0) is specified by the user and IGNORE is not allowed
           (bit 5=0), make the response FAIL (AL=3).
        B) If RETRY (AL=1) is specified by the user and RETRY is not allowed
           (bit 4=0), make the response FAIL (AL=3).
        C) If FAIL (AL=3) is specified by the user and FAIL is not allowed (bit
           3=0), make the response ABORT. (AL=2)





Interrupt 25h   Absolute Disk Read
Interrupt 26h   Absolute Disk Write
(0:0094h, 0:0098h)
  These transfer control directly to the device driver. On return, the original
flags are still on the stack (put there by the INT instruction). This is
necessary because return information is passed back in the current flags.
  The number of sectors specified is transferred between the given drive and the
transfer address. Logical sector numbers are obtained by numbering each sector
sequentially starting from track 0, head 0, sector 1 (logical sector 0) and
continuing along the same head, then to the next head until the last sector on
the last head of the track is counted.  Thus, logical sector 1 is track 0, head
0, sector 2; logical sector 2 is track 0, head 0, sector 3; and so on. Numbering
then continues wih sector 1 on head 0 of the next track. Note that although the
sectors are sequentially numbered (for example, sectors 2 and 3 on track 0 in
the example above), they may not be physically adjacent on disk, due to
interleaving. Note that the mapping is different from that used by DOS 1.10 for
dual-sided diskettes.

The request is as follows:

int 25 for Absolute Disk Read,
int 26 for Absolute Disk Write
entry   AL      drive number (0=A:, 1=B:, etc)
        CX      number of sectors to read
        DS:BX   disk transfer address (buffer)
        DX      first relative sector to read - beginning logical sector number
return  CF      set if error
        AL      error code issued to int 24h in low half of DI
        AH      01h     bad command
                02h     bad address mark
                03h     write-protected disk
                04h     requested sector not found
                08h     DMA failure
                10h     data error (bad CRC)
                20h     controller failed
                40h     seek operation failed
                80h     attachment failed to respond
note 1) Original flags on stack! Be sure to pop the stack to prevent
        uncontrolled growth
     2) Ints 25 and 26 will try rereading a disk if they get an error the first
        time.
     3) All registers except the segment registers are destroyed by these calls


Interrupt 25h   ABSOLUTE DISK READ
                (except DOS 4.0/Compaq DOS 3.31 >32M partition)
entry   AL      drive number (0=A, 1=B, etc)
        DS:BX   pointer to Disk Transfer Address (buffer)
        CX      number of sectors to read
        DX      first relative sector to read
return  CF      1 if error
                AL      error code issued to int 24h in low half of DI
                AH      80h     attachment failed to respond
                        40h     seek operation failed
                        20h     controller failed
                        10h     data error (bad CRC)
                        08h     DMA failure
                        04h     requested sector not found
                        03h     write-protected disk
                        02h     bad address mark
                        01h     bad command
note    Original flags on stack!

Interrupt 25h   DOS 4.0/Compaq DOS 3.31 - ABSOLUTE DISK READ
                (>32M hard-disk partition)
entry   AL      drive number (0=A, 1=B, etc)
        CX      0FFFFh
        DS:BX   Packet address
                DWORD  sector number
                WORD   number of sectors to read
                DWORD  transfer address
return  same as above?
note    Partition is potentially >32Mb (and requires this form of the call) if
        bit 1 of device attribute word in device driver is set

Interrupt 26h   ABSOLUTE DISK WRITE
                (except DOS 4.0/Compaq DOS 3.31 >32M partition)
entry   AL      drive number (0=A, 1=B, etc)
        DS:BX   pointer to Disk Transfer Address (buffer)
        CX      number of sectors to write
        DX      first relative sector to write
return  CF      1 if error
                AL      error code issued to int 24h in low half of DI
                AH      same error codes as for int 25h
note    Original flags on stack!

Interrupt 26h   DOS 4.0/Compaq DOS 3.31 - ABSOLUTE DISK WRITE
                (>32M hard disk partitions)
entry   AL      drive number (0=A, 1=B, etc)
        CX      0FFFFh
        DS:BX   Packet address
                DWORD  sector number
                WORD   number of sectors to write
                DWORD  transfer address
return  same as above?
note    Partition is potentially >32M (and requires this form of the call) if
        bit 1 of device attribute word in device driver is set




Interrupt 27h   Terminate And Stay Resident
(0:009Ch)       (obsolete)
 This vector is used by programs that are to remain resident when COMMAND.COM
regains control.
 After initializing itself, the program must set DX to its last address plus
one relative to the program's initial DS or ES value (the offset at which other
programs can be loaded), then execute interrupt 27h. DOS then considers the
program as an extension of itself, so the program is not overlaid when other
programs are executed. This is useful for loading programs such as utilities
and interrupt handlers that must remain resident.

entry   CS      current program segment
        DX      last program byte + 1
return  none
note 1) This interrupt must not be used by .EXE programs that are loaded into
        the high end of memory.
     2) This interrupt restores the interrupt 22h, 23h, and 24h vectors in the
        same manner as interrupt 20h.  Therefore, it cannot be used to install
        permanently resident Ctrl-Break or critical error handler routines.
     3) The maximum size of memory that can be made resident by this method is
        64K.
     4) Memory can be more efficiently used if the block containing a copy of
        the environment is deallocated before terminating. This can be done by
        loading ES with the segment contained in 2Ch of the PSP, and issuing
        function call 49h (Free Allocated Memory).
     5) DOS function call 4Ch allows a program to pass a completion code to DOS,
        which can be interpreted with processing (see function call 31h).
     6) Terminate and stay resident programs do not close files.
     7) Int 21, function 31h is the preferred method to cause a program to
        remain resident because this allows return information to be passed and
        allows a program larger than 64K to remain resident.




Interrupt 28h   (not documented by Microsoft)
           *    DOS Idle Interrupt
Int 28h has been provided by DOS since release 2.0. The int 28h process is
similar to the "Timer Tick" process provided by BIOS via int 1Ch in that it is
an "outbound" (from DOS) call which an application can "hook onto" to get
service at a particular entry point. DOS normally only issues int 28h when it
recieves a function call (int 21h) from a foreground application with an
argument in the range of 0 thru 12 (0Ch) in the AH register, or when it is
idling waiting for keyboard input. In effect, when DOS issues int 28h, it is
saying to the background task "I'm not doing anything hot right now, if you can
use the time, go ahead." This means that a foreground application which doesn't
do many low-number DOS functions can preempt CPU time easily.

 It is possible, if you are careful, to enhance the background priority by
providing more int 28h calls than DOS normally would issue.

 When int 28h is being issued it is usually safe to do DOS calls. You won't get
int 28hs if a program is running that doesn't do its keyboard input through
DOS. You should rely on the timer interrupt for these.

 It is used primarily by the PRINT.COM routines, but any number of other
routines can be chained to it by saving the original vector and calling it with
a FAR call (or just JMPing to it) at the end of the new routine.

 Int 28h is not called at all when any non-trivial foreground task is running.
As soon as a foreground program has a file open, int 28h no longer gets called.
Could make a good driver for for a background program that works as long as
there is nothing else going on in the machine.

 DOS uses 3 separate internal stacks: one for calls 01h through 0Ch; another
for calls 0Dh and above; and a third for calls 01h through 0Ch when a Critical
Error is in progress. When int 28h is called, any calls above 0Ch can be
executed without destroying the internal stack used by DOS at the time.

 The byte which is pushed on the stack before an int 28h just indicates which
stack area is being used by the current int 21h call. In DOS 3.1, the code
sequence that calls int 28h looks like this:

        PUSH    SS:[0304]
        INT     28
        POP     SS:[0304]

 The low-order byte of the word pushed contains 1 if the int 21h call currently
in progress is for services 1 through 0Ch, and 0 for service 0 and for 0Dh and
up. Assuming that the last DOS call was not a reentrant one, this tells you
which set of DOS services should be safe to call.

 If the InDOS flag is zero on int 28h, then it was called by someone other than
DOS, and the word on the stack should NOT be examined.


entry   no parameters availible
return  none
note 1) The int 28h handler may invoke any int 21h function except functions
        00h through 0Ch (and 50h/51h under DOS 2.x unless DOS CritErr flag is
        set).
     2) Apparently int 28h is also called during screen writes
     3) Until some program installs its own routine, this interrupt vector
        simply points to an IRET opcode.
     4) Supported in OS/2 1.0's DOS Compatibility Box




Interrupt 29h   (not documented by Microsoft)
           *    Internal - Quick Screen Output

 This method is extremely fast (much faster than DOS 21h subfunctions 2 and 9,
for example), and it is portable, even to "non-compatible" MS-DOS computers.

entry   AL      character to output to screen
return  unknown
note 1) Documented by Digital Research's DOS Reference as provided with the
        DEC Rainbow
     2) If ANSI.SYS is installed, character output is filtered through it.
     3) Works on the IBM PC and compatibles, Wang PC, HP-150 and Vectra, DEC
        Rainbow, NEC APC, Texas Instruments PC and others
     4) This interrupt is called from the DOS's output routines if output is
        going to a device rather than a file, and the device driver's attribute
        word has bit 3 (04h) set to "1".
     5) This call has been tested with MSDOS 2.11, PCDOS 2.1, PCDOS 3.1, PCDOS
        3.2, and PCDOS 3.3.
     6) Used in IBMBIO.COM as a vector to int 10, function 0Eh (write TTY)
        followed by an IRET.




Interrupt 2Ah   Microsoft Networks - Session Layer Interrupt
           *    (not documented by Microsoft)

entry   AH      00h     check to see if network BIOS installed
                        return  AH      <> 0 if installed
                01h     execute NETBIOS request
                02h     set net printer mode
                03h     get shared-device status (check direct I/O)
                        AL      00h
                        DS:SI   pointer to ASCIIZ disk device name
                        return  CF      0 if allowed
                04h     execute NETBIOS
                        AL      0 for error retry
                                1 for no retry
                        ES:BX   pointer to network control block
                        return  AX      0 for no error
                                AH      1 if error
                                AL      error code
                05h     get network resource information
                        AL      00h
                        return  AX      reserved
                                BX      number of network names
                                CX      number of commands
                                DX      number of sessions
                06h     Network Print-stream Control
                        note    NETBIOS 1.10
                20h     unknown
                        note    AL=01h intercepted by DESQview 2.0
                80h     Begin DOS Critical Section
                        AL      1 to 6
                81h     End DOS Critical Section
                        AL      1 to 6
                82h     Server Hook
                        return  unknown
                        note    called by the int 21h function dispatcher
                                in DOS 3.10+ for function 0 and functions
                                greater than 0Ch except 59h
                84h     keyboard busy loop
                        note    similar to DOS's int 28h


Interrupt 2Bh   (not documented by Microsoft)
           *    Unknown - Internal Routine for DOS (IRET)


Interrupt 2Ch   (not documented by Microsoft)
           *    Unknown - Internal Routine for DOS (IRET)


Interrupt 2Dh   (not documented by Microsoft)
           *    Unknown - Internal Routine for DOS (IRET)


Interrupt 2Eh   (undocumented by Microsoft)  (DOS 2.0+)
           *    Internal Routine for DOS  (Alternate EXEC)

  This interrupt passes a command line addressed by DS:SI to COMMAND.COM. The
command line must be formatted just like the unformatted parameter area of a
Program Segment Prefix. That is, the first byte must be a count of characters,
and the second and subsequent bytes must be a command line with parameters,
terminated by a carriage return character.
  When executed, int 2Eh will reload the transient part of the command
interpreter if it is not currently in memory. If called from a program that
was called from a batch file, it will abort the batch file. If executed from a
program which has been spawned by the EXEC function, it will abort the whole
chain and probably lock up the computer. Int 2Eh also destroys all registers
including the stack pointer.
  Int 2Eh is called from the transient portion of the program to reset the DOS
PSP pointers using the above Functions #81 & #80, and then reenters the
resident program.
  When called with a valid command line, the command will be carried out by
COMMAND.COM just as though you had typed it in at the DOS prompt. Note that the
count does not include the carriage return. This is an elegant way to perform a
SET from an application program against the master environment block for
example.

entry   DS:SI   pointer to an ASCIIZ command line in the form:
                        count byte
                        ASCII string
                        carriage return
                        null byte
note 1) Destroys all registers including stack pointer
     2) Seems to work OK in both DOS 2.x and 3.x
     3) It is reportedly not used by DOS.
     4) As far as known, int 2Eh is not used by DOS 3.1, although it was called
        by COMMAND.COM of PCDOS 3.0, so it appears to be in 3.1 only for the
        sake of compatibility.

Interrupt 2Fh   Multiplex Interrupt

 Interrupt 2Fh is the multiplex interrupt. A general interface is defined
between two processes. It is up to the specific application using interrupt
2Fh to define specific functions and parameters.
 This interrupt is becoming more commonly used as the availible interrupt 21
functions are getting to be in short supply.  Int 2Fh doesn't require any
support from DOS itself for it to be used in application programs. It's not
handled by DOS, but by the programs themselves.
 Every multiplex interrupt handler is assigned a specific multiplex number.
The multiplex number is specified in the AH register; the AH value tells which
program your request is directed toward. The specific function that the handler
is to perform is placed in the AL register. Other parameters are places in the
other registers as needed. The handlers are chained into the 2Fh interrupt
vector and the multiplex number is checked to see if any other application is
using the same multiplex number. There is no predefined method for assigning a
multiplex number to a handler. You must just pick one. To avoid a conflict if
two applications choose the same multiplex number, the multiplex numbers used by
an application should be patchable. In order to check for a previous
installation of the current application, you can search memory for a unique
string included in your program. If the value you wanted in AH is taken but
you don't find the string, then another application has grabbed that location.
 Int 2Fh was not documented under DOS 2.x. There is no reason not to use int 2Fh
as the multiplex interrupt in DOS 2.x. The only problem is that DOS 2.x does not
initialize the int 2Fh vector, so when you try to chain to it like you are
supposed to, it will crash. If your program checks the vector for being zero
and initializes it itself or doesn't chain in that case, it will work for you
n 2.x just the same as 3.x.

Function   01h  PRINT.COM
           Register AH identifies which program is to handle the interrupt.
           Values 00h-7Fh are reserved for DOS, not that anyone cares much.
           Values 0C0h-0FFh are reserved for applications.
           Register AL contains the function code if used
entry   AH      01h
                AL      00h     PRINT  Get Installed State
                        This call must be defined by all int 2Fh handlers. It
                        is used by the caller of the handler to determine if
                        the handler is present. On entry, AL=0. On return, AL
                        contains the installed state as follows:
                return  AL      0FFh    installed
                                01h     not installed, not OK to install
                                00h     not installed, OK to install

                        01h     PRINT  Submit File
                        DS:DX   pointer to submit packet
                                format  byte    level
                                        dword   pointer to ASCIIZ filename
                return  CF      set if error
                                AX      error code
                note 1) A submit packet contains the level (BYTE) and a pointer
                        to the ASCIIZ string (DWORD in offset:segment form).
                        The ASCIIZ string must contain the drive, path, and
                        filename of the file you want to print. The filename
                        cannot contain global filename characters.
                return  CF      set if error
                                AX      error code

                        02h     PRINT Cancel File
                        On entry, AL=2 and DS:DX points to the ASCIIZ string for
                        the print file you want to cancel. Global filename
                        characters are allowed in the filename.
                DS:DX   pointer to ASCIIZ file name to cancel (wildcards OK)
                return  CF      set if error
                                AX      error code

                        03h     PRINT remove all files
                return  CF      set if error
                                AX      error code

                        04h     PRINT hold queue/get status
                        This call holds the jobs in the print queue so that you
                        can scan the queue. Issuing any other code releases the
                        jobs. On entry, AL=4. On return, DX contains the error
                        count. DS:SI points to the print queue. The print queue
                        consists of a series of filename entries. Each entry is
                        64 bytes long. The first entry in the queue is the file
                        currently being printed. The end of the queue is marked
                        by the entry having a null as the first character.
               return   DX      error count
                        DS:SI   pointer to print queue (null-string terminated
                                list of 64-byte ASCIIZ filenames)
                        CF      set if error
                               AX       error code
                                        01h     function invalid
                                        02h     file not found
                                        03h     path not found
                                        04h     too many open files
                                        05h     access denied
                                        08h     queue full
                                        09h     spooler busy
                                        0Ch     name too long
                                        0Fh     drive invalid

                        05h     PRINT restart queue
                return  CF      set if error
                                AX      error code


Function   05h  DOS 3.x critical error handler
entry   AH      05h
                AL      00h     installation check
                        return  AL      00h not installed, OK to install
                                        01h not installed, can't install
                                        0FFh installed
                        note    This set of functions allows a user program to
                                partially or completely override the default
                                critical error handler in COMMAND.COM
                AL      01h     handle error - nonzero error code in AL
                        return  CF      clear
                                        ES:DI   pointer to ASCIIZ error message
                                CF      set     use default error handler
                                AL      (?)


Function   06h  ASSIGN
entry   AH      06h
                        00h     installation check
                        return  AH <> 0 if installed

                        01h     get memory segment
                        return  ES      segment of ASSIGN work area


Function   10h  SHARE
entry   AH      10h
        AL      00h     installation check
return  AL      00h     not installed, OK to install
                01h     not installed, not OK to install
                0FFh    installed


Function   11h  Multiplex - network redirection
entry   AH      11h
        AL      00h     installation check
                        return  AL      00h    not installed, OK to install
                                        01h    not installed, not OK to install
                                        0FFh   installed
                01h-05h unknown
                06h     close remote file
                07h-09h unknown
                0Ah     unknown
                        stack   word    (?)
                        return  CF      set on error
                0Bh     unknown
                        stack   word    (?)
                        return  CF      set on error(?)
                0Ch     unknown
                0Dh     unknown
                0Eh     unknown
                        stack   word    (?)
                        return  (?)
                0Fh-16h unknown
                17h     unknown
                        stack   word    (?)
                        return  (?)
                18h     unknown
                        stack   word    (?)
                        return  (?)
                19h-1Dh unknown
                1Eh     do redirection
                        stack   word    function to execute
                        return  CF      set on error
                1Fh     printer setup
                        stack   word    function(?)
                        return  CF      set on error(?)
                20h-25h unknown
                        stack   word    (?)
                26h     unknown

Function   12h  multiplex, DOS 3.x internal services
entry   AH      12h
        AL      00h     installation check
                        return  AL      0FFh    for compatibility with other
                                                int 2Fh functions
                01h     close file (?)
                        stack   word value - unknown
                        return  BX      unknown
                                CX      unknown
                                ES:DI   pointer to unknown value
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                02h     get interrupt address
                        stack   word    vector number
                        return  ES:BX pointer to interrupt vector
                                stack   unchanged
                03h     get DOS data segment
                        return  DS      segment of IBMDOS.COM file
                04h     normalize path separator
                        stack   word    character to normalize
                        return  AL      normalized character (forward slash
                                        turned to backslash)
                                stack   unchanged
                05h     output character
                        stack   word    character to output
                        return  stack   unchanged
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                06h     invoke critical error
                        return  AL      0-3 for Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                07h     move disk buffer (?)
                        DS:DI   pointer to disk buffer
                        return  buffer moved to end of buffer list
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                08h     decrement word
                        ES:DI   pointer to word to decrement
                        return  AX      new value of word
                        note    Word pointed to by ES:DI decremented,
                                skipping zero
                09h     unknown
                        DS:DI   pointer to disk buffer(?)
                        return  (?)
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                0Ah     unknown
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                0Bh     unknown
                        ES:DI   pointer to system file table entry(?)
                        return  AX      (?)
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                0Ch     unknown
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                0Dh     get date and time
                        return  AX      current date in packed format
                                DX      current time in packed format
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                0Eh     do something to all disk buffers (?)
                        return  DS:DI   pointer to first disk buffer
                        note    can be called only from within DOS
                0Fh     unknown
                        DS:DI   pointer to (?)
                        return  DS:DI pointer to (?)
                        note 1) Can be called only from within DOS
                             2) Calls on function 1207h
                10h     find dirty/clean(?) buffer
                        DS:DI   pointer to first disk buffer
                        return  DS:DI   pointer to first disk buffer which has
                                        (?) flag clear
                                ZF      clear   if found
                                        set     if not found
                11h     normalize ASCIIZ filename
                        DS:SI   pointer to ASCIIZ filename to normalize
                        ES:DI   pointer to buffer for normalized filename
                        return  destination buffer filled with uppercase
                                filename, with slashes turned to backslashes
                12h     get length of ASCIIZ string
                        ES:DI   pointer to ASCIIZ string
                        return  CX      length of string
                13h     uppercase character
                        stack   word    character to convert to uppercase
                        return  AL      uppercase character
                                stack   unchanged
                14h     compare far pointers
                        DS:SI   first pointer
                        ES:DI   second pointer
                        return  ZF      set if pointers are equal
                                ZF      clear if not equal
                15h     unknown
                        DS:DI   pointer to disk buffer
                        stack   word    (?)
                        return  stack unchanged
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                16h     get address of system FCB
                        BX      system file table entry number
                        return  ES:DI pointer to system file table entry
                17h     set default drive (?)
                        stack   word    drive (0=A:, 1=B:, etc)
                        return  DS:SI   pointer to drive data block for
                                        specified drive
                                stack   unchanged
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                18h     get something (?)
                        return  DS:SI pointer to (?)
                19h     unknown
                        stack   word    drive (0=default, 1=A:, etc)
                        return  (?)
                                stack unchanged
                        note 1) Can be called only from within DOS
                             2) Calls function 1217h
                1Ah     get file's drive
                        DS:SI   pointer to filename
                        return  AL      drive
                                        (0=default, 1=A:, etc, 0FFh=invalid)
                1Bh     set something (?)
                        CL      unknown
                        return  AL      (?)
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                1Ch     checksum memory
                        DS:SI   pointer to start of memory to checksum
                        CX      number of bytes
                        DX      initial checksum
                        return  DX      checksum
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                1Dh     unknown
                        DS:SI   pointer to (?)
                        CX      (?)
                        DX      (?)
                        return  AX      (?)
                                CX      (?)
                                DX      (?)

                1Eh     compare filenames
                        DS:SI   pointer to first ASCIIZ filename
                        ES:DI   pointer to second ASCIIZ filename
                        return  ZF      set     if filenames equivalent
                                        clear   if not
                1Fh     build drive info block
                        stack   word    drive letter
                        return  ES:DI pointer to drive info block
                                      (will be overwritten by next call)
                                stack unchanged
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                20h     get system file table number
                        BX      file handle
                        return  CF      set on error, error code in AL
                                        AL      06h (invalid file handle)
                                CF      clear if successful
                                        byte ES:[DI] = system file table entry
                                            number for file handle
                21h     unknown
                        DS:SI   pointer to (?)
                        return  (?)
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                22h     unknown
                        SS:SI   pointer to (?)
                        return  nothing(?)
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                23h     check if character device (?)
                        return  DS:SI   pointer to device driver with
                                        same name as (?)
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                24h     delay
                        return  after delay of (?) ms
                        note    Can be called only from within DOS
                25h     get length of ASCIIZ string
                        DS:SI   pointer to ASCIIZ string
                        return  CX      length of string


Function   43h  Microsoft Extended Memory Specification (XMS)


Function 5453h TesSeRact Standard for Ram-Resident Program Communication


Function   64h  SCRNSAV2.COM
entry   AH      64h
        AL      00h     installation check
return  AL      00h     not installed
                0FFh    installed
note    SCRNSAV2.COM is a screen saver for PS/2's with VGA by Alan Ballard


Function  7Ah   Novell NetWare
entry   AH      7Ah
        AL      00h     installation check
note 1) Returns address of entry point for IPX and SPX
     2) Parameters are listed under int 21


Function  087h  APPEND
entry   AH      087h
        AL      00h     APPEND installation check
                return  AH <> 0 if installed
                01h     APPEND - unknown
                02h     APPEND - version check

Function  088h  Microsoft Networks
entry   AH      088h
        AL      00h     network program installation check
                return  AH <> 0 if installed
                        BX      installed component flags (test in this order!)
                                bit 6   server
                                bit 2   messenger
                                bit 7   receiver
                                bit 3   redirector
                01h     unknown
                02h     unknown
                03h     get current POST address
                        return  ES:BX   POST address
                04h     set new POST address
                        ES:BX   new POST address
                09h     network version check


Function  0AAh  VIDCLOCK.COM
entry   AH      0AAh
        AL      00h     installation check
return  AL      00h     not installed
                0FFh    installed
note    VIDCLOCK.COM is a memory-resident clock by Thomas G. Hanlin III


Function  0BBh  Network Functions
entry   AH      0BBh
        AL      00h     net command installation check
                01h, 02h unknown
                03h     get server POST address
                04h     get server POST address


Function  0F7h  AUTOPARK.COM  (PD TSR hard disk parking utility)
entry   AH      0F7h
        AL      00h     installation check
                return  AL      00h     not installed
                                0FFh    installed
                note    AUTOPARK is a TSR HD parker by Alan D. Jones
        01h     set parking delay
                BX:CX   32 bit count of 55ms timer ticks



MSDOS 2Fh functions 01h (PRINT), 02h (ASSIGN), 10h (SHARE):
return  AX      Error
                Codes       Description
                01h     invalid function number
                02h     file not found
                03h     path not found
                04h     too many open files
                05h     access denied
                06h     invalid handle
                08h     queue full
                09h     busy
                0Ch     name too long
                0Fh     invalid drive was specified
        CF      clear (0) if OK
                set (1) if error - error returned in AX
note 1) The multiplex numbers AH=0h through AH=7Fh are reserved for DOS.
        Applications should use multiplex numbers 80h through 0FFh.
     2) When in the chain for int 2Fh, if your code calls DOS or if you execute
        with interrupts enabled, your code must be reentrant/recursive.
     3) Important! In versions of DOS prior to 3.0, the int 2Fh vector was
        initialized to zero rather than being pointed into the DOS service area.
        You must initialize this vector manually under DOS 2.x.



旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 Miscellaneous Interrupts - in numerical order                               
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

Interrupt 30h   (not a vector!) far jump instruction for CP/M-style calls


Interrupt 31h   Unknown
note    The CALL 5 entry point does a FAR jump to here


Interrupt 32h   Unknown


Interrupt 33h   Used by Microsoft Mouse Driver
                Function Calls

Function Requests

        00h     Reset Driver and Read Status
        entry   AH      00h
        return  AH      status
                        0  hardware/driver not installed
                       -1  hardware/driver installed
                BX      number of buttons
                       -1       two buttons
                        0       other than two
                        3       Mouse Systems mouse

        01h     Show Mouse Cursor
        entry   AH      01h
        return  unknown

        02h     Hide Mouse Cursor
        entry   AH      02h
        return  unknown
        note    multiple calls to hide the cursor will require multiple calls
                to function 01h to unhide it.

        03h     Return Position and Button Status
        entry   AH      03h
        return  BX      button status
                        bit 0   left button pressed if 1
                        bit 1   right button pressed if 1
                        bit 2   middle button pressed if 1 (Mouse Systems mouse)
                CX      column
                DX      row

        04h     Position Mouse Cursor
        entry   AH      04h
                CX      column
                DX      row
                return  unknown

        05h     Return Button Press Data
        entry   AH      05h
                BX      button
                        0 left
                        1 right
                        2 middle (Mouse Systems mouse)
        return  AH      button states
                        bit 0   left button pressed if 1
                        bit 1   right button pressed if 1
                        bit 2   middle button pressed if 1 (Mouse Systems mouse)
                BX      no. of times specified button pressed since last call
                CX      column at time specified button was last pressed
                DX      row at time specified button was last pressed

        06h     Return Button Release Data
        entry   AH      06h
                BX      button
                        0       left
                        1       right
                        2       middle (Mouse Systems mouse)
        return  AH      button states
                        bit 0   left button pressed if 1
                        bit 1   right button pressed if 1
                        bit 2   middle button pressed if 1 (Mouse Systems mouse)
                BX      no. of times specified button released since last call
                CX      column at time specified button was last released
                DX      row at time specified button was last released

        07h     Define Horizontal Cursor Range
        entry   AH      0007h
                CX      minimum column
                DX      maximum column
        return  unknown

        08h     Define Vertical Cursor Range
        entry   AH      08h
                CX      minimum row
                DX      maximum row
                return  unknown

        09h     Define Graphics Cursor
        entry   AH      09h
                BX      column of cursor hot spot in bitmap (-16 to 16)
                CX      row of cursor hot spot  (-16 to 16)
                ES:DX   pointer to bitmap
                        16 words screen mask
                        16 words cursor mask
                return  unknown
                note    Each word defines the sixteen pixels of a row, low bit
                        rightmost

        0Ah     Define Text Cursor
        entry   AH      0Ah
                BX      hardware/software text cursor
                        00h     software
                                CX      screen mask
                                DX      cursor mask
                        01h     hardware
                                CX      start scan line
                                DX      end scan line
        return  unknown
        note    When the software cursor is selected, the char/attribute data
                at the current screen position is ANDed with the screen mask
                and the with the cursor mask

        0Bh     Read Motion Counters
        entry   AH      0Bh
        return  CX      number of mickeys mouse moved horiz. since last call
                DX      number of mickeys mouse moved vertically
        note 1) A mickey is the smallest increment the mouse can sense.
                Positive values indicate up/right

        0Ch     Define Interrupt Subroutine Parameters
        entry   AH      0Ch
                CX      call mask bit
                        bit 0   call if mouse moves
                        bit 1   call if left button pressed
                        bit 2   call if left button released
                        bit 3   call if right button pressed
                        bit 4   call if right button released
                        bit 5   call if middle button pressed (Mouse Systems)
                        bit 6   call if middle button released (Mouse Systems)
                ES:DX  address of FAR routine
        return  unknown
        note    when the subroutine is called, it is passed these values:
                AH      condition mask (same bit assignments as call mask)
                BX      button state
                CX      cursor column
                DX      cursor row
                DI      horizontal mickey count
                SI      vertical mickey count

        0Dh     Light Pen Emulation On
        entry   AH      0Dh
        return  unknown

        0Eh     Light Pen Emulation Off
        entry   AH      0Eh
        return  unknown

        0Fh     Define Mickey/Pixel Ratio
        entry   AH      0Fh
                CX      number of mickeys per 8 pixels horizontally
                DX      number of mickeys per 8 pixels vertically
        return  unknown

        10h     Define Screen Region for Updating
        entry   AH      10h
                CX,DX   X,Y coordinates of upper left corner
                SI,DI   X,Y coordinates of lower right corner
        return  unknown
        note    Mouse cursor is hidden during updating, and needs to be
                explicitly turned on again

        11h     not documented by Microsoft

        12h     Set Large Graphics Cursor Block
                AH      12h
                BH      cursor width in words
                CH      rows in cursor
                BL      horizontal hot spot (-16 to 16)
                CL      vertical hot spot (-16 to 16)
                ES:DX   pointer to bit map of screen and cursor maps
        return  AH     -1 if successful
        note    PC Mouse. Not documented by Microsoft

        13h     Define Double-Speed Threshold
        entry   AH      13h
                DX      threshold speed in mickeys/second,
                        0 = default of 64/second
        return  unknown
        note    If speed exceeds threshold, the cursor's on-screen motion
                is doubled

        14h     Exchange Interrupt Subroutines
        entry   AH      14h
        return  unknown

        15h     Return Drive Storage Requirements
        entry   AH      15h
        return  BX      size of buffer needed to store driver state

        16h     Save Driver State
        entry   AH      16h
                ES:DX   pointer to buffer
        return  unknown

        17h     Restore Driver State
        entry   AH      17h
                ES:DX   pointer to buffer containing saved state
        return  unknown

        18h-1Ch not documented by Microsoft; unknown

        1Dh     Define Display Page Number
        entry   AH      1Dh

        1Eh     Return Display Page Number
        entry   AH      1Eh
        return  unknown

        42h     PCMouse - Get MSmouse Storage Requirements
                AH      42h
                return  AX      0FFFFh successful
                BX      buffer size in bytes for functions 50h and 52h
                        00h     MSmouse not installed
                        42h     functions 42h, 50h, and 52h not supported

        52h     PCMouse - Save MSmouse State
        entry   AH      50h
                BX      buffer size
                ES:DX   pointer to buffer
                return  AX      0FFFFh if successful

        52h     PCMouse - restore MSmouse state
        entry   AH      52h
                BX      buffer size
                ES:DX   pointer to buffer
                return  AX      0FFFFh if successful


Int 33: In addition, the following functions are appended to BIOS int 10h and
        implemented as the EGA Register Interface Library:

        0F0h    read one register
        0F1h    write one register
        0F2h    read consecutive register range
        0F3h    write consecutive register range
        0F4h    read non-consecutive register set
        0F5h    write non-consecutive register set
        0F6h    revert to default register values
        0F7h    define default register values
        0FAh    get driver status



Interrupt 34h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates opcode 0D8h


Interrupt 35h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates opcode 0D9h


Interrupt 36h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates opcode 0DAh


Interrupt 37h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates opcode 0DBh


Interrupt 38h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates opcode 0DCh


Interrupt 39h   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates opcode 0DDh


Interrupt 3Ah   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates opcode 0DEh


Interrupt 3Bh   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates opcode 0DFh


Interrupt 3Ch   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This int emulates instructions with an ES segment override


Interrupt 3Dh   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation
                This interrupt emulates a standalone FWAIT instruction


Interrupt 3Eh   Turbo C/Microsoft languages - Floating Point emulation


Interrupt 3Fh   Overlay manager interrupt (Microsoft LINK.EXE)
                Default overlay interrupt; may be changed with LINK switch


Interrupt 40h   Hard Disk BIOS
                Pointer to disk BIOS entry when a hard disk controller is
                installed. The BIOS routines use int 30h to revector the
                diskette handler (original int 13h) here so int 40 may be used
                for hard disk control


Interrupt 41h   Hard Disk Parameters  (XT,AT,XT2,XT286,PS except ESDI disks)
                Pointer to first Hard Disk Parameter Block, normally located
                in the controller card's ROM. This table may be copied to RAM
                and changed, and this pointer revectored to the new table.
note 1) format of parameter table is:
        dw      cylinders
        db      heads
        dw      starting reduced write current cylinder (XT only, 0 for others)
        db      maximum ECC burst length
        db      control byte
                  bits 0-2 drive option (XT only, 0 for others)
                  bit 3    set if more than 8 heads
                  bit 4    always 0
                  bit 5    set if manufacturer's defect map on max cylinder+1
                  bit 6    disable ECC retries
                  bit 7    disable access retries
        db      standard timeout (XT only, 0 for others)
        db      formatting timeout (XT only, 0 for others)
        db      timeout for checking drive (XT only, 0 for others)
        dw      landing zone    (AT, PS/2)
        db      sectors/track   (AT, PS/2)
        db      0
     2) normally vectored to ROM table when system is initialized.


Interrupt 42h   Pointer to screen BIOS entry  (EGA, VGA, PS/2)
                Relocated (by EGA, etc.) video handler (original int 10h).
                Revectors int 10 calls to EGA BIOS.


Interrupt 43h   Pointer to EGA graphics character table. The POST initializes
                this vector pointing to the default table located in the EGA
                ROM BIOS. (PC-2 and up). Not initialized if EGA not present.
                This vector was referred to (mistakenly) as the Video
                Parameters table in the original EGA BIOS listings.


Interrupt 44h   Pointer to graphics character table. This table contains the
(0:0110h)       dot patterns for the first 128 characters in video modes 4,5,
                and 6, and all 256 characters in all additional graphics modes.
                Not initialized if EGA not present.
             2) EGA/VGA/CONV/PS - EGA/PCjr fonts, characters 00h to 7Fh
             3) Novell NetWare - High-Level Language API
             4) This interrupt is not used by some EGA cards.


Interrupt 45h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 46h   Pointer to second hard disk, parameter block (AT, XT/286, PS/2)
                (see int 41h) (except ESDI hard disks) (not initialized unless
                specific user software calls for it)


Interrupt 47h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 48h   Cordless Keyboard Translation (PCjr, XT [never delivered])
(0:0120h)       This vector points to code to translate the cordless keyboard
                scancodes into normal 83-key values. The translated scancodes
                are then passed to int 9. (not initialized on PC or AT)


Interrupt 49h   Non-keyboard Scan Code Translation Table Address (PCjr)
(0:0124h)       This interrupt is used for operation of non-keyboard devices
                on the PCjr, such as the Keystronic Numeric Keypad.
                This interrupt has the address of a table used to translate
                non-keyboard scancodes (greater than 85 excepting 255). This
                interrupt can be revectored by a user application. IBM
                recommends that the default table be stored at the beginning
                of an application that required revectoring this interrupt,
                and that the default table be restored when the application
                terminates. (not initialized on PC or AT)

                The PCjr BIOS can interpret scancodes other than those
                generated by the keyboard to allow for expansion. The keyboard
                generates scancodes from 01h to 055h, including 0FFh. Any
                scancodes above 55h (56h through 7Eh for make codes and 0D6h
                through 0FEh for break codes) are processed in the following
                manner:
                1) if the incoming make code falls within the range of the
                   translate table whose address is pointed to by int 49h, it
                   is translated into the corresponding scancode. Any incoming
                   break codes above 0D5h are ignored.
                2) if the new translated scancode ius less and 56h, it is
                   processed by the BIOS as a keyboard scancode and the same
                   data is placed in the BIOS keyboard buffer.
                3) if the translated scancode is higher than 55h or the
                   incoming scancode is outside the range of the translate
                   table, 40h is added creating a new extended scancode. The
                   extended scancode is placed in the BIOS keyboard buffer with
                   the character code of 00h (NUL). This utilitizes the range
                   of 96h through 0BEh for scancodes 56h through 7Eh.

                The default translate-table maps scancodes 56h through 6Ah to
                existing keyboard values. Codes 6Bh theough 0BEh are mapped (by
                adding 40h) to extended codes 0ABh through 0FEh since they are
                outside the range of the default translate table.

                The format of the translate table is:
                0       length - the number of nonkeyboard scancodes that are
                        mapped within the table (from 1 to n)
                1 to n  word  high byte 00h (NUL) byte scancode with low order
                        byte representing the scancode mapped values relative
                        to their input values within the range of 56h through
                        7Eh

                With this layout, all keyboard scancodes can be intercepted
                through int 9h and and nonkeyboard scancodes can be intercepted
                through int 48h.


Interrupt 4Ah   Real-Time Clock Alarm (Convertible, PS/2)
                (not initialized on PC or AT)
                Invoked by BIOS when real-time clock alarm occurs


Interrupt 4Bh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 4Ch   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 4Dh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 4Eh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)
                Used instead of int 13h for disk I/O on TI Professional PC


Interrupt 4Fh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 50-57 IRQ0-IRQ7 relocated by DesQview
                (normally not initialized)


Interrupt 58h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 59h   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)
                GSS Computer Graphics Interface (GSS*CGI)
                DS:DX   Pointer to block of 5 array pointers
                return  CF      0
                        AX      return code
                        CF      1
                        AX      error code
                note 1) Int 59 is the means by which GSS*CGI language bindings
                        communicate with GSS*CGI device drivers and the GSS*CGI
                        device driver controller.
                     2) Also used by the IBM Graphic Development Toolkit


Interrupt 5Ah   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 5Bh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 5Ah   Cluster Adapter BIOS entry address
                (normally not initialized)


Interrupt 5Bh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized) (cluster adapter?)


Interrupt 5Ch   NETBIOS interface entry port
                ES:BX   pointer to network control block
return  AL      error code (0 if none)
note 1) When the NETBIOS is installed, interrupts 13 and 17 are interrupted by
        the NETBIOS; interrupt 18 is moved to int 86 and one of int 2 or 3 is
        used by NETBIOS. Also, NETBIOS extends the int 15 function 90 and 91h
        functions (scheduler functions)
     2) Normally not initialized.
     3) TOPS network card uses DMA 1, 3 or none.


Interrupt 5Dh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 5Eh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 5Fh   Reserved by IBM  (not initialized)


Interrupt 60h-67h  User Program Interrupts (availible for general use)
                   Various major programs make standardized use of this group
                   of interrupts. Details of common use follows


Interrupt 60h   10-Net Network

entry   AH      11h     Lock and Wait
        AL      drive number or 0
        DX      number of seconds to wait
        ES:SI   Ethernet address or 0
        DS:BX   pointer to 31-byte ASCIIZ semaphore name
return  AL      status
                0       successful
                1       timeout
                2       server not responding
                3       invalid semaphore name
                4       semaphore list is full
                5       invalid drive ID
                6       invalid Ethernet address
                7       not logged in
                8       write to network failed
                9       semaphore already logged for this CPU

entry   AH      12h     Lock
        AL      drive number or 0 for default
        ES:SI   Ethernet address or 0
        DS:BX   pointer to 31-byte ASCIIZ semaphore name
return  AL      status (see function 11h)
                1       semaphore currently logged
note    Unlike function 11h, this function returns immediately

entry   AH      13h     Unlock
        AL      drive number or 0
        ES:SI   Ethernet address or 0
        DS:BX   pointer to 31-byte ASCIIZ semaphore name
return  AL      status (see function 11h)
                1       semaphore not logged


Interrupt 67h   Used by Lotus-Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification
        user    and Ashton-Tate/Quadram/AST Enhanced Expanded Memory
                specification (See Chapter 10)


Interrupt 68h   Not Used  (not initialized)


Interrupt 69h   Not Used  (not initialized)


Interrupt 6Ah   Not Used  (not initialized)


Interrupt 6Bh   Not Used  (not initialized)


Interrupt 6Ch   System Resume Vector (Convertible) (not initialized on PC)
                DOS 3.2 Realtime Clock update


Interrupt 6Dh   Not Used  (not initialized)


Interrupt 6Eh   Not Used  (not initialized)


Interrupt 6Fh   Novell NetWare - PCOX API (3270 PC terminal interface)
Interrupt 6Fh   10-Net Network API
entry   AH      00h     Login
        DS:DX   login record
              8 bytes user name
              8 bytes password
             12 bytes name of super-station
                return  CL      security level
                        AX      status
                                0000h   good login
                                0FF01h  no response from superstation
                                0FF02h  network error
                                0FF03h  invalid password
                                0FF04h  no local buffer
                                0FF05h  superstation not available
                                0FF06h  node already logged in
                                0FF07h  login not valid from this node
                                0FF08h  node ID already in use
                01h     Logoff
                return  CX      number of files closed
                        AX      status
                                0000h   successful
                                0FF08h  superstation ID not already logged in
                02h     Status of node
                DS:DX   pointer to 512-byte record
                      8 bytes user name (0 if none)
                        byte  station type
                              0  workstation
                              1  superstation
                              4  logged into multiple superstations
                     24 bytes list of superstations logged into more than one
                        superstation
                     12 bytes node ID
                        word  message count for this station (send for user
                              node, receive for superstations)
                        for superstations only:
                        word  drives allocated (bit 0=A:, bit 1=B:,...)
                        byte  user service flag
                              bit 4: SUBMIT is on
                                  3: mail waiting for node
                                  2: calendar waiting for you
                                  1: news waiting for you
                                  0: mail waiting for you
                        byte    printers allocated (bit 0=LPT1,...)
                        byte    number of unprinted spool files
                        byte    number of opened files
                        byte    number of logged on files
                        byte    primary drive (1=A:)
                        byte    reserved
                      n bytes   list of logged on node IDs (each 12 bytes, max
                                38 IDs)
                return  CF      set on error
                                AX      error code
                                        0FF01h  no response from node
                                        0FF02h  network error
                                        0FF04h  no local buffer
                                        0FF16h  invalid node ID
                03h     Get Address of Configuration Table
                return  ES:BX   pointer to record (actually starts at [BX-25])
                                word    count of dropped Send6F
                                word    buffer start address
                                word    comm driver base address
                                word    send/receive retry count
                                byte    number of 550ms loops
                                word    UFH address
                                word    CDIR address
                                word    LTAB address
                                word    SFH address
                                word    FTAB address
                                word    RLTAB address
                                word    SMI address
                                word    NTAB address
                      ES:BX     pointer to word address of first CT_DRV
                                byte  number of DRV entries
                              8 bytes login name
                             12 bytes node ID
                              6 bytes node address
                                byte  flag
                                byte    CT_CFLG
                                        bit 1: sound bell
                                        bit 0: CHAT permit
                                byte    CT_PSFLG
                                        bit 5: PRINT permit
                                        bit 4: KB initiated
                                        bit 3: CHAT called FOXPTRM
                                        bit 2: SUBMIT active
                                        bit 1: SUBMIT received
                                        bit 0: SUBMIT permit
                                byte    reserved
                                word    receive message count
                                word    send message count
                                word    retry count
                                word    failed count
                                word    driver errors
                                word    dropped responses/CHATs
                              9 bytes   list ID/NTAB address (3 entries-LPT1-3?)
                              6 bytes   AUX ID/NTAB address (2 entries-COM1-2?)
                                byte    active CB channel
                                byte    received 6F messages on queue
                              9 bytes   activity counters for channels 1-9
                04h     Send
                        DS:BX   pointer to record
                             12 bytes   receiving node's ID
                                word    length of data at DX
                        DS:DX   pointer to data (max 1024 bytes)
                return  CF      set on error
                        AX      error code
                                0FF01h  timeout
                                0FF02h  network error
                                0FF04h  no local buffer
                                0FF16h  invalid parameter (bad length)
                05h     Receive
                        CX      number of seconds before timeout
                        DS:DX   pointer to receive buffer
                             12 bytes   sending node's ID
                                word    length of message
                              n bytes   message (maximum 1024 bytes)
                return CF       set on error
                                AX      error code
                                        0FF01h  timeout
                                        0FF18h  sent message has been dropped
                06h     Unknown
                07h     Lock Handle
                        BX      file handle
                        CX:DX   starting offset in file
                        SI      record length
                return  CF      set on error
                                AX      error code
                                        0FF01h  timeout
                                        02h     file not found
                                        0FF17h  record locked by another user
                08h     Unlock Handle
                        BX      file handle
                        AL      mode
                                0       unlock all
                                1       unlock record at CX:DX
                return  CF      set on error
                                AX      error code
                                        02h     file not found
                0Bh     Lock Semaphore, Return Immediately
                        AL      drive number or 0
                        ES:SI   Ethernet address or 0
                        DS:BX   pointer to 31-byte ASCIIZ semaphore name
                return  AL      status
                                0       successful
                                1       semaphore currently locked
                                2       server not responding
                                3       invalid semaphore name
                                4       semaphore list is full
                                5       invalid drive ID
                                6       invalid Ethernet address
                                7       not logged in
                                8       write to network failed
                                9       semaphore already logged in this CPU
                0Ch     unlock semaphore
                        AL      drive number or 0
                        ES:SI   Ethernet address or 0
                        DS:BX   pointer to 31-byte ASCIIZ semaphore name
                return  AL      status (see AH=0Bh)
                                1 semaphore not locked
                0Dh     Who
                        CX      length of data
                        DS:DX   pointer to array of records to be filled
                             12 bytes   node ID
                                byte    flag (1=workstation, 2=superstation)
                return  CL      number of records returned (responding stations)
                0Eh     spool/print
                DS:DX   pointer to record
                        word    0       initiate spool
                                1       abort print
                                2       close spool
                                3       delete spool
                                4       print
                                5       get report info
                     11 bytes file name
                        byte    notification
                                bit 6:  do ID page
                                bit 5:  no form feed
                                bit 3:  notify at print completion
                                bit 2:  notify at print start and reply?
                                bit 1:  notify at print start
                                bit 0:  no notification
                        byte    days to keep (0FFh=forever)
                        byte    device (1=LPT1)
                        word    length of following data area
                      n bytes   $SCNT records returned if code in first word
                                is 05h
                return  CF      set on error
                                AX      error code
                                        0FF16h  invalid parameter
                                        0FF17h  device not mounted
                                        0FF18h  already spooling to named device
                11h     Lock FCB
                        AL      mode
                                0       sequential
                                1       random
                                2       random block
                        DS:DX   pointer to FCB
                return  CF      set on error
                                AX       02h    file not found
                                         0FF01h timeout
                                         0FF17h record locked by another user
                12h     Unlock FCB
                        AL      mode
                                0       sequential
                                1       random
                                2       random block
                        DS:DX   pointer to FCB
                return  CF      set on error
                                AX      02h     file not found


Interrupt 70h   IRQ 8, Real Time Clock Interrupt  (AT, XT/286, PS/2)


Interrupt 71h   IRQ 9, Redirected to IRQ 8 (AT, XT/286, PS/2)
                LAN Adapter 1 (rerouted to int 0Ah [IRQ2] by BIOS)


Interrupt 72h   IRQ 10  (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved


Interrupt 73h   IRQ 11  (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved


Interrupt 74h   IRQ 12  Mouse Interrupt (PS/2)


Interrupt 75h   IRQ 13, Coprocessor Error, BIOS Redirect to int 2 (NMI) (AT)


Interrupt 76h   IRQ 14, Hard Disk Controller (AT, XT/286, PS/2)


Interrupt 77h   IRQ 15 (AT, XT/286, PS/2)  Reserved


Interrupt 78h   Not Used


Interrupt 79h   Not Used


Interrupt 7Ah   Novell NetWare - LOW-LEVEL API


Interrupt 7Bh-7Eh  Not Used


Interrupt 7Fh   unknown
                Used by second copy of COMMAND set with SHELL=
                Not used by COMMAND /C at DOS prompt


Interrupt 80h-85h  Reserved by BASIC
note    interrupts 80h through ECh are apparently unused and not initialized.


Interrupt 86h   Relocated by NETBIOS int 18


Interrupt 86h-0F0h  Used by BASIC when BASIC interpreter is running


Intrerrupt 0E0h CP/M-86 function calls


Interrupt 0E4h  Logitech Modula-2 v2.0   MONITOR
entry   AX      05h     monitor entry
                06h     monitor exit
        BX      priority


Interrupt 0F0h  unknown
                Used by secondary copy of COMMAND when SHELL= set
                Not used by COMMAND /C at DOS prompt


Interrupts 0F1h-0FFh  (absolute addresses 3C4-3FF)
                      Location of Interprocess Communications Area


Interrupt 0F8h  Set Shell Interrupt (OEM)
                Set OEM handler for int 21h calls from 0F9h through 0FFh
entry   AH      0F8h
        DS:DX   pointer to handler for Functions 0F9h thru 0FFh
note 1) To reset these calls, pass DS and DX with 0FFFFh. DOS is set up to
        allow ONE handler for all 7 of these calls. Any call to these handlers
        will result in the carry bit being set and AX will contain 1 if they are
        not initialized. The handling routine is passed all registers just as
        the user set them. The OEM handler routine should be exited through an
        IRET.
     2) 10 ms interval timer (Tandy?)


Interrupt 0F9h  First of 8 SHELL service codes, reserved for OEM shell (WINDOW);
                use like HP Vectra user interface?


Interrupt 0FAh  USART ready (RS-232C)


Interrupt 0FBh  USART RS ready (keyboard)


Interrupt 0FCh  Unknown


Interrupt 0FDh  reserved for user interrupt


Interrupt 0FEh  AT/XT286/PS50+ - destroyed by return from protected mode


Interrupt 0FFh  AT/XT286/PS50+ - destroyed by return from protected mode



       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                             C H A P T E R   S I X

                       DOS CONTROL BLOCKS AND WORK AREAS


 Contrary to popular belief, DOS is not limited to 640k of work space. This 
constraint is enforced by the mapping of ROM and video RAM into the default 1 
megabyte CPU address space. Some MSDOS compatible machines, such as the Sanyo 
55x series, can have as much as 768k of contiguous DOS workspace with the 
appropriate option boards. Since DOS has no real memory management, it cannot 
deal with a fragmented workspace. Fragmented RAM (such as RAM mapped into the 
option ROM address space) can be dealt with as a RAMdisk or other storage area 
by using a device driver or other software.

 The 80386 CPU and appropriate control software can create a DOS workspace of 
more than one megabyte. Certain add-on boards can also add more than a 
megabyte of workspace, but only for specially written software. Since these 
are all proprietary schemes, little information is availible at present.

 When DOS loads a program, it first sets aside a section of memory for the 
program called the program segment, or code segment. Then it constructs a 
control block called the program segment prefix, or PSP, in the first 256 
(100h) bytes. Usually, the program is loaded directly after the PSP at 100h.
 The PSP contains various information used by DOS to help run the program.  
The PSP is always located at offset 0 within the code segment. When a program 
recieves control certain registers are set to point to the PSP. For a COM 
file, all registers are set to point to the beginning of the PSP and the 
program begins at 100h. For the more complex EXE file structures, only DS and 
ES registers are set to point to the PSP. The linker passes the settings for 
the DS, IP, SS, and SP registers and may set the starting location in CS:IP to 
a location other than 100h.

 IBMBIO provides an IRET instruction at absolute address 847h for use as a 
dummy routine for interrupts that are not used by DOS. This lets the interrupts
do nothing until their vectors are rerouted to their appropriate handlers.

 A storage block is used by DOS to record the amount and location of allocated 
memory within the machine's address space.
 A storage block, a Program Segment Prefix, and an environment area are built 
by DOS for each program currently resident in the address space. The storage 
block is used by DOS to record the address range of memory allocated to a 
program. It is used by DOS to find the next availible area to load a program 
and to determine if there is enough memory to run that porogram. When a 
memory area is in use, it is said to be allocated. Then the program ends, or 
releases memory, it is said to be deallocated. 
 A storage block contains a pointer to the Program Segment Prefix associated 
with each program. This control block is constructed by IBMDOS for the purpose 
of providing standardized areas for DOS/program communication. Within the 
PSP are areas which  are used to save interrupt vectors, pass parameters to 
the program, record disk directory information, and to buffer disk reads and 
writes. This control block is 100h bytes in length and is followed by the 
program module loaded by DOS. 
 The PSP contains a pointer to the environment area for that program. This 
area contains a copy of the current DOS SET, PROMPT, COMSPEC, and PATH values 
as well as any user-set variables. The program may examine and modify this 
information as desired. 
 Each storage block is 10h bytes long, although only 5 bytes are currently 
used by DOS. The first byte contains 4Dh (a capital M) to indicate that it 
contains a pointer to the next storage block. A 5Ah (a capital Z) in the 
first byte of a storage block indicatres there are no more storage blocks 
following this one (it is the end of the chain). The identifier byte is 
followed by a 2 byte segment number for the associated PSP for that program. 
The next 2 bytes contain the number of segments what are allocated to the 
program. If this is not the last storage block, then another storage block 
follows the allocated memory area.
 When the storage block contains zero for the number of allocated segments, 
then no storage is allocated to this block and the next storage block 
immediately follows this one. This can happen when memory is allocated and 
then deallocated repeatedly.
 IBMDOS constructs a storage block and PSP before loading the command 
interpreter (default is COMMAND.COM).

 If the copy of COMMAND.COM is a secondary copy, it will lack an environment 
address at PSP+2Ch.
 


THE DISK TRANSFER AREA (DTA)쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 DOS uses an area in memory to contain the data for all file reads and writes 
that are performed with FCB function calls. This are is known as the disk 
transfer area. This disk transfer area (DTA) is sometimes called a buffer. 
It can be located anywhere in the data area of your application program and 
should be set by your program.

 Only one DTA can be in effect at a time, so your program must tell DOS what 
memory location to use before using any disk read or write functions. Use 
function call 1Ah (Set Disk Transfer Address) to set the disk transfer address.
Use function call 2Fh (Get Disk Transfer Address) to get the disk transfer 
address. Once set, DOS continues to use that area for all disk operations until
another function call 1Ah is issued to define a new DTA. When a program is given
control by COMMAND.COM, a default DTA large enough to hold 128 bytes is 
established at 80h into the program's Program Segment Prefix.

 For file reads and writes that are performed with the extended function calls,
there is no need to set a DTA address. Instead, specify a buffer address when 
you issue the read or write call.


DOS PROGRAM SEGMENT쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 When you enter an external command or call a program through the EXEC function 
call, DOS determines the lowest availible address space to use as the start of 
available memory for the program being started. This area is called the Program
Segment.
 At offset 0 within the program segment, DOS builds the Program Segment Prefix 
control block. EXEC loads the program after the Program Segment Prefix (at
offset 100h) and gives it control.
 The program returns from EXEC by a jump to offset 0 in the Program Segment 
Prefix, by issuing an int 20h, or by issuing an int 21h with register AH=00h or 
4Ch, or by calling location 50h in the PSP with AH=00h or 4Ch.
 It is the responsibility of all programs to ensure that the CS register 
contains the segment address of the Program Segment Prefix when terminating by
any of these methods except call 4Ch.

 All of these methods result in returning to the program that issued the EXEC. 
During this returning process, interrupt vectors 22h, 23h, and 24h (Terminate, 
Ctrl-Break, and Critical Error Exit addresses) are restored from the values 
saved in the PSP of the terminating program. Control is then given to the 
terminate address.


When a program receives control, the following conditions are in effect:

For all programs:

1) The segment address of the passed environment is contained at offset 2Ch in 
   the Program Segment Prefix.

2) The environment is a series of ASCII strings totalling less than 32k bytes
   in the form:       NAME=value      The default environment is 160 bytes.
    Each string is a maximum of 127 bytes terminated by a byte of zeroes for a 
   total of 128 bytes, and the entire set of strings is terminated by another
   byte of zeroes. Following the byte of zeroes that terminates the set of
   environment string is a set of initial arguments passed to a program that
   contains a word count followed by an ASCIIZ string. The ASCIIZ string
   contains the drive, path, and filename.ext of the executable program.
   Programs may use this area to determine where the program was loaded from.
   The environment built by the command processor (and passed to all programs
   it invokes) contains a COMSPEC=string at a minimum (the parameter on COMSPEC
   is the path used by DOS to locate COMMAND.COM on disk). The last PATH and
   PROMPT commands issued will also be in the environment, along with any 
   environment strings entered through the SET command. 
    The environment that you are passed is actually a copy of the invoking 
   process's environment. If your application terminates and stays resident 
   through int 27h, you should be aware that the copy of the environment passed 
   to you is static. That is, it will not change even if subsequent PATH,
   PROMPT, or SET commands are issued.
    The size of the environment may be changed from its default of 160 bytes
   by using the SHELL= command in the config.sys from in DOS version 3.1 up,
   or COMMAND.COM may be patched in earlier versions.
 
   The environment can be used to transfer information between processes or to
   store strings for later use by application programs. The environment is
   always located on a paragraph boundary. This is its format:
        byte    ASCIIZ string 1
        byte    ASCIIZ string 2
            ....
        byte    ASCIIZ string n
        byte    of zeros (0)
   Typically the environment strings have the form:
        NAME = VALUE
   The length of NAME or VALUE can be anything desired as long as it still fits
   into the 123 byte space (4 bytes are used by "SET ").
   Following the byte of zeros in the environment, a WORD indicates the number 
   of other strings following. 

   If the environment is part of an EXECed command interpreter, it is followed 
   by a copy of the DS:DX filename passed to the child process. A zero value 
   causes the newly created process to inherit the parent's environment.

3) Offset 80h in the PSP contains code to invoke the DOS function dispatcher.
   Thus, by placing the desired function number in AH, a program can issue a
   long call to PSP+50h to invoke a DOS function rather than issuing an int 21h.

4) The disk transfer address (DTA) is set to 80h (default DTA in PSP).

5) File Control Blocks 5Ch and 6Ch are formatted from the first two parameters 
   entered when the command was invoked. Note that if either parameter contained
   a path name, then the corresponding FCB will contain only a valid drive
   number. The filename field will not be valid.

6) An unformatted parameter area at 81h contains all the characters entered
   after the command name (including leading and imbedded delimiters), with 80h
   set to the number of characters. If the <, >, or | parameters were entered
   on the command line, they (and the filenames associated with them) will not
   appear in this area, because redirection of standard input and output is
   transparent to applications.

(For EXE files only)
7) DS and ES registers are set to point to the PSP.

8) CS, IP, SS, and SP registers are set to the values passed by the linker.

(For COM files only)
9) For COM files, offset 6 (one word) contains the number of bytes availible in 
   the segment.

10) Register AX reflects the validity of drive specifiers entered with the
    first two parameters as follows:
        AL=0FFh is the first parameter contained an invalid drive specifier,
                otherwise AL=00h.
        AL=0FFh if the second parameter contained an invalid drive specifier, 
                otherwise AL=00h.

11) All four segment registers contain the segment address of the inital 
    allocation block, that starts within the PSP control block. All of user
    memory is allocated to the program. If the program needs to invoke another
    program through the EXEC function call (4Bh), it must first free some memory
    through the SETBLOCK function call to provide space for the program being
    invoked.

12) The Instruction Pointer (IP) is set to 100h.

13) The SP register is set to the end of the program's segment. The segment size
    at offset 6 is rounded down to the paragraph size.

14) A word of zeroes is placed on top of the stack.


 The PSP (with offsets in hexadecimal) is formatted as follows:
 (* = undocumented)

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
     P  R  O  G  R  A  M       S  E  G  M  E  N  T       P  R  E  F  I  X     
쳐컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 offset   size                        C O N T E N T S                       
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0000h  2 bytes   int 20h                                                   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0002h  2 bytes   segment address, end of allocation block                  
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0004h  1 byte    reserved, normally 0                                      
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0005h  5 bytes   FAR call to MSDOS function dispatcher (int 21h)           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 000Ah  4 bytes   previous termination handler interrupt vector (int 22h)   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 000Eh  4 bytes   previous contents of ctrl-C interrupt vector (int 23h)    
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0012h  4 bytes   prev. critical error handler interrupt vector (int 24h)   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0016h  22 bytes  reserved for DOS                                          
읕컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
      *  2 bytes   (16) parent process' PSP                                  
      *  20 bytes  (18) "handle table" used for redirection of files         
旼컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 002Ch  2 bytes   segment address of the program's environment block        
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 002Eh  34 bytes  reserved, DOS work area                                   
읕컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
      *   4 bytes  (2E) stores the calling process's stack pointer when      
                        switching to DOS's internal stack.                   
      *            (32) DOS 3.x max open files                               
      *   2 bytes  (3A) size of handle table   |these functions are in here  
      *   4 bytes  (3C) handle table address   |but reported addresses vary  
旼컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0050h   3 bytes  int 21h, RETF instruction                                 
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0053h   2 bytes  reserved - unused?                                        
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0055h   7 bytes  reserved, or FCB#1 extension                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 005Ch  16 bytes  default unopened File Control Block #1                    
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 006Ch  16 bytes  default unopened FCB #2 (overlaid if FCB #1 opened)       
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0080h   1 byte   parameter length (number of chars entered after filename) 
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 0081h    ...     parameters                                                
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 00FFh  128 bytes command tail and default Disk Transfer Area (DTA)         
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸


1. The first segment of availible memory is in segment (paragraph) form. For 
   example, 1000h would respresent 64k.

2. Offset 2Ch contains the segment address of the environment.

3. Programs must not alter any part of the PSP below offset 5Ch.


PSP (comments):

offset 00h  contains hex bytes CD 20, the int 20h opcode. A program can end
            by making a jump to this location when the CS points to the PSP.
            For normal cases, int 21, function 4Ch should be used.

offset 02h  contains the segment-paragraph address of the end of memory as 
            reported by DOS. (which may not be the same as the real end of RAM).
            Multiply this number by 10h or 16 to get the amount of memory
            availible. ex. 1000h would be 64k.

offset 04h  "reserved or used by DOS" according to Microsoft

offset 05h  contains a long call to the DOS function dispatcher. Programs may 
            jump to this address instead of calling int 21 if they wish. 
            Used by Basic and other CPM object-code translated programs. It is
            slower than standard int 21h.

offset 0Ah, 0Eh, 12h
            vectors (IP, CS)

offset 16h  PSP:16h is the segment address of the invoking program's PSP, which
        *   will most often be COMMAND.COM but perhaps may be a secondary
            non-permanent COMMAND or a multitasking shell, etc. At any rate,
            the resident shell version of COMMAND.COM has PSP:16H = PSP, which
            indicates "don't look any lower in memory" for the command
            interpreter. To find the beginning of the allocation chain, look
            backwards through the PSP link addresses until the link address is
            equal to the PSP segment address that it resides in. This should
            be COMMAND.COM. To find COMMAND.COM's environment, look at the word
            stored at offset 0BD3h (PC-DOS 3.1 only). This is a segment
            address, so look there at offset 0.

       18h  handle alias table (networking). Also you can make PRN go to CON,
        *   CON go to PRN, ERR go to PRN, etc. 0FFh = availible.

offset 2Ch  is the segment:offset address of the environment for the program 
            using this particular PSP. This pointer does not point to
            COMMAND.COM's environment unless it is a second copy of COMMAND.

offset 2Eh  the DWORD at PSP+2Eh is used by DOS to store the calling process's
        *   stack pointer when switching to DOS's own private stack - at the end
            of a DOS function call, SS:SP is restored from this address.

       32h, 34h
        *   table of number of file handles (to 64k of handles!)

offset 40h  2 byte field points to the segment address of COMMAND.COM's PSP in
        *   "weird" EXE files produced by Digital Research RASMPC/LINKPC.
            EXE files created with these tools can cause all sorts of problems
            with standard MSDOS debugging tools.

offset 50h  contains a long call to the DOS int 21 function dispatcher.

offset 5Ch, 65h, 6Ch
            contain FCB information for use with FCB function calls. The first
            FCB may overlay the second if it is an extended call; your program
            should revector these areas to a safe place if you intend to use
            them.

offset 5Ch  16 bytes first command-line argument (formatted as uppercase 11
            character filename)

offset 6Ch  16 bytes second command-line argument (formatted as uppercase 11
            character filename)

offset 7Ch-7Fh
           "reserved or used by DOS"
offset 80h  1 byte number of bytes in command line argument

offset 80h, 81h
            contain the length and value of parameters passed on the command
            line. 

offset 81h  97 bytes unformatted command line and/or default DTA

offset 0FFh contains the DTA
          

 The PSP is created by DOS for all programs and contains most of the information
you need to know about a program running. You can change the environment for
the current process, however, but for the parent process, DOS in this case, you
need to literally backtrack to DOS or COMMAND.COM's PSP. In order to get there
you must look at the current PSP. At offset 16h of the current PSP segment,
there a 2 byte segment address to the parent or previous process PSP.
 From there you can manipulate the enviroment by looking at offset 2Ch. As you
know, at offset 2Ch, there is 2 byte segment address to the environment block.

Try this under debug and explore the addresses located at these offsets;

      offset  length                description
     ------------------------------------------------------------
        16h     2       segment address of parent process PSP
        2Ch     2       segment address of environment block.

Remember under debug you will have to backtrack two times.

        Programs        Parent
      --------------------------
        command.com     none
        debug.com       command.com
        program         debug.com




MEMORY CONTROL BLOCKS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 DOS keeps track of allocated and availible memory blocks, and provides four
function calls for application programs to communicate their memory needs to 
DOS. These calls are:
              48h --- allocate memory                 (MALLOC)
              49h --- free allocated memory
              4Ah --- modify allocated memory blocks  (SETBLOCK)
              4Bh --- load or execute program         (EXEC)

DOS manages memory as follows:

 DOS build a control block for each block of memory, whether free or allocated.
For example, if a program issues an "allocate" (48h), DOS locates a block of
free memory that satisfies the request, and then "carves" the requested memory 
out of that block. The requesting program is passed the location of the first 
byte of the block that was allocated for it - a memory management control block,
describing the allocated block, has been built for the allocated block and a 
second memory management control block describes the amount of space left in the
original free block of memory. When you do a SETBLOCK to shrink an allocated 
block, DOS builds a memory management control block for the area being freed and
adds it to the chain of control blocks. Thus, any program that changed memory 
that is not allocated to it stands a chance of destroying a DOS memory 
management control block. This causes unpredictable results that don't show up 
until an activity is performed where DOS uses its chain of control blocks. The 
normal result is a memory allocation error, which means a system reset will be 
required.

 When a program (command or application program) is to be loaded, DOS uses the 
EXEC function call 4Bh to perform the loading.

 This is the same function call that is availible to applications programs for 
loading other programs. This function call has two options:

      Function 00h, to load and execute a program (this is what the command
                    processor uses to load and execute external commands)

      Function 03h, to load an overlay (program) without executing it.

 Although both functions perform their loading in the same way (relocation is 
performed for EXE files) their handling of memory management is different.

FUNCTION 0: For function 0 to load and execute a program, EXEC first allocates 
the largest availible block of memory (the new program's PSP will be at offset 
0 in that block). Then EXEC loads the program. Thus, in most cases, the new 
program owns all the memory from its PSP to the end of memory, including memory
occupied by the transient parent of COMMAND.COM. If the program were to issue 
its own EXEC function call to load and execute another program, the request 
would fail because no availible memory exists to load the new program into.

NOTE: For EXE programs, the amount of memory allocated is the size of the 
      program's memory image plus the value in the MAX_ALLOC field of the file's
      header (offset 0Ch, if that much memory is availible. If not, EXEC 
      allocates the size of the program's memory image plus the value in the 
      MIN_ALLOC field in the header (offset 0Ah). These fields are set by the 
      Linker).

 A well-behaved program uses the SETBLOCK function call when it receives 
control, to shrink its allocated memory block down to the size it really needs.
A COM program should remember to set up its own stack before doing the SETBLOCK,
since it is likely that the default stack supplied by DOS lies in the area of 
memory being used. This frees unneeded memory, which can be used for loading 
other programs.

 If the program requires additional memory during processing, it can obtain 
the memory using the allocate function call and later free it using the free 
memory function call.

 When a program is loaded using EXEC function call 00h exits, its initial 
allocation block (the block beginning with its PSP) is automatically freed 
before the calling program regains control. It is the responsibility of all 
programs to free any memory they allocate before exiting to the calling 
program.

 FUNCTION 3: For function 3, to load an overlay, no PSP is built and EXEC 
assumes the calling program has already allocated memory to load the new program
into - it will NOT allocate memory for it. Thus the calling program should 
either allow for the loading of overlays when it determines the amount of memory
to keep when issuing the SETBLOCK call, or should initially free as much memory 
as possible. The calling program should then allocate a block (based on the size
of the program to be loaded) to hold the program that will be loaded using the 
"load overlay" call. Note that "load overlay" does not check to see if the 
calling program actually owns the memory block it has been instructed to load 
into - it assumes the calling program has followed the rules. If the calling 
program does not own the memory into which the overlay is being loaded, there is
a chance the program being loaded will overlay one of the control blocks that 
DOS uses to keep track of memory blocks.

 Programs loaded using function 3 should not issue any SETBLOCK calls since
they don't own the memory they are operating in. (This memory is owned by the
calling program)

 Because programs loaded using function 3 are given control directly by (and 
return contrrol directly to) the calling program, no memory is automatically 
freed when the called program exits. It is up to the calling program to 
determine the disposition of the memory that had been occupied by the exiting 
program. Note that if the exiting program had itself allocated any memory, it 
is responsible for freeing that memory before exiting.

 Memory control blocks, sometimes called "arena headers" after their UNIX 
counterpart, are 16 bytes long. Only the first 5 bytes are used. 16 bytes are
used for the memory control block, which always starts at a paragraph boundary.
When DOS call 48h is made to allocate "x" many paragraphs of memory, the amount
used up is actually one more than the figure in the BX register to provide
space for the associated memory control block. The location of the memory
control block is at the paragraph immediately before the segment value returned
in AX by the DOS function 48h call i.e. ((AX-1):0).

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
               M E M O R Y      C O N T R O L       B L O C K                 
쳐컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 Bytes                            Function                                   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   0    ASCII M or Z                                                         
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  1-2   PSP segment address of the program that owns this block of memory    
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  3-4   Size of next MCB in 16-byte paragraphs                               
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  5-F   unused                                                               
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

byte 1    will always have the value of 4Dh or 5Ah. The value 5Ah (Z) indicates
          the block is the last in a chain, all memory above it is unused. 4Dh
          (M) means that the block is intermediate in a chain, the memory above
          it belongs to the next program or to DOS.

byte 2,3  hold the PSP segment address of the program that owns the
          corresponding block of memory. A value of 0 means the block is free
          to be claimed, any other value represents a segment address.

byte 3, 4 indicate the size in paragraphs of the memory block. If you know the
          address of the first block, you can find the next block by adding the
          length of the memory block plus 1 to the segment address of the
          control block. Finding the first block can be difficult, as this
          varies according to the DOS version and the configuration. 

 The remaining 11 bytes are not currently used by DOS, and may contain "trash" 
characters left in memory from previous applications.

 If DOS determines that the allocation chain of memory control blocks has been 
corrupted, it will halt the system and display the message "Memory Allocation 
Error", and the system will halt, requiring a reboot.

 Each memory block consists of a signature byte (4Dh or 5Ah) then a word which
is the PSP value of the owner of the block (which allocated it), followed by a 
word which is the size in paragraphs of the block. The last block has a 
signature of 5Ah. All others have 4Dh. If the owner is 0000 then the block is 
free.

 Once a memory control block has been created it should only be manipulated
with the appropriate DOS function calls. Accidentally writing over any of the
first 5 bytes of a memory control block can cause a memory allocation error 
and cause the system to lock up. If the first byte is overwritten with
something other than an 'M' or a 'Z' then DOS will complain with an error
return code of 7 signifying "Memory Control Blocks destroyed". However, should
you change the ownership or block size bytes, you've had it.

 When a .COM program is first loaded by DOS and given control, the memory
control block immediately preceding the Program Segment Prefix contains the
following data:

          ID    = 'Z'
          Owner = segment address of PSP (= CS register of .COM program)
          Size  = number of available paragraphs in DOS memory pool

  An .EXE file will have the following data in the memory control block for
the program (just prior to the PSP):

          ID    = 'M'
          Owner = segment address of PSP (= DS register of program)
          Size  = the number of paragraphs allocated to the program according
                  to the information in the .EXE program header

 In the case of an .EXE program file the amount of memory allocated depends
on the contents of the program header which informs the DOS loader how much to
allocate for each of the segments in the program. With an .EXE program file
there will always be a 'Z' memory control block created in memory immediately
after the end of the space allocated to the program itself.

 One important fact to remember about DOS memory allocation is that blocks of
RAM allocated by different calls to DOS function 48H will NOT be contiguous. At
the very best, they will be separated by the 16 bytes of the memory control
block, and at worst they could be anywhere in RAM that DOS manages to find a
existing memory control block of sufficient size to accomodate the memory
request.

 DOS treats the memory control blocks as a kind of linked list (term used
loosely). It uses the earlier MCBs to find the later ones by calculating the
location of the next one from the size of the prior one. As such, erasing any
of the MCB data in the chain of MCBs will upset DOS severely, as each call for
a new memory allocation causes DOS to scan the whole chain of MCBs looking for
a free one that is large enough to fulfill the request.

 A separate MCB is created for the DOS environment strings at each program
load, so there will be many copies of the environment strewn through memory
when you have a lot of memory resident programs loaded. The memory control
blocks for the DOS environment strings are not returned to the DOS memory pool
if the program goes resident, as DOS will need to copy this enviroment for the
next program loaded.


       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                           C H A P T E R   S E V E N

                              DOS FILE STRUCTURE



FILE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 Use DOS function calls to create, open, close, read, write, rename, find, and 
erase files. There are two sets of function calls that DOS provides for support
of file management. They are:

   * File Control Block function calls   (0Fh-24h)
   * Handle function calls               (39h-69h)

 Handle function calls are easier to use and are more powerful than FCB calls.
Microsoft recommends that the handle function calls be used when writing new
programs. DOS 3.0 up have been curtailing use of FCB function calls; it is
possible that future versions of DOS may not support FCB function calls.

 The following table compares the use of FCB calls to Handle function calls:

   旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
              FCB Calls                         Handle Calls              
   쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
     Access files in current       Access files in ANY directory          
     directory only.                                                      
                                                                          
     Requires the application      Does not require use of an FCB.        
     program to maintain a file    Requires a string with the drive,      
     control block to open,        path, and filename to open, create,    
     create, rename or delete      rename, or delete a file. For file     
     a file. For I/O requests,     I/O requests, the application program  
     the application program       must maintain a 16 bit file handle     
     also needs an FCB             that is supplied by DOS.               
   읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

 The only reason an application should use FCB function calls is to maintain
the ability to run under DOS 1.x. To to this, the program may use only function
calls 00h-2Eh. Though the FCB function calls are frowned upon, many of the 
introductory assembly language programming texts use the FCB calls as examples.



FCB FUNCTION CALLS 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 FCB function calls require the use of one File Control Block per open file, 
which is maintained by the application program and DOS. The application program
supplies a pointer to the FCB and fills in ther appropriate fields required by 
the specific function call. An FCB function call can perform file management on
any valid drive, but only in the current logged directory. By using the current
block, current record, and record length fields of the FCB, you can perform 
sequential I/O by using the sequential read or write function calls. Random I/O
can be performed by filling in the random record and record length fields. 

 Several possible uses of FCB type calls are considered programming errors and 
should not be done under any circumstances to avoid problems with file sharing
and compatibility with later versions of DOS.
 Some errors are:
1) If program uses the same FCB structure to access more than one open file. By
   opening a file using an FCB, doing I/O, and then replacing the filename field
   in the file control block with a new filename, a program can open a second
   file using the same FCB. This is invalid because DOS writes control info-
   rmation about the file into the reserved fields of the FCB. If the program
   then replaces the filename field with the original filename and then tries to
   perform I/O on this file, DOS may become confused because the control info-
   rmation has been changed. An FCB should never be used to open a second file
   without closing the one that is currently open. If more than one File Control
   Block is to be open concurrently, separate FCBs should be used.

2) A program should never try to use the reserved fields in the FCB, as the
   function of the fields changes with different versions of DOS.

3) A delete or a rename on a file that is currently open is considered an error
   and should not be attempted by an application program.

 It is also good programming practice to close all files when I/O is done. This
avoids potential file sharing problems that require a limit on the number of
files concurrently open using FCB function calls.



HANDLE FUNCTION CALLS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The recommended method of file management is by using the extended "handle" 
set of function calls. These calls are not restricted to the current directory.
Also, the handle calls allow the application program to define the type of 
access that other processes can have concurrently with the same file if the file
is being shared.

 To create or open a file, the application supplies a pointer to an ASCIIZ 
string giving the name and location of the file. The ASCIIZ string contains an 
optional drive letter, optional path, mandatory file specification, and a 
terminal byte of 00h. The following is an example of an ASCIIZ string:

                  format [drive][path] filename.ext,0

                      DB "A:\path\filename.ext",0

 If the file is being created, the application program also supplies the 
attribute of the file. This is a set of values that defines the file read 
only, hidden, system, directory, or volume label.

 If the file is being opened, the program can define the sharing and access 
modes that the file is opened in. The access mode informs DOS what operations 
your program will perform on this file (read-only, write-only, or read/write) 
The sharing mode controls the type of operations other processes may perform 
concurrently on the file. A program can also control if a child process inherits
the open files of the parent. The sharing mode has meaning only if file sharing
is loaded when the file is opened.

 To rename or delete a file, the appplication program simply needs to provide 
a pointer to the ASCIIZ string containing the name and location of the file 
and another string with the new name if the file is being renamed.

 The open or create function calls return a 16-bit value referred to as the 
file handle. To do any I/O to a file, the program uses the handle to reference
the file. Once a file is opened, a program no longer needs to maintain the 
ASCIIZ string pointing to the file, nor is there any need to stay in the same 
directory. DOS keeps track of the location of the file regardless of what 
directory is current.

 Sequential I/O can be performed using the handle read (3Fh) or write (40h) 
function calls. The offset in the file that IO is performed to is automatically
moved to the end of what was just read or written. If random I/O is desired, the
LSEEK (42h) function call can be used to set the offset into the file where I/O 
is to be performed.


SPECIAL FILE HANDLES쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 DOS reserves five special file handles for use by itself and applications 
programs. They are:
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
 0000h  STDIN   standard input device        (input can be redirected)      
 0001h  STDOUT  standard output device       (output can be redirected)     
 0002h  STDERR  standard error output device (output cannot be redirected)  
 0004h  STDAUX  standard auxiliary device                                   
 0005h  STDPRN  standard printer device                                     
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

 These handles are predefined by DOS and can be used by an application program.
They do not need to be opened by a program, although a program can close these 
handles. STDIN should be treated as a read-only file, and STDOUT and STDERR 
should be treated as write-only files. STDIN and STDOUT can be redirected. All 
handles inherited by a process can be redirected, but not at the command line.
 These handles are very useful for doing I/O to and from the console device. 
For example, you could read input from the keyboard using the read (3Fh) 
function call and file handle 0000h (STDIN), and write output to the console 
screen with the write function call (40h) and file handle 0001h (STDOUT). If 
you wanted an output that could not be redirected, you could output it using 
file handle 0002h (STDERR). This is very useful for error messages that must 
be seen by a user.

 File handles 0003h (STDAUX) and 0004h (STDPRN) can be both read from and 
written to. STDAUX is typically a serial device and STDPRN is usually a parallel
device.


ASCII and BINARY MODE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 I/O to files is done in binary mode. This means that the data is read or 
written without modification. However, DOS can also read or write to devices in
ASCII mode. In ASCII mode, DOS does some string processing and modification to 
the characters read and written. The predefined handles are in ASCII mode when 
initialized by DOS. All other file handles that don't refer to devices are in 
binary mode. A program, can use the IOCTL (44h) function call to set the mode 
that I/O is to a device. The predefined file handles are all devices, so the 
mode can be changed from ASCII to binary via IOCTL. Regular file handles that 
are not devices are always in binary mode and cannot be changed to ASCII mode.

 The ASCII/BINARY bit was called "raw" in DOS 2.x, but it is called ASCII/BINARY
in DOS 3.x.

 The predefined file handles STDIN (0000h) and STDOUT (0001h) and STDERR 
(0002h) are all duplicate handles. If the IOCTL function call is used to change
the mode of any of these three handles, the mode of all three handles is 
changed. For example, if IOCTL was used to change STDOUT to binary mode, then 
STDIN and STDERR would also be changed to binary mode.



FILE I/O IN BINARY (RAW) MODE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

The following is true when a file is read in binary mode:

1)  The characters ^S (scroll lock), ^P (print screen), ^C (control break) are 
    not checked for during the read. Therefore, no printer echo occurs if ^S or
    ^P are read.
2)  There is no echo to STDOUT (0001h).
3)  Read the number of specified bytes and returns immediately when the last 
    byte is received or the end of file reached.
4)  Allows no editing of the ine input using the function keys if the input is 
    from STDIN (0000h).


The following is true when a file is written to in binary mode:

1)  The characters ^S (scroll lock), ^P (print screen), ^C (control break) are 
    not checked for during the write. Therefore, no printer echo occurs.
2)  There is no echo to STDOUT (0001h).
3)  The exact number of bytes specified are written.
4)  Does not caret (^) control characters. For example, ctrl-D is sent out as 
    byte 04h instead of the two bytes ^ and D.
5)  Does not expand tabs into spaces. 


FILE I/O IN ASCII (COOKED) MODE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

The following is true when a file is read in ASCII mode:

1)  Checks for the characters ^C,^S, and ^P.
2)  Returns as many characters as there are in the device input buffer, or the 
    number of characters requested, whichever is less. If the number of 
    characters requested was less than the number of characters in the device 
    buffer, then the next read will address the remaining characters in the 
    buffer.
3)  If there are no more bytes remaining in the device input buffer, read a 
    line (terminated by ^M) into the buffer. This line may be edited with the 
    function keys. The characters returned terminated with a sequence of 0Dh,
    0Ah (^M,^J) if the number of characters requested is sufficient to include
    them. For example, if 5 characters were requested, and only 3 were entered
    before the carriage return (0Dh or ^M) was presented to DOS from the console
    device, then the 3 characters entered and 0Dh and 0Ah would be returned. 
    However, if 5 characters were requested and 7 were entered before the 
    carriage return, only the first 5 characters would be returned. No 0Dh,0Ah 
    sequence would be returned in this case. If less than the number of 
    characters requested are entered when the carriage return is received, the
    characters received and 0Dh,0Ah would be returned. The reason the 0Ah 
    (linefeed or ^J) is added to the returned characters is to make the devices
    look like text files.
4)  If a 1Ah (^Z) is found, the input is terminated at that point. No 0Dh,0Ah 
    (CR,LF) sequence is added to the string.
5)  Echoing is performed.
6)  Tabs are expanded.


The following is true when a file is written to in ASCII mode:

1)  The characters ^S,^P,and ^C are checked for during the write operation.
2)  Expands tabs to 8-character boundaries and fills with spaces (20h).
3)  Carets control characters, for example, ^D is written as two bytes, ^ and D.
4)  Bytes are output until the number specified is output or a ^Z is 
    encountered. The number actually output is returned to the user.


NUMBER OF OPEN FILES ALLOWED쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The number of files that can be open concurrently is restricted by DOS. This 
number is determined by how the file is opened or created (FCB or handle 
function call) and the number specified by the FCBS and FILES commands in the 
CONFIG.SYS file. The number of files allowed open by FCB function calls and the
number of files that can be opened by handle type calls are independent of one 
another.


RESTRICTIONS ON FCB USAGE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 If file sharing is not loaded using the SHARE command, there are no 
restrictions on the nuumber of files concurrently open using FCB function calls.

 However, when file sharing is loaded, the maximum number of FCBs open is set
by the the FCBS command in the CONFIG.SYS file.

 The FCBS command has two values you can specify, 'm' and 'n'. The value for 
'm' specifies the number of files that can be opened by FCBs, and the value 'n' 
specifies the number of FCBs that are protected from being closed.

 When the maximum number of FCB opens is exceeded, DOS automatically closes the
least recently used file. Any attempt to access this file results in an int 24h
critical error message "FCB not availible". If this occurs while an application
program is running, the value specified for 'm' in the FCBS command should be
increased.

 When DOS determines the least recently used file to close, it does not include
the first 'n' files opened, therefore the first 'n' files are protected from 
being closed.


RESTRICTIONS ON HANDLE USAGE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The number of files that can be open simultaneously by all processes is 
determined by the FILES command in the CONFIG.SYS file. The number of files a 
single process can open depends on the value specified for the FILES command. If
FILES is greater than or equal to 20, a single process can open 20 files. If 
FILES is less than 20, the process can open less than 20 files. This value 
includes three predefined handles: STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR. This means only
17 additional handles can be added. DOS 3.3 includes a function to use more than
20 files per application.


ALLOCATING SPACE TO A FILE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 Files are not nescessarily written sequentially on a disk. Space is allocated 
as needed and the next location availible on the disk is allocated as space for
the next file being written. Therefore, if considerable file generation has
taken place, newly created files will not be written in sequential sectors.
However, due to the mapping (chaining) of file space via the File Allocation
Table (FAT) and the function calls availible, any file may be used in either a
sequential or random manner.

 Space is allocated in increments called clusters. Cluster size varies 
according to the media type. An application program should not concern itself 
with the way that DOS allocates space to a file. The size of a cluster is only 
important in that it determines the smallest amount of space that can be 
allocated to a file. A disk is considered full when all clusters have been 
allocated to files.



MSDOS / PCDOS DIFFERENCES쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 There is a problem of compatibility between MS-DOS and IBM PC-DOS having to 
do with FCB Open and Create. The IBM 1.0, 1.1, and 2.0 documentation of OPEN
(call 0Fh) contains the following statement:

 "The current block field (FCB bytes C-D) is set to zero [when an FCB is 
opened]."

 This statement is NOT true of MS-DOS 1.25 or MS-DOS 2.00. The difference is
intentional, and the reason is CP/M 1.4 compatibility. Zeroing that field is 
not CP/M compatible. Some CP/M programs will not run when machine translated if
that field is zeroed. The reason it is zeroed in the IBM versions is that IBM 
specifically requested that it be zeroed. This is the reason for the complaints
from some vendors about the fact that IBM MultiPlan will not run under MS-DOS.
It is probably the reason that some other IBM programs don't run under MS-DOS.

NOTE: Do what all MS/PC-DOS systems programs do: Set every single FCB field you
want to use regardless of what the documentation says is initialized.


.COM FILE STRUCTURE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The COM file structure was designed for DOS 1.0 and maximum compatibility 
with programs ported from the CP/M operating system. COM files normally 
comprise one segment only.


.EXE FILE STRUCTURE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The EXE file is the native mode for DOS. EXE files may make use of multiple 
segments for code, stack, and data. The design of the EXE file reflects the 
segmented design of the Intel 80x86 CPU architecture. EXE files may be as 
large as availible memory and may make references to specific segment addresses.


 The EXE files produced by the Linker program consist of two parts, control and
relocation information and the load module itself.

 The control and relocation information, which is described below, is at the 
beginning of the file in an area known as the header. The load module 
immediately follows the header. The load module begins in the memory image of 
the module contructed by the Linker.

 When you are loading a file with the name *.EXE, DOS does NOT assume that it
is an EXE format file. It looks at the first two bytes for a signature telling
it that it is an EXE file. If it has the proper signature, then the load 
proceeds. Otherwise, it presumes the file to be a .COM format file.

 If the file has the EXE signature, then the internal consistency is checked.
Pre-2.0 versions of MSDOS did not check the signature byte for EXE files.

 The .EXE format can support programs larger than 64K. It does this by 
allowing separate segments to be defined for code, data, and the stack, each 
of which can be up to 64K long. Programs in EXE format may contain explicit 
references to segment addresses. A header in the EXE file has information for 
DOS to resolve these references.


The .EXE header is formatted as follows:
旼컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 Offset                        C O N T E N T S                              
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   00h    4Dh  This is the Linker's signature to mark the file as a valid   
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴 .EXE file  (The ASCII letters M and Z, for Mark Zbikowski,  
   01h    5Ah  one of the major designers of DOS at Microsoft)             
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 02h-03h  Length of the image mod 512 (remainder after dividing the load    
          module image size by 512)                                         
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 04h-05h  Size of the file in 512 byte pages including the header.           
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 06h-07h  Number of relocation table items following the header.            
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 08h-09h  Size of the header in 16 byte increments (paragraphs). This is    
          used to locate the beginning of the load module in the file.      
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 0Ah-0Bh  Minimum number of 16 byte paragraphs required above the end of    
          the loaded program.                                               
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 0Ch-0Dh  Maximum number of 16 byte paragraphs required above the end of    
          the loaded program. If the minimum and maximum number of          
          paragraphs are both zero, the program will be loaded as high in   
          memory as possible.                                               
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 0Eh-0Fh  Displacement in paragraphs of stack segment within load module.   
          This size must be adjusted by relocation.                         
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 10h-11h  Offset to be in SP register when the module is given control.     
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 12h-13h  Word Checksum - negative sum of all the words in the file,        
          ignoring overflow.                                                
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 14h-15h  Offset to be in the IP register when the module is given control. 
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 16h-17h  Displacement in paragraphs of code segment within load module.    
          This size must be adjusted by relocation.                         
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 18h-19h  Displacement in bytes of the first relocation item in the file.   
쳐컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 1Ah-1Bh  Overlay number (0 for the resident part of the program)           
읕컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴



THE RELOCATION TABLE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The word at 18h locates the first entry in the relocation table. The 
relocation table is made up of a variable number of relocation items. The number
of items is contained at offset 06-07. The relocation item contains two fields
- a 2 byte offset value, followed by a 2 byte segment value. These two fields 
represent the displacement into the load module before the module is given 
control. The process is called relocation and is accomplished as follows:

1. The formatted part of the header is read into memory. Its size is 1Bh.

2. A portion of memory is allocated depending on the size of the load module
   and the allocation numbers in offsets 0Ah-0Ch and 0Ch-0Dh. DOS always
   tries to allocate 0FFFFh paragraphs. Since this call will always fail,
   the function returns the amount of free memory. If this block is larger
   than the minimum specified at offset 0Ah and the loaded program size,
   DOS will allocate the size specified at offset 0Ch or the largest free
   memory space, whichever is less.

3. A Program Segment Prefix is built following the resident portion of the 
   program that is performing the load operation.

4. The formatted part of the header is read into memory (its size is at 
   offset 08h)

5. The load module size is determined by subtracting the header size from the 
   file size. Offsets 04h and 08h can be used for this calculation. The 
   actual size is downward adjusted based on the contents of offsets 02-03. 
   Note that all files created by the Linker programs prior to version 1.10 
   always placed a value of 4 at this location, regardless of the actual 
   program size. Therefore, Microsoft recommends that this field be ignored if 
   it contains a value of 4. Based on the setting of the high/low loader switch,
   an appropriate segment is determined for loading the load module. This
   segment is called the start segment.

6. The load module is read into memory beginning at the start segment. The
   relocation table is an ordered list of relocation items. The first relocation
   item is the one that has the lowest offset in the file. 

7. The relocation table items are read into a work area one or more at a time.

8. Each relocation table item segment value is added to the start segment value.
   The calculated segment, in conjunction with the relocation item offset value,
   points to a word in the load module to which is added the start segment 
   value. The result is placed back into the word in the load module.

9. Once all the relocation items have been processed, the SS and SP registers 
   are set from the values in the header and the start segment value is added 
   to SS. The ES and DS registers are set to the segment address of the program 
   segment prefix. The start segment value is added to the header CS register 
   value. The result, along with the header IP value, is used to give the 
   module control.


"NEW" .EXE FORMAT (Microsoft Windows and OS/2)쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The "old" EXE format is documented here. The "new" EXE format puts more 
information into the header section and is currently used in applications that 
run under Microsoft Windows. The linker that creates these files comes with the 
Microsoft Windows Software Development Kit and is called LINK4. If you try to 
run a Windows-linked program under DOS, you will get the error message "This 
program requires Microsoft Windows".

PIF Files
  PIF stands for "Program Information File". The PIF format was developed by 
IBM for use with TopView, its multitasking manager. Microsoft also uses PIF 
files to pass information regarding the amount of memory and type of I/O a 
program running under Microsoft Windows requires.
  The actual internal format of the PIF files is documented in the IBM TopView 
Programmers' ToolKit.

STANDRD FILE CONTROL BLOCK쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The standard file control block is defined as follows, with offsets in hex:

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                 F I L E      C O N T R O L      B L O C K                    
쳐컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 Bytes                            Function                                   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   0    1 byte Drive number. For example:                                    
        Before open:    00h = default drive                                  
                        01h = drive A:                                       
                        02h = drive B: etc.                                  
        After open:     00h = drive C:                                       
                        01h = drive A:                                       
                        02h = drive B: etc.                                  
        An 0 is replaced by the actual drive number during open.             
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  1-8   8 bytes Filename, left justified with blanks. If a reserved device   
        name is placed here (such as PRN) do not include the optional colon. 
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  9-B   3 bytes Filename extension, left justified with trailing blanks.     
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  C-D   2 bytes Current block # relative to start of file, starting with 0   
        (set to 0 by the open function call). A block consists of 128        
        records, each of the size specified in the logical record size field.
        The current block number is used with the current record field       
        (below) for sequential reads and writes.                             
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  E-F   2 bytes Logical record size in bytes. Set to 80h by OPEN function    
        If this is not correct, you must set the value because DOS uses it   
        to determine the proper locations in the file for all disk reads and 
        writes.                                                              
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 10-13  4 bytes File size in bytes. In this field, the first word is the     
        low-order part of the size.                                          
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 14-15  2 bytes Date file was created or last updated. mm/dd/yy are mapped   
        as follows:                                                          
                15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  0         
                y   y   y   y   y   y   y  m  m  m  m  d  d  d  d  d         
        where:            mm is 1-12                                         
                          dd is 1-31                                         
                          yy is 0-119 (1980-2099)                            
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 16-17  2 bytes time file was created or last updated.                       
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
        These bytes contain the time when the file was created or last       
         updated. The time is mapped in the bits as follows:                 
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴      
                B Y T E   16h                  B Y T E   17h               
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴      
        F   E   D   C   B   A   9   8  7   6   5   4   3   2   1   0       
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴      
        H   H   H   H   H  M   M   M   M   M   M  D   D   D   D   D       
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴      
        binary # hrs 0-23  binary # minutes 0-59  bin. # 2-sec incr       
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴      
        note: The time is stored with the least significant byte first.      
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 18-19  2 bytes Reserved for DOS.                                            
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  20   1 byte  Current relative record number (0-127) within the current     
        block. This field and the Current Block field at offset 0Ch make up  
        the record pointer. This field is not initialized by the OPEN        
        function call. You must set this field before doing sequential read- 
        write operations to the diskette.                                    
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 21-25  4 bytes Relative Record. Points to the currently selected record,    
        counting from the beginning of the file starting with 0. This field  
        is not initialized by the OPEN system call. You must set this field  
        before doing a random read or write to the file.                     
         If the record size is less than 64 bytes, both words are used.      
        Otherwise, only the first 3 bytes are used. Note that if you use the 
        File Control Block at 5Ch in the program segment, the last byte of   
        the FCB overlaps the first byte of the unformatted parameter area.   
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

note 1) An unopened FCB consists of the FCB prefix (if used), drive number, and 
        filename.ext properly filled in. An open FCB is one in which the 
        remaining fields have been filled in by the CREAT or OPEN function 
        calls.
     2) Bytes 0-5 and 32-36 must be set by the user program. Bytes 16-31 are set
        by DOS and must not be changed by user programs.
     3) All word fields are stored with the least significant byte first. For 
        example, a record length of 128 is stored as 80h at offset 14, and 00h 
        at offset 15.



EXTENDED FILE CONTROL BLOCK쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The extended file control block is used to create or search for files in the 
disk directory that have special attributes.

It adds a 7 byte prefix to the FCB, formatted as follows:

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
       E X T E N D E D     F I L E      C O N T R O L      B L O C K          
쳐컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 Bytes                            Function                                   
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   0    Flag byte containing 0FFh to indicate an extended FCB.               
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  1-6   Reserved                                                             
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  6-7   Attribute byte. Refer to function call 11h (search first) for        
        details on using the attribute bits during directory searches. This  
        function is present to allow applications to define their own files  
        as hidden (and thereby excluded from normal directory searches) and  
        to allow selective directory searches.                               
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸
                                     
 Any reference in the DOS function calls to an FCB, whether opened or unopened,
may use either a normal or extended FCB. If you are using an extended FCB, the 
appropriate register should be set to the first byte of the prefix, rather than
the drive-number field.

 Common practice is to refer to the extended FCB as a negative offset from the 
first byte of a standard File Control Block.


       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                           C H A P T E R   E I G H T


                             DOS DISK INFORMATION


                                C O N T E N T S

The DOS Area .......................................................... 8**1
The Boot Record ....................................................... 8**2
DOS File Allocation Table (FAT) ....................................... 8**3
        Media Descriptor Byte ......................................... 8**4
        12 Bit FATs ................................................... 8**5
        16 Bit FATs ................................................... 8**6
DOS Disk Directory .................................................... 8**8
The Data Area ......................................................... 8**9
Floppy Disk Types ..................................................... 8**10
Hard Disk Layout ...................................................... 8**11
System Initialization ................................................. 8**12
Boot Record/Partition Table ........................................... 8**13
Hard Disk Technical Information ....................................... 8**14
Determining Hard Disk File Allocation ................................. 8**15
BIOS Disk Functions ................................................... 8**16
        00h  Reset
        01h  Get Status
        02h  Read Sectors
        03h  Write Sectors
        04h  Verify
        05h  Format Track (floppy disk)
        06h  Hard Disk - format track
        07h  Hard Disk - format drive
        08h  Read Drive Parameters
        09h  Initialize Two Fixed Disk Base Tables
        0Ah  Read Long (Hard disk)
        0Bh  Write Long (Hard disk)
        0Ch  Seek To Cylinder
        0Dh  Alternate Hard Disk Reset
        0Eh  Read Sector Buffer
        0Fh  Write sector buffer
        10h  Test For Drive Ready
        11h  Recalibrate Drive
        12h  Controller RAM Diagnostic
        13h  Controller Drive Diagnostic
        14h  Controller Internal Diagnostic
        15h  Get Disk Type
        16h  Get Disk Change Status (diskette)
        17h  Set Disk Type for Format (diskette)
        18h  Set Media Type For Format (diskette)
        19h  Park Hard Disk Heads
        1Ah  ESDI Hard Disk - Low Level Format
        1Bh  ESDI Hard Disk - Get Manufacturing Header
        1Ch  ESDI Hard Disk - Get Configuration




THE DOS AREA쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 8**1

 All disks and diskettes formatted by DOS are created with a sector size of 512
bytes. The DOS area (entire area for a diskette, DOS partition for hard disks)
is formatted as follows:

        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                               D O S   A R E A                      
        쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
         partition table          - variable size (hard disk only)  
         boot record              - 1 sector                        
         first copy of the FAT    - variable size                   
         second copy of the FAT   - same size as first copy         
         root directory           - variable size                   
         data area                - variable depending on disk size 
        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

The following sections describe each of the allocated areas:



THE BOOT RECORD쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 8**2

 The boot record resides on track 0, sector 1, side 0 of every diskette
formatted by the DOS FORMAT program. For hard disks the boot record resides on
the first sector of the DOS partition. It is put on all disks to provide an
error message if you try to start up with a nonsystem disk in drive A:. If the
disk is a system disk, the boot record contains a JMP instruction pointing to
the first byte of the operating system.

 If the device is IBM compatible the first sector of the first FAT must be
located at the same sector for all disk types. This is because the FAT sector
is read before the disk type is actually determined.

 The information relating to the BPB for a particular media is kept in the 
disk's boot sector.  The format of the boot sector is:

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                        D O S   B O O T   R E C O R D                         
쳐컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
00h3 bytes  JMP to executable code. For DOS 2.x, 3 byte near jump (0E9h).   
            For DOS 3.x, 2 byte near jump (0EBh) followed by a NOP (90h)    
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
03h8 bytes  optional OEM name and version  (such as IBM 2.1)                
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
0Bh2 bytes  bytes per sector                                                
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
0Dh byte         sectors per allocation unit (must be a power of 2)        
쳐컴탠컴컴컴     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
0Eh2 bytes  B    reserved sectors (starting at logical sector 0)           
                 01 for 1.x-3.31, 02 for 4.0+                              
쳐컴탠컴컴컴     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
10h byte         number of FATs                                            
쳐컴탠컴컴컴     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
11h2 bytes       maximum number of root directory entries                  
쳐컴탠컴컴컴  P  쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
13h2 bytes       number of sectors in logical image (total number of       
                 sectors in media, including boot sector directories, etc.)
                 If logical disk size is geater than 32Mb, this value is 0 
                 and the actual size is reported at offset 26h (DOS 4.0+)  
쳐컴탠컴컴컴     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
15h byte    B    media descriptor byte                                     
쳐컴탠컴컴컴     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
16h2 bytes       number of sectors occupied by a single FAT                
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
18h2 bytes  sectors per track                                               
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
1Ah2 bytes  number of heads                                                 
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
1Ch2 bytes  # of hidden sectors  (sectors before this volume) (1st part)    
읕컴좔컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
                            EXTENDED BOOT RECORD (DOS 4.0+)                   
旼컴쩡컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
1Eh2 bytes  # of hidden sectors  (sectors before this volume) (2nd part)    
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
20h4 bytes  # sectors in this disk (see offset 13h, if 0)                   
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
24h2 bytes  physical drive number (max 2 for DOS 4, max 8 for DOS 5)        
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
26h byte    extended boot record signature  (29h)                           
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
27h4 bytes  volume serial number (assigned with a random function)          
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
2Bh11 byte  volume label                                                    
쳐컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
36h7 bytes  file system ID   (FAT12   ), (FAT16   ) etc.     ("reserved")   
읕컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

 The three words at the end return information about the media. The number of
heads is useful for supporting different multihead drives that have the same
storage capacity but a different number of surfaces. The number of hidden
sectors is useful for drive partitioning schemes.

 DOS 3.2 uses a table called the BIOS Parameter Block (BPB) to determine if a
disk has a valid File Allocation Table. The BPB is located in the first sector
of a floppy disk. Although the BPB is supposed to be on every formatted floppy
disk, some earlier versions of DOS did not create a BPB and instead assumed that
the FAT begins at the second sector of the disk and that the first FAT byte
(Media Descriptor Byte) describes the disk format.
 DOS 3.2 reads in the whole of the BPB and tries to use it - although strangely
enough, it seems as if DOS is prepared to cope with a BPB that is more or less
totally blank (it seems to ignore the descriptor byte and treat it as a DSDD
9-sector disk).
 DOS 3.2 determines if a disk has a valid boot sector by examining the first
byte of logical sector 0. If that byte it a jump instruction 0E9h, DOS 3.2
assumes the rest of the sector is a valid boot sector with a BPB. If the first
byte is not 0E9h DOS 3.2 behaves like previous versions, assumes the boot sector
is invalid and uses the first byte of the FAT to determine the media type.
 If the first byte on the disk happens to be 0E9h, but the disk does not have a
BPB, DOS 3.2 will return a disk error message.
 The real problems occur if some of the BPB data is valid and some isn't.
Apparently some OEMs have assumed that DOS would continue to ignore the
formatting data on the disk, and have failed to write much there during FORMAT
except the media descriptor byte (or, worse, have allowed random junk to be
written there). While this error is understandable, and perhaps even
forgiveable, it remains their problem, not IBM's, since the BPB area has always
been documented as containing the format information that IBM DOS 3.2 now
requires to be there.

 When the BPB problems first became evident with DOS 3.2 a number of reports
circulated claiming DOS looked for the letters "IBM" in the OEM ID field. This 
was incorrect. IBM DOS 4.0 *did* check for the letters "IBM" and would refuse
to recognize hard drives formatted under MSDOS 4.0. IBM corrected this with
their 4.01 revision.



THE DOS FILE ALLOCATION TABLE (FAT)쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴 8**3

 The File Allocation Table, or FAT, has three main purposes:
        1) to mark bad sectors on the media
        2) to determine which sectors are free for use
        3) to determine the physical location(s) of a file on the media.

 DOS uses one of two schemes for defining the File Allocation Table:
        1) a 12-bit FAT, for DOS 1.x, 2.x, all floppies, and small hard disks
        2) a 16-bit FAT, for DOS 3.x+ hard disks from 16.8 to 32Mb

 This section explains how DOS uses the FAT to convert the clusters of a file
into logical sector numbers. It is recommended that system utilities use the
DOS handle calls rather than interpreting the FAT, particularly since
aftermarket disk partitioning or formatting software may have been used.

 The FAT is used by DOS to allocate disk space for files, one cluster at a time.
In DOS 4.0, clusters are referred to as "allocation units." It means the same
things; the smallest logical portion of a drive.

 The FAT consists of a 12 bit entry (1.5 bytes) for each cluster on the disk or
a 16 bit (2 bytes) entry when a hard disk has more than 20740 sectors as is the
case with fixed disks larger than 10Mb.

 The first two FAT entries map a portion of the directory; these FAT entries
contain indicators of the size and format of the disk. The FAT can be in a 12
or 16 bit format. DOS determines whether a disk has a 12 or 16 bit FAT by
looking at the total number of allocation units on a disk. For all diskettes
and hard disks with DOS partitions less than 20,740 sectors, the FAT uses a 12
bit value to map a cluster. For larger partitions, DOS uses a 16 bit value.

 The second, third, and fourth bit applicable for 16 bit FAT bytes always
contains 0FFFFh. The first byte is used as follows:


Media Descriptor Byte ................................................. 8**4

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                 M E D I A    D E S C R I P T O R    B Y T E                  
쳐컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿴ex value               meaning                      normally used          
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    00     hard disk                         3.3+ extended DOS partition    
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    ED     double sided  9 sector 80 track   Tandy 2000 720k         (5)   
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    F0     double sided  18 sector diskette  PS/2 1.44 meg DSHD             
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    F8     hard disk                         bootable hard disk at C:800    
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    F8     720k floppy, 9 sector 80 track    Sanyo 55x, DS-DOS 2.11  (5)   
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    F9     double sided  15 sector diskette  AT 1.2 meg DSHD                
           double sided  9  sector diskette  Convertible 720k DSQD          
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    FA     IBM Displaywriter System disk     287k                           
           Kodak "4 meg"  (Pelican)          4.4 meg                 (5)   
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    FB     IBM Displaywriter System disk     1 meg                   (5)   
           Kodak "6 meg"  (Pelican)          5.5 meg                 (5)   
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    FC     single sided  9  sector diskette  DOS 2.0, 180k SSDD      (5)   
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    FD     double sided  9  sector diskette  DOS 2.0, 360k DSDD      (5)   
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    FF     double sided 36  sector diskette  Practidisk 2.88mb DSED  (3)   
           single sided  8  sector diskette  DOS 1.0, 160k SSDD      (5)   
           double sided  8  sector diskette  DOS 1.1, 320k SSDD      (5)   
           hard disk                         Sanyo 55x with DS-DOS 2.11     
쳐컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸
쿯or 8 inch diskettes: 
쳐컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
    FD     double sided  26 sector diskette  IBM 3740 format DSSD           
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    FE     single sided  26 sector diskette  IBM 3740 format SSSD           
          쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
           double sided  8  sector diskette  IBM 3740 format DSDD           
읕컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸



The third FAT entry begins mapping the data area (cluster 002).

NOTE: These values are provided as a reference. Therefore, programs should not
      make use of these values.

 Each entry contains three hexadecimal characters for 12-bit FATs or four for
16-bit FATs.

The possible entries are:

   12-bit   |   16-bit
            |
      000h  |        0000h   if the cluster is unused and available

      0FF7h |        0FFF7h  bad cluster (if not part of the allocation chain)
            |
0FF0h-0FF7h | 0FFF0h-0FFF7h  to indicate reserved clusters
            |
0FF8h-0FFFh | 0FFF8h-0FFFFh  to indicate the last cluster of a file (EOF)
            |
       xxxH |         xxxxH  any other hexadecimal numbers are the cluster
            |                number of the next cluster in the file. The
            |                cluster number is the first cluster in the file
            |                that is kept in the file's directory entry.

 The file allocation table always occupies the sector or sectors immediately
following the boot record. If the FAT is larger than 1 sector, the sectors
occupy consecutive sector numbers. Two copies of the FAT are written, one
following the other, for integrity. The FAT is read into one of the DOS buffers
whenever needed (open, allocate more space, etc).



12 Bit File Allocation Table .......................................... 8**5

Obtain the starting cluster of the file from the directory entry.

Now, to locate each subsequent sector of the file:

1. Multiply the cluster number just used by 1.5 (each FAT entry is 1.5
   bytes long).
2. The whole part of the product is offset into the FAT, pointing to the entry
   that maps the cluster just used. That entry contains the cluster number of
   the next cluster in the file.
3. Use a MOV instruction to move the word at the calculated FAT into a register.
4. If the last cluster used was an even number, keep the low order 12 bits of
   the register, otherwise, keep the high order 12 bits.
5. If the resultant 12 bits are (0FF8h-0FFFh) no more clusters are in the file.
   Otherwise, the next 12 bits contain the cluster number of the next cluster in
   the file.

  To convert the cluster to a logical sector number (relative sector, such as
that used by int 25h and 26h and DEBUG):

1. Subtract 2 from the cluster number
2. Multiply the result by the number of sectors per cluster.
3. Add the logical sector number of the beginning of the data area.

12-bit FAT if DOS partition is smaller than 32,680 sectors (16.340 MB).



16 Bit File Allocation Table .......................................... 8**6

 Obtain the starting cluster of the file from the directory entry. Now to
locate each subsequent cluster of the file:

1.  Multiply the cluster number used by 2 (each FAT entry is 2 bytes long).
2.  Use the MOV word instruction to move the word at the calculated FAT offset
    into a register.
3.  If the resultant 16 bits are (0FF8h-0FFFFh) no more clusters are in the
    file. Otherwise, the 16 bits contain the cluster number of the next cluster
    in the file.




DOS Disk Directory .................................................... 8**8

 The FORMAT command initially builds the root directory for all disks. Its
location (logical sector number) and the maximum number of entries are
available through the device driver interfaces.

 Since directories other than the root directory are actually files, there is
no limit to the number of entries that they may contain.

 All directory entries are 32 bytes long, and are in the following format:
旼컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿽ffset   size                     DISK DIRECTORY ENTRY
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  00h   8 bytes  Filename
       쳐컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        The first byte of the filename indicates the file status.
        The file status byte may contain the following values:
       쳐컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
         00h  Directory entry has never been used. This is used to limit
              the length of directory searches, for performance reasons.
         05h  Indicates that the first character of the filename actually
              has an 0EDh character.
        0E5h  Filename has been used but the file has been erased.
         2Eh  This entry is for a directory. If the second byte is also
              2Eh, the cluster field contains the cluster number of this
              directory's parent directory. (0000h if the parent directory
              is the root directory). Otherwise, bytes 00h-0Ah are all
              spaces and the cluster field contains the cluster number of
              the directory.
       쳐컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        Any other character is the first character of a filename. Filenames
        are left-aligned and if necessary padded with blanks.
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  08h   3 bytes  Filename extension if any
       쳐컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        Three characters, left-aligned and padded with blanks if necessary.
        If there is no file extension, this field contains all blanks
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  0Bh   1 byte   File attributes
       쳐컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                 The attribute byte is mapped as follows:
       쳐컴컴쩡컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        hex 쿫it                    meaning
       쳐컴컴탠컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        00h     (no bits set) normal; can be read or written without
                restriction
        01h  0  file is marked read-only. An attempt to open the file for
                output using int 21h/fn 3Dh will fail and an error code
                will be returned. This value can be used with other values
                below.
        02h  1  indicates a hidden file. The file is excluded from normal
                directory searches.
        04h  2  indicates a system file. The file is excluded from normal
                directory searches.
        08h  3  indicates that the entry contains the volume label in the
                first 11 bytes. The entry has no other usable information
                and may exist only in the root directory.
        10h  4  indicates that the file is a subdirectory
        20h  5  indicates an archive bit. This bit is set to on whenever
                the file is written to and closed. Used by BACKUP and
                RESTORE.
             6  reserved, set to 0
             7  reserved, set to 0
       쳐컴컴좔컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        note 1) Bits 6 and 7 may be used in OS/2.
        note 2) Attributes 08h and 10h cannot be changed using int21/43h.
        note 3) The system files IBMBIO.COM and IBMDOS.COM (or customized
                equivalent) are marked as read-only, hidden, and system
                files. Files can be marked hidden when they are created.
        note 4) Read-only, hidden, system and archive attributes may be
                changed with int21h/fn43h.
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  0Ch   10 bytes Reserved by DOS; value unknown
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  16h   2 bytes  File timestamp
       쳐컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        These bytes contain the time when the file was created or last
         updated. The time is mapped in the bits as follows:
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                B Y T E   16h                  B Y T E   17h         
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        F   E   D   C   B   A   9   8  7   6   5   4   3   2   1   0 
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        H   H   H   H   H  M   M   M   M   M   M  D   D   D   D   D 
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        binary # hrs 0-23  binary # minutes 0-59  bin. # 2-sec incr 
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        note: The time is stored with the least significant byte first.
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  18h   2 bytes  File datestamp
       쳐컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        This area contains the date when the file was created or last
        updated. The mm/dd/yy are mapped in the bits as follows:
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                B Y T E   18h                  B Y T E   19h         
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        F   E   D   C   B   A   9   8  7   6   5   4   3   2   1   0 
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴좔컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        Y   Y   Y   Y   Y   Y   Y  M   M   M   M  D   D   D   D   D 
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
            0-119 (1980-2099)          1-12             1-31        
       쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        note: The date is stored with the least significant byte first.
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  1Ah   2 bytes  First file cluster number
       쳐컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        * (reserved in DOS 2, documented in DOS 3+)
        This area contains the starting cluster number of the first cluster
        in the file. The first cluster for data space on all fixed disks and
        floppy disks is always cluster 002. The cluster number is stored
        with the least significant byte first.
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  1Ch   4 bytes  File size
       쳐컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        This area contains the file size in bytes. The first word contains
        the low order part of the size. Both words are stored with the least
        significant byte first.
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴



The Data Area ......................................................... 8**9

 Allocation of space for a file (in the data area) is done only when needed
(it is not preallocated). The space is allocated one cluser (unit allocation)
at a time. A cluster is always one or more consecutive sector numbers, and all
of the clusters in a file are "chained" together in the FAT.

 The clusters are arranged on disk to minimize head movement for multisided
media. All of the space on a track (or cylinder) is allocated before moving
on to the next track. This is accomplished by using the sequential sector
numbers on the lowest-numbered head, then all the sector numbers on the next
head, and so on until all sectors of all heads of the track are used. Then the
next sector used will be sector 1 of head 0 on the next track.

 An interesting innovation that was introduced in MS-DOS 3.0: disk space that
is freed by erasing a file is not re-used immediately, unlike earlier versions
of DOS. Instead, free space is obtained from the area not yet used during the
current session, until all of it is used up. Only then will space that is freed
during the current session be re-used.

 This feature minimizes fragmentation of files, since never-before-used space
is always contiguous. However, once any space has been freed by deleting a file,
that advantage vanishes at the next system boot. The feature also greatly
simplifies un-erasing files, provided that the need to do an un-erase is found
during the same session and also provided that the file occupies contiguous
clusters.

 However, when one is using programs which make extensive use of temporary
files, each of which may be created and erased many times during a session,
the feature becomes a nuisance; it forces the permanent files to move farther
and farther into the inner tracks of the disk, thus increasing rather than
decreasing the amount of fragmentation which occurs.

 The feature is implemented in DOS by means of a single 16-bit "last cluster
used" (LCU) pointer for each physical disk drive; this pointer is a part of
the physical drive table maintained by DOS. At boot time, the LCU pointer is
zeroed. Each time another cluster is obtained from the free-space pool (the
FAT), its number is written into the LCU pointer. Each time a fresh cluster
is required, the FAT is searched to locate a free one; in older versions of
DOS this search always began at Cluster 0000, but in 3.x it begins at the
cluster pointed to by the LCU pointer.

 For hard disks, the size of the file allocation table and directory are
determined when FORMAT initializes it and are based on the size of the DOS
partition.



Floppy Disk Types ..................................................... 8**10

The following tables give the specifications for floppy disk formats:

IBM PC-DOS disk formats:
                 # of      FAT size   DIR     total
                 sides    (sectors)(entries) sectors
                     sectors    DIR   sectors
                     /track   퀂ectors/cluster
                                          
旼컴컴쩡컫컴컴컴컫컨컫컴컨컴컫컨컫컨컫컨컫컨컫컴좔쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 160k5СDOS 1.0 1  8 (40) 1  4  64 1  320쿚riginal PC-0, 16k mbd
 320k5СDOS 1.1 2  8 (40) 1  7 112 2  360쿛C-1, 64k mbd
 180k5СDOS 2.0 1  9 (40) 2  4  64 1  640쿛C-2, 256k mbd
 360k5СDOS 2.0 2  9 (40) 2  7 112 2  720쿛C/XT
 1.2M5СDOS 3.0 2 15 (80) 7 14 224 1 2400쿛C/AT, PC/RT, XT/286
 720k3コDOS 3.2 2  9 (80) 3  7 112 2 1440쿎onvertible, PS/2 25+
1.44M3コDOS 3.3 2 18 (80) 9 14 224 1 2880쿛S/2 50+
읕컴컴좔컨컴컴컴컨컴컨컴컴컴컨컴컨컴컨컴컨컴컨컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
various MS-DOS disk formats:
旼컴컴쩡컫컴컴컴컫컨컫컴컨컴컫컨컫컨컫컨컫컨컫컴좔쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 200k5С  *     1 10 (40)                
 400k5С  * **  2 10 (40)                
 800k5С  *     2 10 (80)                
 720k2                                  쿩enith SuperSport 2-inch
 720k5СDOS2.11 2  9 (80) 3  7 112 2 1440쿟andy 2000 (discontinued)
2.88M3コ        2 36 (80)            5760쿛ractidisk 2.88mb floppy
2720k5С  ***   2 17(192) 8    272 4 5440쿛elican (Kodak 3.3Mb)(disc.)
5570k5С  ***   2 17(384) 8    272 4 10880Pelican (Kodak 6.6Mb)(disc.)
읕컴컴좔컨컴컴컴컨컴컨컴컴컴컨컴컨컴컨컴컨컴컨컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
*   Michtron DS-DOS 2.11 Plus and one version of MS-DOS 3.11 (vendor unknown)
**  TallTree JFormat program
*** Pelican driver source calls for 2 sectors/cluster, Norton Utils reports 4.
旼컴컴쩡컫컴컴컴컫컨컫컴컨컴컫컨컫컨컫컨컫컨컫컴좔쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 400k5СDOS2.11 1 10 (80)             800쿏EC Rainbow  SS/HD   (disc.)
 720k5СDOS2.11 2 퀆ariable number of sectors  쿣ictor 9000 PC   (discont'd)
읕컴컴좔컨컴컴컴컨컴캑per track, more sectors on  쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     쿽uter tracks than inner     
                     퀃racks. Special DSDD drive. 
                     읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

 Some oddball DOS versions specify "zero" heads in their data area. HP's
single-sided disk format (16 256-byte sectors/track, model unknown) uses a
zero-based parameter for the number of heads. Without special device driver
software to "fix" this, these disks are basically unusable by normal DOS.

 A couple of people have reported that the IBM "Gearbox" industrial PC uses
an 800k 3.5 inch floppy with 10 sectors and 80 tracks. I've been unable to
confirm this.

 Files in the data area are not necessarily written sequentially. The data area
space is allocated one cluster at a time, skipping over clusters already
allocated. The first free cluster found is the next cluster allocated,
regardless of its physical location on the disk. This permits the most efficient
utilization of disk space because clusters freed by erasing files can be
allocated for new files. Refer back to the description of the DOS FAT in this
chapter for more information.

        SSDD    single sided, double density     (160-180k)     5
        DSDD    double sided, double density     (320-360k)     5
        DSQD    double sided, quad density       (720k)         5, 3, 2
        DSHD    double sided, high density       (1.2-1.44M)    5, 3
        DSED    double sided, extra high density (2.88M)        3

 Much of the trouble with AT 1.2 meg drives has been through the inadverdent
use of quad density disks in the high density drives. The high density disks
use a higher-coercivity media than the quads, and quads are not completely
reliable as 1.2Mb. Make sure you have the correct disk for your application.


ROTATION SPEEDS:

        720k,   3"    (unknown)  note: Zenith has discontinued 2" floppies

        720k,   3"    300 RPM
        1.44Mb, 3"    300 RPM

        360k,   5"    300 RPM
        720k,   5"    300 RPM
        1.2mb,  5"    360 RPM   (even when reading 360k diskettes)

        all      8"    360 RPM

 The Victor 9000's 5" floppies could vary their rotational speed as required. 
This allowed them to put 720k on a standard 360k floppy, using a constant 
density throughout.

 The Central Point CopyIIPC Option Board emulates the Macintosh GCR recording 
format by varying the data rate instead of the rotational speed.

 


HARD DISK LAYOUT ...................................................... 8**11

 The DOS hard disk routines perform the following services:

1) Allow multiple operating systems to be installed on the hard disk at the
   same time.

2) Allow a user-selected operating system to be started from the hard disk.

   I) In order to share the hard disk among operating systems, the disk may be
      logically divided into 1 to 4 partitions. The space within a given
      partition is contiguous, and can be dedicated to a specific operating
      system. Each operating system may "own" only one partition in DOS versions
      2.0 through 3.2. DOS 3.3 introduced the "Extended DOS Partition" which
      allows multiple DOS partitions on the same hard disk. FDISK (or a
      similar program from other DOS vendors) utility allows the user to select
      the number, type, and size of each partition. The partition information is
      kept in a partition table that is embedded in the master hard disk boot
      record on the first sector of the disk. The format of this table varies
      from version to version of DOS.

  II) An operating system must consider its partition to be the entire disk,
      and must ensure that its functions and utilities do not access other
      partitions on the disk.

 III) Each partition may contain a boot record on its first sector, and any
      other programs or data that you choose, including a different operating
      system. For example, the DOS FORMAT command may be used to format and
      place a copy of DOS in the DOS partition in the same manner that a
      diskette is formatted. You can use FDISK to designate a partition as
      "active" (bootable). The master hard disk boot record causes that
      partition's boot record to receive control when the system is
      initialized. Additional disk partitions could be FORTH, UNIX, Pick,
      CP/M-86, OS/2 HPFS, Concurrent DOS, Xenix, or the UCSD p-System.



SYSTEM INITIALIZATION ................................................. 8**12

The boot sequence is as follows:

1. System initialization first attempts to load an operating system from
   diskette drive A. If the drive is not ready or a read error occurs, it then
   attempts to read a master hard disk boot record on the first sector of the
   first hard disk in the system. If unsuccessful, or if no hard disk is
   present, it invokes ROM BASIC in an IBM PC or displays a disk error
   message on most compatibles.

2. If initialization is successful, the master hard disk boot record is given
   control and it examines the partition table embedded within it. If one of
   the entries indicates an active (bootable) partition, its boot record is
   read from the partition's first sector and given control.

3. If none of the partitions is bootable, ROM BASIC is invoked on an IBM PC or
    a disk error on most compatibles.

4. If any of the boot indicators are invalid, or if more than one indicator is
   marked as bootable, the message "INVALID PARTITION TABLE "is displayed and
   the system stops.

5. If the partition's boot record cannot be successfully read within five
   retries due to read errors, the message "ERROR LOADING OPERATING SYSTEM"
   appears and the system stops.

6. If the partition's boot record does not contain a valid "signature", the
   message "MISSING OPERATING SYSTEM" appears, and the system stops.

NOTE: When changing the size or location of any partition, you must ensure that
      all existing data on the disk has been backed up. The partitioning program
      will destroy the data on the disk.

 System programmers designing a utility to initialize/manage a hard disk must
provide the following functions at a minimum:

1. Write the master disk boot record/partition table to the disk's first
   sector to initialize it.

2. Perform partitioning of the disk - that is, create or update the partition
   table information (all fields for the partition) when the user wishes
   to create a partition. This may be limited to creating a partition for only
   one type of operating system, but must allow repartitoning the entire disk,
   or adding a partition without interfering with existing partitions (user's
   choice).

3. Provide a means for marking a user-specified partition as bootable and
   resetting the bootable indicator bytes for all other partitions at the same
   time.

4. Such utilities should not change or move any partition information that
   belongs to another operating system.




BOOT RECORD/PARTITION TABLE ........................................... 8**13

 A boot record must be written on the first sector of all hard disks, and
must contain the following:

1. Code to load and give control to the boot record for one of four possible
   operating systems.

2. A partition table at the end of the boot record. Each table entry is 16
   bytes long, and contains the starting and ending cylinder, sector, and head
   for each of four possible partitions, as well as the number of sectors
   preceding the partition and the number of sectors occupied by the partition.
   The "boot indicator" byte is used by the boot record to determine if one of
   the partitions contains a loadable operating system. FDISK initialization
   utilities mark a user-selected partition as "bootable" by placing a value
   of 80h in the corresponding partition's boot indicator (setting all other
   partitions' indicators to 0 at the same time). The presence of the 80h tells
   the standard boot routine to load the sector whose location is contained in
   the following three bytes. That sector is the actual boot record for the
   selected operating system, and it is responsible for the remainder of the
   system's loading process (as it is from the diskette). All boot records are
   loaded at absolute address 0:7C00.

The partition table with its offsets into the boot record is:
旼컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
  Offset    Offset    Offset          
쿯rom Start쿯rom Start쿯rom Start  Size   Description
 of Disk   of Entry  of Disk                                             
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
              00h      0BEh    1 byte  boot indicator
              01h      0BFh    1 byte  beginning head
   1BEh       02h      0C0h    1 byte  beginning sector
 (part 1)     03h      0C1h    1 byte  beginning cylinder
 16 bytes     04h      0C2h    1 byte  system indicator
              05h      0C3h    1 byte  ending head
              06h      0C4h    1 byte  ending sector
              07h      0C5h    1 byte  ending cylinder
              08h      0C6h    4 bytes relative (starting) sector       
              0Ch      0DAh    4 bytes number of sectors       
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
              00h      0DEh    1 byte  boot indicator
              01h      0DFh    1 byte  beginning head
   1CEh       02h      0E0h    1 byte  beginning sector
 (part 2)     03h      0E1h    1 byte  beginning cylinder
 16 bytes     04h      0E2h    1 byte  system indicator
              05h      0E3h    1 byte  ending head
              06h      0E4h    1 byte  ending sector
              07h      0E5h    1 byte  ending cylinder
              08h      0E6h    4 bytes relative (starting) sector       
              0Ch      0EAh    4 bytes number of sectors       
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
              00h      0FEh    1 byte  boot indicator
              01h      0FFh    1 byte  beginning head
   1DEh       02h      0100h   1 byte  beginning sector
 (part 3)     03h      0101h   1 byte  beginning cylinder
 16 bytes     04h      0102h   1 byte  system indicator
              05h      0103h   1 byte  ending head
              06h      0104h   1 byte  ending sector
              07h      0105h   1 byte  ending cylinder
              08h      0106h   4 bytes relative (starting) sector       
              0Ch      010Ah   4 bytes number of sectors       
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
              00h      010Eh   1 byte  boot indicator
              01h      011Fh   1 byte  beginning head
   1EEh       02h      0110h   1 byte  beginning sector
 (part 4)     03h      0111h   1 byte  beginning cylinder
 16 bytes     04h      0112h   1 byte  system indicator
              05h      0113h   1 byte  ending head
              06h      0114h   1 byte  ending sector
              07h      0115h   1 byte  ending cylinder
              08h      0116h   4 bytes relative (starting) sector       
              0Ch      011Ah   4 bytes number of sectors       
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   1FEh                         2 bytes 055AAh signature
읕컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 Boot indicator (boot ind): The boot indicator byte must contain 0 for a non-
bootable partition or 80h for a bootable partition. Only one partition can be
marked as bootable at a time.

 System Indicator (sys ind): The sys ind field contains an indicator of the
operating system that "owns" the partition. IBM PC-DOS can only "own" one
partition, though some versions of MSDOS allow all four partitions to be used
by DOS.

 The system indicators are:

        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         System Indicator  (sys ind)                 
        쳐컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          00h    unknown or no partition defined                    
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          01h    DOS 12 bit FAT  (DOS 2.x all and 3.x+ under 16 Mb) 
                                 less than 4086 clusters            
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          02h    Xenix                                              
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          03h    Xenix                                              
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          04h    DOS 16 bit FAT  (DOS 3.0+. Not recognized by 2.x)  
                                 less than 65,536 sectors           
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          05h    extended DOS partition, some 3.2 and all 3.3+      
                 (pointer to further partition table)               
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          06h    Compaq DOS 3.31, DOS 4.0+ partitions over 32 megs  
                 Digital Research DRDOS 3.4, 3.41 over 32 megs      
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          06h    PC-MOS/386 partitions over 32 megs (NOT compatible 
                 with the DR, Compaq, and MSDOS big partitions!     
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          07h    OS/2 High Performance File System                  
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          051h   Ontrack Disk Manager "read/write" partitions       
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          0DBh   DRI Concurrent DOS              (>32mb partitions?)
                 DRI Concurrent CP/M?                               
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          0E4h   Speedstor, small partitions (?) (under 1024cyl?)   
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          0F2h   2nd DOS partition, some OEM customized DOS 3.2     
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          0F4h   Speedstor, large partitions (?)                    
        쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
          0FEh   Speedstor, partitions >1024 cylinders              
        읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 There are ID bytes for proprietary formatting schemes. Some manufacturers
(such as Zenith, Wyse, and Tandon) diddle with these system bytes to implement
more than one DOS partition per disk.

note 1) Xenix doesn't like extended DOS partitions a'la DOS 3.3, limiting you
        to a DOS partition of 32Mb. Xenix doesn't recognize DOS 4.0x at all,
        so to use it you need to boot from a floppy. Early versions of OS/2
        also have this problem.
    2)  I have found one source listing Minix partitions as "40" and some
        Unix partitions as "63".  I don't know if these are decimal or
        hexadecimal figures.

 Cylinder (CYL) and Sector (S): The 1 byte fields labelled CYL contain the low
order 8 bits of the cylinder number - the high order 2 bits are in the high
order 2 bits of the sector (S) field. This corresponds with the ROM BIOS
interrupt 13h (disk I/O) requirements, to allow for a 10 bit cylinder number.

 The fields are ordered in such a manner that only two MOV instructions are
required to properly set up the DX and CX registers for a ROM BIOS call to
load the appropriate boot record (hard disk booting is only possible from the
first hard disk in the system, where a BIOS drive number of 80h corresponds
to the boot indicator byte).

 All partitions are allocated in cylinder multiples and begin on sector 1,
head 0, with the exception that the partition that is allocated at the beginning
of the disk starts at sector 2, to account for the hard disk's master boot
record.

 Relative (starting) Sector: The number of sectors preceding each partition
on the disk is kept in this 4 byte field. This value is determined by counting
the sectors beginning with cylinder 0, sector 1, head 0 of the disk, and
incrementing the sector, head, and then track values up to the beginning of
the partition. This, if the disk has 17 sectors per track and 4 heads, and the
second partition begins at cylinder 1, sector 1, head 0, then the partition's
starting relative sector is 68 (decimal) - there were 17 sectors on each of 4
heads on 1 track allocated ahead of it. The field is stored with the least
significant word first.

 Number of sectors (#sects): The number of sectors allocated to the partition
is kept in the "# of sects" field. This is a 4 byte field stored least
significant word first.

 Signature: The last 2 bytes of the boot record (55AAh) are used as a signature
to identify a valid boot record. Both this record and the partition boot record
are required to contain the signature at offset 1FEh.



HARD DISK TECHNICAL INFORMATION ....................................... 8**14

 Western Digital's hard disk installation manuals make the claim that MSDOS
can support only 2 hard drives. This is entirely false, and their purpose for
making the claim is unclear. DOS merely performs a function call pointed at
the hard disk driver, which is normally in one of three locations; a ROM at
absolute address C:800, the main BIOS ROM if the machine is an AT, or a device
driver installed through the CONFIG.SYS file. Two hard disk controller cards
can normally not reside in the same machine due to lack of interrupt
arbitration. Perstor's ARLL controller and some cards marketed by Novell can
coexist with other controllers. Perstor's technical department has had four
controllers and eight hard disks in the same IBM XT functioning concurrently.

 A valid hard disk has a boot record arranged in the following manner:

        db      drive           ; 0 or 80h  (80h marks a bootable, active
                                             partition)
        db      head1           ; starting head
        dw      trksec1         ; starting track/sector (CX value for INT 13)
        db      system          ; SYS IND ID from table above
        db      head2           ; ending head
        dw      trksec2         ; ending track/sector
        dd      sector1         ; absolute # of starting sector
        dd      sector2         ; absolute # of last sector

 The master disk boot record invokes ROM BASIC if no indicator byte reflects a
bootable system.

 When a partition's boot record is given control, it is passed its partition
table entry address in the DS:SI registers.



DETERMINING HARD DISK ALLOCATION ...................................... 8**15

DOS determines disk allocation using the following formula:

                                         D * BPD
                            TS - RS -  컴컴컴컴컴
                                           BPS
                      SPF = 컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                                        BPS * SPC
                                 CF + 컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                                           BPC
where:

     TS      Total number of sectors on the disk
     RS      The number of sectors at the beginning of the disk that are
             reserved for the boot record. DOS normally reserves 1 sector.
     D       The number of directory entries in the root directory.
     BPD     The number of bytes per directory entry. This is always 32.
     BPS     The number of bytes per logical sector. Typically 512, but you can
             specify a different number with VDISK.
     CF      The number of FATS per disk. Usually 2. VDISK is 1.
     SPF     The number of sectors per FAT. Maximum 64.
     SPC     The number of sectors per allocation unit (cluster).
     BPC     The number of bytes per FAT entry. BPC is 1.5 for 12 bit FATs.
             2 for 16 bit FATS.


To calculate the minimum partition size that will force a 16-bit FAT:

        CYL = (max clusters * 8)/(HEADS * SPT)

where:
     CYL           number of cylinders on the disk
     max clusters  4092 (maximum number of clusters for a 12 bit FAT)
     HEADS         number of heads on the hard disk
     SPT           sectors per track  (normally 17 on MFM)


 DOS 2.0 through 3.3 limit partition sizes to 32 megabytes. The limit arises
from the fact that DOS does things by sector number, and each sector is stored
as a word. So the largest sector number DOS can count to is 64k. As each
sector is 512 bytes long, 64k * .5k = 32Mb. The easiest way for an aftermarket
disk handler to break the 32Mb barrier is probably to increase the sector size
- with 2k sectors, maximum partiton size increases to 128Mb. However, the BIOS
boot routines and IBMBIO.COM are hardwired for 512 byte sectors, so you won't
be able to boot from a drive with oversize sectors. That's why Disk Manager
formats a small boot partition by default.

 DOS 2.x uses a "first fit" algorithm when allocating file space on the hard
disk. Each time an application requests disk space, it will scan from the
beginning of the FAT until it finds a contiguous peice of storage large enough
for the file.

 DOS 3.x+ keeps a pointer into the disk space, and begins its search from the
point it last left off. This pointer is lost when the system is rebooted.
This is called the "next fit" algorithm. It is faster than the first fit and
helps minimize fragmentation.

 In either case, if the FCB function calls are used instead of the handle
function calls, the file will be broken into pieces starting with the first
available space on the disk.




BIOS Disk Routines .................................................... 8**16

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
쿔nterrupt 13h  Disk I/O - access the disk drives (floppy and hard disk)      
읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
(0:004Ch)    1) These calls do not try rereading disk if an error is returned.
             2) In the IBM OS/2 Tech Ref Volume 1, page 7-33, under "DOS
                Environment Software Interrupt Support", it lists:
                13h  disk/diskette     for non-removable media only, these
                                       functions are supported:
                                       01h     read status
                                       02h     read sectors
                                       0Ah     read long
                                       15h     read DASD (disk) type
             3) On hard disk systems these calls may be vectored through the
                int 40h hard disk BIOS.


Function 00h    Reset - reset the disk controller chip
entry   AH      00h
        DL      drive (if bit 7 is set both hard disks and floppy disks reset)
                00h-7Fh  floppy disk
                80h-0FFh hard disk
return  AH      status (see 01h below)
note 1) Forces controller chip to recalibrate read/write heads.
     2) Some systems (Sanyo 55x, Columbia MPC) this resets all drives.
     3) This function should be called after a failed floppy disk Read, Write,
        Verify, or Format request before retrying the operation.
     4) If called with DL >= 80h (i.e., selecting a hard drive), the floppy
        controller and then the hard disk controller are reset.
     5) Function 0Dh allows the hard disk controller to be reset without
        affecting the floppy controller.


Function 01h    Get Status of Disk System
entry   AH      01h
        DL      drive (hard disk if bit 7 set)
                00h-7Fh  floppy disk
                80h-0FFh hard disk
return  AH      00h
        AL      status of most recent disk operation
                00h     successful completion, no errors
                01h     bad command
                02h     address mark not found
                03h     tried to write on write-protected disk    (floppy only)
                04h     sector not found
                05h     reset failed                                (hard disk)
                06h     diskette removed or changed               (floppy only)
                07h     bad parameter table                         (hard disk)
                08h     DMA overrun                               (floppy only)
                09h     attempt to DMA across 64K boundary
                0Ah     bad sector detected                         (hard disk)
                0Bh     bad track detected                          (hard disk)
                0Ch     unsupported track or media type not found (floppy disk)
                0Dh     invalid number of sectors on format         (hard disk)
                0Eh     control data address mark detected          (hard disk)
                0Fh     DMA arbitration level out of range          (hard disk)
                10h     uncorrectable CRC/EEC on read
                11h     ECC corrected data error                    (hard disk)
                20h     controller failure
                40h     seek failed
                80h     timeout
                0AAh    drive not ready                             (hard disk)
                0BBh    undefined error                             (hard disk)
                0CCh    write fault                                 (hard disk)
                0E0h    status error                                (hard disk)
                0FFh    sense operation failed                      (hard disk)
note 1) For hard disks, error code 11h (ECC data error) indicates that a
        recoverable error was detected during a preceding int 13h fn 02h
        (Read Sector) call.


Function 02h    Read Sectors - read one or more sectors from diskette
entry   AH      02h
        AL      number of sectors to read
        BX      address of buffer (ES=segment)
        CH      track (cylinder) number (0-39 or 0-79 for floppies)
                (for hard disk, bits 8,9 in high bits of CL)
        CL      sector number (1 to 18, not value checked)
        DH      head number (0 or 1)
        DL      drive (0=A, 1=B, etc.) (bit 7=0)  (drive 0-7)
                00h-7Fh   floppy disk
                80h-FF0h  hard disk
        ES:BX   address to store/fetch data  (buffer to fill)
       [0000:0078]  dword pointer to diskette parameters
return  CF      clear   successful
                        AL      number of sectors transferred
                set     error
                        AH      status  (00h, 02h, 03h, 04h, 08h, 09h, 10h,
                                         0Ah, 20h, 40h, 80h)
note 1) Number of sectors begins with 1, not 0.
     2) Trying to read zero sectors is considered a programming error; results
        are not defined.
     3) For hard disks, the upper 2 bits of the 10-bit cylinder number are
        placed in the upper 2 bits of register CL.
     4) For hard disks, error code 11h indicates that a read error occurred
        that was corrected by the ECC algorithm; in this case, AL contains the
        burst length. The data read is good within the limits of the ECC code.
        If a multisector transfer was requested, the operation was terminated
        after the sector containing the read error.
     5) For floppy drives, an error may result from the drive motor being off
        at the time of the request. The BIOS does not automatically wait for
        the drive to come up to speed before attempting the read operation. The
        calling program should reset the floppy disk system with function 00h
        and retry the operation three times before assuming that the error
        results from some other cause.


Function 03h    Write Sectors - write from memory to disk
entry   AH      03h
        AL      number of sectors to write (1-8)
        CH      track number (for hard disk, bits 8,9 in high bits of CL)
        CL      beginning sector number
                (if hard disk, high two bits are high bits of track #)
        DH      head number  (head 0=0)
        DL      drive number (0-7)
                00h-7Fh   floppy disk
                80h-FF0h  hard disk
        ES:BX   address of buffer for data
return  CF      clear   success
                        AL      number of sectors written
                set     error
                        AH      status (see 01h above)
note 1) Number of sectors begins with 1, not 0.
     2) Trying to write zero sectors is considered a programming error; results
        are not defined.
     3) For hard disks, the upper 2 bits of the 10-bit cylinder number are
        placed in the upper 2 bits of register CL.
     4) For floppy drives, an error may result from the drive motor being off
        at the time of the request. The BIOS does not automatically wait for
        the drive to come up to speed before attempting the read operation. The
        calling program should reset the floppy disk system with function 00h
        and retry the operation three times before assuming that the error
        results from some other cause.


Function 04h    Verify - verify that a write operation was successful
entry   AH      04h
        AL      number of sectors to verify (1-8)
        CH      track number  (for hard disk, bits 8,9 in high bits of CL)
        CL      beginning sector number
        DH      head number
        DL      drive number (0-7)
        DL      drive number (0-7)
                00h-7Fh   floppy disk
                80h-FF0h  hard disk
        ES:BX   address of buffer for data
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status (see 01h above)
        AL      number of sectors verified
note 1) With IBM PC, XT, and AT with ROM BIOS earlier than 11/15/85, ES:BX
        should point to a valid buffer.
     2) For hard disks, the upper 2 bits of the 10-bit cylinder number are
        placed in the upper 2 bits of register CL.
     3) This function can be used to test whether a readable media is in a
        floppy drive. An error may result from the drive motor being off at the
        time of the request since the BIOS does not automatically wait for the
        drive to come up to speed before attempting the verify operation. The
        requesting program should reset the floppy disk system with function
        00h and retry the operation three times before assuming that a readable
        disk is not present.


Function 05h    Format Track - write sector ID bytes for 1 track (floppy disk)
entry   AH      05h
        AL      number of sectors to create on this track
                interleave (for XT hard disk only)
        CH      track (or cylinder) number (bits 8,9 in high bits of CL)
        CL      sector number
        DH      head number (0, 1)
        DL      drive number (0-3)
                00h-7Fh   floppy disk
                80h-0FFh  hard disk
        ES:BX   pointer to 4-byte address field (C-H-R-N) (except XT hard disk)
                byte 1 = (C) cylinder or track
                byte 2 = (H) head
                byte 3 = (R) sector
                byte 4 = (N) bytes/sector (0 = 128, 1 = 256, 2 = 512, 3 = 1024)
return  CF      set if error occurred
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
note 1) Not valid for ESDI hard disks on PS/2.
     2) For floppy disks, the number of sectors per track is taken from the
        BIOS floppy disk parameter table whose address is stored in the vector
        for int 1Eh.
     3) When this function is used for floppies on ATs or the PS/2, it should
        be preceded by a call to int 13h/fn 17h to select the type of media to
        format.
     4) For hard disks, the upper 2 bits of the 10-bit cylinder number are
        placed in the upper 2 bits of CL.
     5) On the XT/286, AT, and PS/2 hard disks, ES:BX points to a 512-byte
        buffer containing byte pairs for each physical disk sector as follows:
        Byte  Contents
        0       00h     good sector
                80h     bad sector
        1       sector number
        For example, to format a track with 17 sectors and an interleave of
        two, ES:BX would point to the following 34-byte array at the beginning
        of a 512-byte buffer:
        db      00h, 01h, 00h, 0Ah, 00h, 02h, 00h, 0Bh, 00h, 03h, 00h, 0Ch
        db      00h, 04h, 00h, 0Dh, 00h, 05h, 00h, 0Eh, 00h, 06h, 00h, 0Fh
        db      00h, 07h, 00h, 10h, 00h, 08h, 00h, 11h, 00h, 09h


Function 06h    Hard Disk - format track and set bad sector flags
                                                     (PC2, PC-XT, and Portable)
entry   AH      06h
        AL      interleave value (XT only)
        CH      cylinder number (bits 8,9 in high bits of CL)
        CL      sector number
        DH      head
        DL      drive (80h-0FFh for hard disk)
        ES:BX   512 byte format buffer
                the first 2*(sectors/track) bytes contain f,n for each sector
                f       00h     good sector
                        80h     bad sector
                n       sector number
return  CF      error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)


Function 07h    Hard Disk - format the drive starting at the desired track
                                                      (PC2, PC-XT and Portable)
entry   AH      07h
        AL      interleave value (XT only) (01h-10h)
        CH      cylinder number (bits 8,9 in high bits of CL) (00h-03FFh)
        CL      sector number
        DH      head number (0-7)
        DL      drive number (80h-0FFh, 80h=C, 81h=D,...)
        ES:BX   format buffer, size = 512 bytes
                the first 2*(sectors/track) bytes contain f,n for each sector
                f       00h     good sector
                        80h     bad sector
                n       sector number
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status code (see 01h above)
note    Award AT BIOS routines are extended to handle more than 1024 cylinders.
        AL      number of sectors
        CH      cylinder numberm low 8 bits
        CL      sector number bits 0-5, bits 6-7 are high 2 cylinder bits
        DH      head number (bits 0-5) bits 6-7 are extended high cyls (>1024)
        DL      drive number (0-1 for diskette, 80h-81h for hard disk)
        ES:BX   transfer address


Function 08h    Read Drive Parameters                          (except PC, Jr)
entry   AH      08h
        DL      drive number
                00h-7Fh   floppy disk
                80h-0FFh  hard disk
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see above)
        BL      drive type  (AT/PS2 floppies only)
                01h     if 360 Kb, 40 track, 5"
                02h     if 1.2 Mb, 80 track, 5"
                03h     if 720 Kb, 80 track, 3"
                04h     if 1.44 Mb, 80 track, 3"
        CH      low 8 bits of maximum useable value for cylinder number
        CL bits 6-7     high-order 2 bits of maximum cylinder number
                0-5     maximum sector number
        DH      maximum usable value for head number
        DL      number of consecutive acknowledging drives (0-2)
        ES:DI   pointer to drive parameter table
note 1) On the PC and PC/XT, this function is supported on hard disks only.
     2) The Columbia MPC supports functions 6-14 for its hard disk. It returns
        drive information, same as int 13 function 8, except that the BL and
        ES:DI values are omitted and AL <- burst length.


Function 09h    Initialize Two Fixed Disk Base Tables    (XT, AT, XT/286, PS/2)
                (install nonstandard drive)
entry   AH      09h
        DL      80h-0FFh  hard disk number
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
                For PC, XT hard disks, the disk parameter block format is:
                00h-01h maximum number of cylinders
                02h     maximum number of heads
                03h-04h starting reduced write current cylinder
                05h-06h starting write precompensation cylinder
                07h     maximum ECC burst length
                08h     drive options
                   bits 7       1       disable disk access retries
                        6       1       disable ECC retries
                        3-5     set to 0
                        0-2     drive option
                09h     standard timeout value
                0Ah     timeout value for format drive
                0Bh     timeout value for check drive
                0Ch-0Fh reserved

                For AT and PS/2 hard disks:
                00h-01h maximum number of cylinders
                02h     maximum number of heads
                03h-04h reserved
                05h-06h starting write precompensation cylinder
                07h     maximum ECC burst length
                08h     drive options byte
                   bits 6-7     nonzero (10, 01, or 11) if retries disabled
                        5       1       if manufacturer's defect map present at
                                        maximum cylinder + 1
                        4       not used
                        3       1       if more than 8 heads
                        0-2     not used
                09h-0Bh reserved
                0Ch-0Dh landing zone cylinder
                0Eh     sectors per track
                0Fh     reserved
note 1) For the XT, int 41h must point to the Disk Parameter Block.
     2) For the AT and PS/2, int 41h points to table for drive 0 and int 46h
        points to table for drive 1.
     3) Initializes the hard disk controller for subsequent I/O operations
        using the values found in the BIOS disk parameter block(s).
     4) This function is supported on hard disks only.


Function 0Ah    Read Long   (Hard disk)                 (XT, AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      0Ah
        CH      cylinder number (bits 8,9 in high bits of CL)
        CL      sector number (upper 2 bits of cyl # in upper 2 bits of CL)
        DH      head number
        DL      drive ID  (80h-0FFh hard disk)
        ES:BX   pointer to buffer to fill
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
        AL      number of sectors actually transferred
note 1) A "long" sector includes a 4 byte EEC (Extended Error Correction) code.
     2) Used for diagnostics only on PS/2 systems.
     3) This function is supported on fixed disks only.
     4) Unlike the normal Read Sector (02h) function, ECC errors are not
        automatically corrected. Multisector transfers are terminated after any
        sector with a read error.


Function 0Bh    Write Long                              (XT, AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      0Bh
        AL      number of sectors
        CH      cylinder (bits 8,9 in high bits of CL)
        CL      sector number
        DH      head number
        DL      drive ID  (80h-0FFh hard disk)
        ES:BX   pointer to buffer containing data
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
        AL      number of sectors actually transferred
note 1) A "long" sector includes a 4 byte EEC (Extended Error Correction) code.
     2) Used for diagnostics only on PS/2 systems.
     3) Valid for hard disks only.


Function 0Ch    Seek To Cylinder                        (except PC, PCjr)
entry   AH      0Ch
        CH      lower 8 bits of cylinder
        CL      upper 2 bits of cylinder in bits 6-7
        DH      head number
        DL      drive number (0 or 1)  (80h-0FFh for hard disk)
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
note 1) Positions heads over a particular cylinder, but does not move any data.
     2) This function is supported on hard disks only.
     3) The upper 2 bits of the 10-bit cylinder number are placed in the upper
        2 bits of CL.
     4) The Read Sector, Read Sector Long, Write Sector, and Write Sector Long
        functions include an implied seek operation and need not be preceded by
        an explicit call to this function.


Function 0Dh    Alternate Hard Disk Reset                    (except PC, PCjr)
entry   AH      0Dh
        DL      hard drive number (80h-0FFh hard disk)
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
note 1) Not for PS/2 ESDI hard disks.
     2) Resets the hard disk controller, recalibrates attached drives (moves
        the read/write arm to cylinder 0), and prepares for subsequent disk I/O.
     3) This function is for hard disks only. It differs from fn 00h by not
        resetting the floppy disk controller.


Function 0Eh    Read Sector Buffer                         (XT, Portable, PS/2)
entry   AH      0Eh
        ES:BX   pointer to buffer
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
        AL      number of sectors actually transferred
note 1) Transfers controller's sector buffer. No data is read from the drive.
     2) Used for diagnostics only on PS/2 systems.
     3) This fn is supported by the XT's hard disk adapter only. It is "not
        defined" for hard disk adapters on the AT or PS/2.


Function 0Fh    Write sector buffer                          (XT, Portable)
entry   AH      0Fh
        ES:BX   pointer to buffer
return  CF      set if error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
        AL      number of sectors actually transferred
note 1) Should be called before formatting to initialize the controller's
        sector buffer.
     2) Used for diagnostics only on PS/2 systems.
     3) Transfers data from system RAM to the hard disk adapter's internal
        sector buffer.
     4) No data is written to the physical disk drive.
     5) This fn is for the XT hard disk controller only. It is "not defined"
        for AT or PS/2 controllers.


Function 10h    Test For Drive Ready                  (XT, AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      10h
        DL      hard drive number 0 or 1 (80h-0FFh)
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
note 1) Tests whether the specified hard disk drive is operational and returns
        the drive's status.
     2) This function is supported on hard disks only.
     3) Perstor and Novell controllers allow more than one controller. Does
        not work for multiple Perstor controllers. (reports first two drives
        only).
     4) Does not work with network drives.


Function 11h    Recalibrate Drive                      (XT, AT, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      11h
        DL      hard drive number (80h-0FFh hard disk)
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
note 1) Causes the HD controller to recalibrate itself for the specified drive,
        positioning the read/arm to cylinder 0, and returns the drive's status.
     2) This function is for hard disks only.


Function 12h    Controller RAM Diagnostics                (XT, Portable, PS/2)
entry   AH      12h
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see fn 01h above)
note 1) Used for diagnostics only on PS/2 systems.
     2) Makes the hard disk controller carry out a built-in diagnostic test on
        its internal sector buffer.


Function 13h    Controller Drive Diagnostic               (XT, Portable, PS/2)
entry   AH      13h
return  CF      set on error
                AH      status code (see 01h above)
note 1) Used for diagnostics only on PS/2 systems.
     2) Causes HD controller to run internal diagnostic tests of the attached
        drive, indicating whether the test was passed by the returned status.
     3) This function is supported on XT HDs only.


Function 14h    Controller Internal Diagnostic               (AT, XT/286)
entry   AH      14h
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status code (see 01h above)
note 1) OEM is Western Digital 1003-WA2 hard/floppy combination controller
        in AT and XT/286.
     2) Used for diagnostics only in PS/2 systems.
     3) Causes HD controller to do a built-in diagnostic self-test, indicating
        whether the test was passed by the returned status.
     4) This function is supported on hard disks only.


Function 15h    Get Disk Type                                (except PC and XT)
entry   AH      15h
        DL      drive ID
                00h-7Fh   floppy disk
                80h-0FFh  fixed disk
return  CF      set on error
                AH      error code (see 01h above)
        AH      disk type
                00h     no drive is present
                01h     diskette, no change detection present
                02h     diskette, change detection present
                03h     hard disk
                        CX:DX   number of 512-byte sectors
note 1) Returns a code indicating the type of disk referenced by the specified
        drive code.
     2) This function is not supported on the PC or XT.


Function 16h    Get Disk Change Status (diskette)      (except PC, XT, & Jr)
entry   AH      16h
        DL      drive to check
return  CF      set on error
        AH      disk change status
                00h     no disk change
                01h     disk changed
        DL      drive that had disk change (00h-07Fh floppy disk)
note    Returns the status of the change line, indicating whether the disk in
        the drive may have been replaced since the last disk access. If this
        function returns with CF set, the disk has not necessarily been
        changed; the change line can be activated by simply unlocking and
        relocking the disk drive door without removing the floppy disk.


Function 17h    Set Disk Type for Format (diskette)          (except PC and XT)
entry   AH      17h
        AL      00h     not used
                01h     160, 180, 320, or 360Kb diskette in 360kb drive
                02h     360Kb diskette in 1.2Mb drive
                03h     1.2Mb diskette in 1.2Mb drive
                04h     720Kb diskette in 720Kb drive
        DL      drive number (0-7)
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status of operation (see 01h above)
note 1) This function is probably enhanced for the PS/2 series to detect
        1.44 in 1.44 and 720k in 1.44.
     2) This function is not supported for floppy disks on the PC or XT.
     3) If the change line is active for the specified drive, it is reset.
     4) The BIOS sets the data rate for the specified drive and media type.
        The rate is 250k/sec for double-density media and 500k/sec for high
        density media. The proper hardware is required.


Function 18h    Set Media Type For Format  (diskette)   (AT, XT2, XT/286, PS/2)
entry   AH      18h
        CH      lower 8 bits of number of tracks
        CL      high 2 bits of number of tracks (6,7) sectors per track
                (bits 0-5)
        DL      drive number (0-7)
return  CF      clear   no errors
        AH      00h      if requested combination supported
                01h      if function not available
                0Ch      if not suppported or drive type unknown
                80h      if there is no media in the drive
        ES:DI   pointer to 11-byte disk parameter table for media type
        CF      set     error code (see 01h above)
note 1) A floppy disk must be present in the drive.
     2) This function should be called prior to formatting a disk with Int 13h
        Fn 05h so the BIOS can set the correct data rate for the media.
     3) If the change line is active for the specified drive, it is reset.


Function 19h    Park Hard Disk Heads                         (PS/2)
entry   AH      19h
        DL      drive number (80h-0FFh)
return  CF      set on error
                AH      error code (see fn 01h)
note    This function is defined for PS/2 fixed disks only.


Function 1Ah    ESDI Hard Disk - Low Level Format                      (PS/2)
entry   AH      1Ah
        AL      Relative Block Address (RBA) defect table count
                00h     no errors on disk
                01h+    number of disk errors
        CL      format modifiers byte
           bits 0       ignore primary defect map
                1       ignore secondary defect map
                2       update secondary defect map
                3       perform extended surface analysis
                4       generate periodic interrupt after each cylinder format
                5       reserved - must be 0
                6       reserved - must be 0
                7       reserved - must be 0
        DL      drive  (80h-0FFh)
        ES:BX   pointer to RBA defect table
return  CF      set on error
                AH      error code (see fn 01h above)
note 1) Initializes disk sector and track address fields on a drive attached
        to the IBM "ESDI Fixed Disk Drive Adapter/A."
     2) If periodic interrupt selected, int 15h/fn 0Fh is called after each
        cylinder is formatted
     3) If bit 4 of CL is set, Int 15h, AH=0Fh, AL=phase code after each
        cylinder is formatted or analyzed. The phase code is defined as:
        0       reserved
        1       surface analysis
        2       formatting
     4) If bit 2 of CL is set, the drive's secondary defect map is updated to
        reflect errors found during surface analysis. If both bit 2 and bit 1
        are set, the secondary defect map is replaced.
     5) For an extended surface analysis, the disk should first be formatted by
        calling this function with bit 3 cleared and then analyzed by calling
        this function with bit 3 set.


Function 1Bh    ESDI Hard Disk - Get Manufacturing Header       (PS/2)
entry   AH      1Bh
        AL      number of record
        DL      drive
        ES:BX   pointer to buffer for manufacturing header (defect list)
return  CF      set on error
        AH      status
note    Manufacturing header format (Defect Map Record format) can be found
        in the "IBM 70Mb, 115Mb Fixed Disk Drives Technical Reference."


Function 1Ch    ESDI Hard Disk - Get Configuration                  (PS/2)
entry   AH      1Ch
        AL      0Ah     Get Device Configuration
                        DL      drive
                        ES:BX   pointer to buffer for device configuration
                                (drive physical parameter)
                0Bh     Get Adapter Configuration
                        ES:BX   pointer to buffer for adapter configuration
                0Ch     Get POS Information
                        ES:BX   pointer to POS information
                0Dh     unknown
                0Eh     Translate RBA to ABA
                        CH      low 8 bits of cylinder number
                        CL      sector number, high two bits of cylinder number
                                in bits 6 and 7
                        DH      head number
                        DL      drive number
                        ES:BX   pointer to ABA number

return  CF      set on error
                AH      status (see 01h)
note 1) Device configuration format can be found in IBM ESDI Fixed Disk Drive
        Adapter/A Technical Reference.
     2) ABA (absolute block address) format can be found in IBM ESDI Adapter
        Technical Reference by using its Device Configuration Status Block.


Function 1Dh    IBMCACHE.SYS                                (PS/2 50+)
entry   AH      1Dh
other parameters unknown
note    IBMCACHE.SYS comes on the setup disk for MCA-bus PS/2 machines.


Function 20h    Western Digital HD SuperBIOS
entry   AH      20h
other parameters unknown
note    SuperBIOS may be purchased separately from Western Digital and added
        to standard HD controllers. SuperBIOS contains additional setup
        tables and parameters.


       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                            C H A P T E R   N I N E


                          INSTALLABLE DEVICE DRIVERS


                                C O N T E N T S

Device Driver Format .................................................... 9**
Types of Devices ........................................................ 9**
        Character Devices ............................................... 9**
        Block Devices ................................................... 9**
Device Header ........................................................... 9**
        Pointer to Next Device Header Field ............................. 9**
        Attribute Field ................................................. 9**
                Bits 0 and 1 ............................................ 9**
                Bit 2 ................................................... 9**
                Bit 3 ................................................... 9**
                Bit 13 .................................................. 9**
                Bit 14 .................................................. 9**
                Bit 15 .................................................. 9**
        Pointer to Strategy and Interrupt Routines ...................... 9**
        Name/Unit Field ................................................. 9**
Creating a Device Driver ................................................ 9**
Installing Device Drivers ............................................... 9**
        Installing Character Devices .................................... 9**
        Installing Block Devices ........................................ 9**
Request Header .......................................................... 9**
        Unit Code Field ................................................. 9**
        Command Code Field .............................................. 9**
        Status Field .................................................... 9**
Device Driver Functions ................................................. 9**
        INIT ............................................................ 9**
        MEDIA CHECK ..................................................... 9**
        Media Descriptor Byte ........................................... 9**
        BUILD BPB (BIOS Parameter Block) ................................ 9**
        INPUT OR OUTPUT ................................................. 9**
        NONDESTRUCTIVE INPUT NO WAIT .................................... 9**
        STATUS .......................................................... 9**
        FLUSH ........................................................... 9**
        OPEN or CLOSE (DOS 3.0+) ........................................ 9**
        REMOVEABLE MEDIA (DOS 3.0+) ..................................... 9**
The CLOCK$ Device ....................................................... 9**




DEVICE DRIVER FORMAT쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 A device driver is a handler for communication between the system software
and hardware devices. The motherboard ROM and IBMBIO.COM or IO.SYS files
contain the basic drivers for allowing DOS to talk to the console, disk drives,
serial and parallel ports, clock, and other resources.

 DOS has five builtin drivers, STDIN, STDOUT, STERR, STDPRN, or STDAUX. An
"installable" driver may be loaded in the CONFIG.SYS file, and either replace
one of the builtin drivers or define a new resource, such as a mouse or
expanded memory driver.

 The device driver is a COM (memory image) file that contains all of the code
needed to control an add-in device. An EXE file should not be used since the
EXE loader in some DOS 2.x versions is part of COMMAND.COM, which is not
present when the device driver is being loaded by IBMBIO.COM or IO.SYS. EXE
format drivers could be used in DOS 3.x+, but there is generally no reason to
do so. The COM file must not load at the usual ORG 100h. Since the driver does
not use the Program Segment Prefix, it is simply loaded without offset,
therefore the driver file must have an origin of 0. Most references advise
"ORG 0 or no ORG statement", however with the advent of many new assemblers on
the market, some of which default to .COM files, specifically stating "ORG 0"
may eliminate problems. Driver files should not have a declared stack segment.

 DOS can install the device driver anywhere in memory, so care must be taken
in any FAR memory references. You should not expect that your driver will be
loaded in the same place every time.




TYPES OF DEVICES쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 There are two types of devices: Character devices and Block devices. Their
attributes are as follows:

 Character devices are designed to do serial I/O in a byte-by-byte manner.
These devices have names like CON, AUX, or PRN, and you can open channels
(handles or FCBs) to do I/O much like a disk file. I/O may be in either cooked
or raw mode. (see Chapter 7 for discussion of cooked and raw modes). Because
character devices have only one name, they can only support one device.

 Block devices are normally implemented as disk drives. They can do random I/O
in pieces called blocks, which are usually the physical sector size of the disk.
These devices are not named as character devices are, and cannot be opened
directly. Instead they are accessed by using drive letters such as A, B, C,
etc. Block devices can have units within them. In this way, a single block
driver can be responsible for one or more disk drives. For example, the first
block device driver can be responsible for drives A, B, C, and D. This means it
has four units defined and therefore takes up four drive letters. The position
of the driver in the chain of all drives determines the way in which the drive
letters correspond, i.e, if a second block device driver defines three units,
then those units are E, F, and G.

 DOS 1.x allows 16 block devices. DOS 2.x allows 63, and DOS 3.x allows 26. It
is recommended that drivers limit themselves to 26 devices for compatibility
with DOS 3.x and 4.x. When DOS 2.x passes the Z: drivespec, the drivespecs get
a little wierd, such as ^, [, or #. DOS 3.x+ will return an error message.




CREATING A DEVICE DRIVER쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 To create a device driver that DOS can install, you must do the following:

1) Create a memory image (COM) file with a device header at the start of the
   file.
2) Originate the code (including the device header) at 0, instead of 100h.
3) Set the next device header field. Refer to "Pointer to Next Device Header
   Attribute Field" for more information.
4) Set the attribute field of the device header. Refer to "Attribute Field" for
   more information.
5) Set the entry points for the interrupt and strategy routines.
6) Fill in the name/unit field with the name of the character device or the
   unit number of the block device.

 DOS always processes installable character device drivers before handling the
default devices. So to install a new CON device, simply name the device CON.
Be sure to set the standard input device and standard output device bits in
the attribute field of a new CON device. The scan of the device list stops on
the first match so the installable device driver takes precedence. For
instance, installing ANSI.SYS replaces the builtin CON driver.

 DOS doesn't care about the position of installed character devices versus
block devices.




STRUCTURE OF A DEVICE DRIVER쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 A device driver consists of three major parts:
        a device header
        a strategy routine
        an interrupt routine


DEVICE HEADER

 The driver has a special header to identify it as a device and to define the
strategy and interrupt entry points and its various attributes. This header is
located at the beginning of the file. It contains a pointer to the next driver
in the chain, the attributes of the device, offsets into the strategy and
interrupt routines, and the device ID.

 This is the format of the device header:

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                         D E V I C E    H E A D E R                           
쳐컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿚ffset  Length                        Description                           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  00h    word    Pointer to next device header field, offset value          
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  02h    word    Pointer to next device header field, segment value         
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  04h    word    Attribute                                                  
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  06h    word    Pointer to device strategy routine (offset only)           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  08h    word    Pointer to device interrupt routine (offset only)          
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  0Ah  8 bytes   Name/Unit field                                            
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸


POINTER TO NEXT DEVICE HEADER FIELD

 The device header field is a pointer to the device header of the next device
driver. It is a doubleword field that is set by DOS at the time the device
driver is loaded. The first word is the offset and the second word is the
segment.

 If you are loading only one device driver, set the device header field to -1
before loading the device. If you are loading more than one device driver, set
the first word of the device driver header to the offset of the next device
driver's header. Set the device driver header field of the last device driver
to -1.


ATTRIBUTE FIELD

 The attribute field is a word field used to identify the type of device this
driver is responsible for. This field distinguishes between block and
character devices and determines is selected devices are given special
treatment. The attributes are:

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                        A T T R I B U T E   F I E L D                         
쳐컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   word    attr.                                                            
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴캑                     description                           
   bits     set                                                             
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
     0       0      not current standard input device                       
             1      current standard input device                           
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
     1       0      not current standard output device                      
             1      current standard output device                          
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
     2       0      not current NUL device                                  
             1      current NUL device                                      
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
     3       0      not current CLOCK device                                
             1      current CLOCK device                                    
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
     4       0      standard CON I/O routines should be used                
             1      fast screen I/O (int 29h) should be used                
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  5 - 10           "reserved for DOS" - unknown - should be set to 0         
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    11       0      doesn't support removeable media  (default for DOS 2.x) 
             1      supports removeable media         (DOS 3.0+ only)       
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    12             "reserved for DOS" - unknown - should be set to 0         
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    13       0      IBM format       (block devices)                        
             1      non-IBM format   (block devices)                        
             1      output till busy (character devices)                    
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    14       0      doesn't support IOCTL                                   
             1      supports IOCTL                                          
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
    15       0      block device                                            
             1      character device                                        
읕컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

note 1) If a bit in the attribute word is defined only for one type of device,
        a driver for the other type of device must set that bit to 0.
     2) For DOS 2.0 bits 4-12 must be off.


BIT 1   is the standard input and output bit. It is used for character devices
        only. Use this bit to tell DOS if your character device driver is the
        new standard input device or standard output device.

BIT 2   is the NUL attribute bit. It is used for character devices only. Use it
        to tell DOS if your character device driver is a NUL device. Although
        there is a NUL device attribute bit, you cannot reassign the NUL
        device or replace it with your own routine. This attribute exists for
        DOS so that DOS can tell if the NUL device is being used.

BIT 3   is the clock device bit. It is used for character devices only. Default
        is 0. You can use it to tell DOS if your character device driver is the
        new CLOCK device.

BIT 4   is the "fast video output" bit. The default is 0, which uses the BIOS
        for writing to the screen. When set, this bit uses int 29h for much
        faster screen updates.

BITS 5-10  reserved for DOS, unknown. Should be set to 0.

BIT 11  is the open/close removeable media bit. Use it to tell DOS if the
        device driver can handle removeable media. This bit is valid for DOS
        3.0+ only. This bit was reserved in DOS 2.x. Since DOS 2.x does not
        look at this bit, its use is backward compatible.

BIT 12  reserved for DOS, unknown. Should be set to 0.

BIT 13  is the non-IBM format bit. When used for block devices it affects the
        operation of the BUILD BPB (BIOS parameter block) device call. For
        character devices it indicates that the devices implements the OUTPUT
        UNTIL BUSY device call.

BIT 14  is the IOCTL bit. It is used for both character and block devices. Use
        it to tell DOS whether the device driver can handle control strings
        through the IOCTL function call 44h.
         If a device driver cannot process control strings, it should set bit
        14 to 0. This way DOS can return an error if an attempt is made through
        the IOCTL function call to send or receive control strings to the
        device. If a device can process control strings, it should set bit 14
        to 1. This way, DOS makes calls to the IOCTL input and output device
        function to send and receive IOCTL strings.
         The IOCTL functions allow data to be sent to and from the device
        without actually doing a normal read or write. In this way, the device
        driver can use the data for its own use, (for example, setting a baud
        rate or stop bits, changing form lengths, etc.) It is up to the device
        to interpret the information that is passed to it, but the information
        must not be treated as a normal I/O request.

BIT 15  is the device type bit. Use it to tell the system the that driver is a
        block or character device.


POINTER TO STRATEGY ROUTINE

 This field contains a pointer to "device strategy" function in the driver.
This function is called whenever a request is made to the driver, and must
store the location of the request header from DOS. This pointer is a word
value, and so must be in the same segment as the device header.


POINTER TO INTERRUPT ROUTINE

 This field contains a pointer to the function which activates driver routines
to perform the command in the current request header. This is called by DOS
after the call to the strategy function, and should reset to the request header
address stored by "strategy", to allow for the possibility of interrupts
between the two calls. This pointer is a word value, and so must be in the same
segment as the device header.


NAME/UNIT FIELD

 This is an 8-byte field that contains the name of a character device or the
number of units in a block device. For the character names, the name is
left-justified and the space is filled to 8 bytes. For block devices, the
number of units can be placed in the first byte. This is optional because DOS
fills in this location with the value returned by the driver's INIT code. The
other 7 bytes of the block device ID are reserved and should not be used.



INSTALLING DEVICE DRIVERS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 DOS installs new device drivers dynamically at boot time by reading and
processing the DEVICE command in the CONFIG.SYS file. For example, if you have
written a device driver called RAMDISK, to install it put this command in the
CONFIG.SYS file:
                   DEVICE=[drive][path] RAMDISK [parameters]

 DOS makes a FAR call to the device driver at its strategy entry point first,
using the request header to pass information describing what DOS wants the
device driver to do.

 This strategy routine does not perform the request but rather queues the
request or saves a pointer to the request header. The second entry point is
the interrupt routine and is called by DOS immediately after the strategy
routine returns. The interrupt routine is called with no parameters. Its
function is to perform the operation based on the queued request and set up
any return infromation.

 DOS passes the pointer to the request header in ES:BX. This structure consists
of a fixed length header (Request Header) followed by data pertinent to the
operation to be performed.

NOTE: It is the responsibility of the device driver to preserve the machine
      state. For example, save all registers on entry and restore them on exit.

 The stack used by DOS has enough room on it to save all the registers. If more
stack space is needed, it is the device driver's responsibility to allocate and
maintain another stack.

 All calls to execute device drivers are FAR calls. FAR returns should be
executed to return to DOS.



INSTALLING CHARACTER DEVICES

  One of the functions defined for each device is INIT. This routine is called
only once when the device is installed and never again. The INIT routine returns
the following:

A) A location to the first free byte of memory after the device driver, like a
   TSR that is stored in the terminating address field. This way, the
   initialization code can be used once and then thrown away to save space.
B) After setting the address field, a character device driver can set the status
   word and return.



INSTALLING BLOCK DEVICES

 Block devices are installed in the same way as character devices. The
difference is that block devices return additional information. Block devices
must also return:

A) The number of units in the block device. This number determines the logical
   names the devices will have. For example, if the current logical device
   letter is F at the time of the install call, and the block device driver INIT
   routine returns three logical units, the letters G, H, and I are assigned to
   the units. The mapping is determined by the position of the driver in the
   device list and the number of units in the device. The number of units
   returned by INIT overrides the value in the name/unit field of the device
   header.

B) A pointer to a BPB (BIOS Parameter Block) pointer array. This is a pointer
   to an array of "N" word pointers there "N" is the number of units defined.
   These word pointers point to BPBs. This way, if all of the units are the
   same, the entire array can point to the same BPB to save space.
    The BPB contains information pertinent to the devices such as the sector
   size, number of sectors per allocation unit, and so forth. The sector size of
   the BPB cannot be greater than the maximum allotted size set at DOS
   initialization time. This array must be protected below the free pointer set
    by the return.

C) The media descriptor byte. This byte is passed to devices so that they know
   what parameters DOS is currently using for a particular drive unit.

 Block devices can take several approaches. They can be "dumb" or "smart". A
dumb device would define a unit (and therefore a BPB) for each possible media
drive combination. Unit 0=drive 0;single side, unit 1=drive 0;double side, etc.
For this approach, the media descriptor bytes would mean nothing. A smart
device would allow multiple media per unit. In this case, the BPB table
returned at INIT must define space large enough to acommodate the largest
possible medias supported (sector size in BPB must be as large as maximum
sector size DOS is currently using). Smart drivers will use the media
descriptor byte to pass information about what media is currently in a unit.



REQUEST HEADER쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 The request header passes the information describing what DOS wants the
device driver to do.
 When a valid device driver command code or function is called by your
application program, DOS develops a data structure called the "Request Header"
in ES:BX and passes it to the strategy entry point. This structure consists of
a 13-byte defined header which may be followed by other data bytes depending on
the function requested.
 It is the device driver's responsibility to preserve the machine state, for
example, saving all registers including flags on entry and restoring them on
exit. There is enough room on the stack when strategy or interrupt is called
to do about 20 pushes. If more stack is needed, the driver should set aside
its own stack space.
 The fixed ("static") part of the request header is as follows:

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
                        R E Q U E S T    H E A D E R                        
쳐컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
쿚ffset 쿗ength                       F i e l d                             
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  00h    byte  Length in bytes of the request header plus any data at end 
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  01h    byte  Unit code. Determines subunit to use in block devices      
               (minor device)  Has no meaning for character devices       
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  02h    byte  Command code                                               
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  03h    word  Status                                                     
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  05h  8 bytes Reserved for DOS                                           
쳐컴컴컴탠컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
  0Ch  퀆aries  Data appropriate for the operation                         
읕컴컴컴좔컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

REQUEST HEADER LENGTH FIELD

 The length in bytes of the total request header (0-255) plus any data at the
end of the header.


UNIT CODE FIELD

 The unit code field identifies which unit in a block device driver the request
is for. For example, if a block device driver has three units defined, then the
possible values of the unit code field would be 0, 1, and 2. This field is not
valid for character devices.


COMMAND CODE FIELD

 The command code invokes a specific device driver function. Functions 0
through 12 are supported in all device drivers. Functions 13-15 are available
only in DOS 3.0 or higher. Some functions are relevant for either character or
block devices but not both; nonetheless all functions must have an executable
routine present even if it does nothing but set the done flag in the return
status word in the request header.

 The command code field in the request header can have the following values:
旼컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
 code        name                            function                       
쳐컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   0   INIT              initialize driver for later use (used once only)   
   1   MEDIA CHECK       block devices only, NOP for character devices      
   2   BUILD BPB         block devices only, NOP for character devices      
   3   IOCTL input       called only if device has IOCTL bit set            
   4   INPUT             read data                                          
   5   NONDESTRUCTIVE INPUT NO WAIT  character devices only                  
   6   INPUT STATUS      character devices only                             
   7   INPUT FLUSH       character devices only                             
   8   OUTPUT            write data                                         
   9   OUTPUT            write data with verify                             
  10   OUTPUT STATUS     character devices only                             
  11   OUTPUT FLUSH      character devices only                             
  12   IOCTL OUTPUT      called only if device has IOCTL bit is set         
  13   DEVICE OPEN       called only if OPEN/CLOSE/RM bit is set            
  14   DEVICE CLOSE      called only if OPEN/CLOSE/RM bit is set            
  15   REMOVEABLE MEDIA  only if OPEN/CLOSE/RM bit set & device is block    
  16   OUTPUT UNTIL BUSY only called if bit 13 is set & device is character 
읕컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

 The individual command codes are described later in this chapter.



STATUS FIELD

 The status word field is zero on entry and is set by the driver interrupt
routine on return.

The status field in the request header contains:

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
            D E V I C E    D R I V E R    S T A T U S    F I E L D           
쳐컴컴컴쩡컴쩡컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 size  쿫it                        definition                               
쳐컴컴컴탠컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 byte   0                                                                  
        1                                                                  
        2                                                                  
        3   Error message return code                                      
        4   (with bit 15=1)                                                
        5                                                                  
        6                                                                  
        7                                                                  
쳐컴컴컴탠컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
 byte   8   DONE                                                           
       쳐컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        9   BUSY                                                           
       쳐컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        A   Reserved by DOS, unknown                                       
        B                                                                  
        C                                                                  
        D                                                                  
        E                                                                  
       쳐컴탠컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
        F   Error                                                          
읕컴컴컴좔컴좔컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


 The low 8 bits of the status word define an error message if bit 15 is set.
These errors are:

        00h  write protect violation   01h  unknown unit
        02h  device not ready          03h  unknown command
        04h  CRC error                 05h  bad drive request structure length
        06h  seek error                07h  unknown media
        08h  sector not found          09h  printer out of paper
        0Ah  write fault               0Bh  read fault
        0Ch  general failure           0Dh  reserved
        0Eh  reserved                  0Fh  invalid disk change

BIT 8   is the done bit. If it is set, it means the operation is complete. The
        driver sets the bit to 1 when it exits.

BIT 9   is the busy bit. It is only set by status calls and the removable media
        call.

BITS 10-14 are reserved.

BIT 15  is the error bit. If this bit is set, the low 8 bits of the status word
        (7-0) indicate the error code.


RESERVED FOR DOS
 Official sources label this area as "reserved for DOS". Another source
indicates that this consists of two double-word (4-byte) pointers to be used
to maintain a linked list of request headers for this device and a list of all
current device requests being processed by DOS. This was apparently to be used
for the undelivered multitasking version of DOS.



DEVICE DRIVER FUNCTIONS쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 All strategy routines are called with ES:BX pointing to the request header.
The interrupt routines get the pointers to the request header from the queue
the strategy routines stores them in. The command code in the request header
tells the driver which function to perform.

NOTE: All DWORD pointers are stored offset first, then segment.

                         ############################

INIT
Command code = 0        (all devices)
        Performs all initialization required at DOS boot time to install the
        driver and set local driver variables. This function is called only
        once, when the driver is loaded.

        ES:BX   pointer to 26-byte request header and data structure
 Format of structure:
       offset     length          field
         00h    13 bytes   request header
         0Dh       byte    number of units (not set by character devices)
         11h       dword   ending address of the driver's resident code
         15h       dword   pointer to BPB array (not set by character devices)
                           /pointer to remainder of arguments
         19h       byte    drive number (DOS 3.0+ only)


 When INIT is called, the driver must do the following:

        A) set the number of units (block devices only)
        B) set up the pointer to the BPB array (block devices only)
        C) perform any initialization code (to modems, printers, etc)
        D) set the ending address of the resident program code
        E) set the status word in the request header

 To obtain information obtained from CONFIG.SYS to a device driver at INIT
time, the BPB pointer field points to a buffer containing the information
passed from CONFIG.SYS following the =. The buffer that DOS passes to the
driver at INIT after the file specification contains an ASCII string for the
file OPEN. The ASCII string (ending in 0h) is terminated by a carriage return
(0Dh) and linefeed (0Ah). If there is no parameter information after the file
specification, the file specification is immediately followed by a linefeed
(0Ah).

 NOTE: This information is read-only and only system calls 01h-0Ch and 30h can
       be issued by the INIT code of the driver.

 The last byte parameter contains the drive letter for the first unit of a
block driver. For example, 0=A, 1=B etc.

 If an INIT routine determines that it cannot set up the device and wants to
abort without using any memory, follow this procedure:

        A) set the number of units to 0
        B) set the ending offset address at 0
        C) set the ending offsret segment address to the code segment (CS)

NOTE: If there are multiple device drivers in a single memory image file, the
      ending address returned by the last INIT called is the one DOS uses. It is
      recommended that all device drivers in a single memory image file return
      the same ending address.

                         ############################

MEDIA CHECK
command code = 1        (block devices only)
        Checks to see if disk had been changed since last access.

        ES:BX   pointer to 19-byte request header and data structure
 Format of structure:
        offset  length          field
        00h     13 bytes   request header
        0Dh        byte    media descriptor from BPB
        0Eh        byte    returned
        0Fh       dword    returns a pointer to the previous volume ID (if bit
                           11=1 and disk change is returned) (DOS 3.0+)

 When the command code field is 1, DOS calls MEDIA CHECK for a drive unit and
passes its current media descriptor byte. See "Media Descriptor Byte" later in
this chapter for more information about the byte. MEDIA CHECK returns one of
the following:

        A) media not changed             C) not sure
        B) media changed                 D) error code

The driver must perform the following:
        A) set the status word in the request header
        B) set the return byte
                00h   don't know if media has been changed
                01h   media has not been changed
                -1    media has been changed

 DOS 3.0+: If the driver has set the removable media bit 11 of the device header
attribute word to 1 and the driver returns -1 (media changed), the driver must
set the DWORD pointer to the previous volume identification field. If DOS
determines that the media changed is an error, DOS generates an error 0Fh
(invalid disk change) on behalf of the device. If the driver does not implement
volume identification support, but has bit 11 set to 1, the driver should set a
pointer to the string "NO NAME",0.


MEDIA DESCRIPTOR
 Currently the media descriptor byte has been defined for a few media types.
This byte should be identical to the media byte if the device has the non-IBM
format bit off. These predetermined values are:

media descriptor byte =>    1  1  1  1  1  0  0  0
 (numeric order)            7  6  5  4  3  2  1  0

       BIT                MEANING

        0       0       not double sided
                1       double sided
        1       0       not 8 sector
                1       8 sector
        2       0       nonremoveable
                1       removeable
       3-7      must be set to 1

                         ############################

BUILD BPB (BIOS Parameter Block)
command code = 2        (block devices only)

        ES:BX   pointer to 22-byte request header and data structure
 Format of structure:
        offset   length          field
        00h     13 bytes   request header
        0Dh        byte    media descriptor from DOS
        0Eh       dword    transfer address (buffer address)
        12h       dword    pointer to BPB table

DOS calls BUILD BPB under the following two conditions:

A) If "media changed" is returned.
B) If "not sure" is returned. If so, there are no used buffers. Used buffers
   are buffers with changed data that have not yet been written to the disk.

The driver must do the following:

A) set the pointer to the BPB.
B) set the status word in the request header.

 The driver must determine the correct media type currently in the unit to
return the pointer to the BPB table. The way the buffer is used (pointer
passed by DOS) is determined by the non-IBM format bit in the attribute field
of the device header. If bit 13=0 (device is IBM compatible), the buffer
contains the first sector of the FAT (most importantly the FAT ID byte). The
driver must not alter this buffer in this case. If bit 13=1 the buffer is a
one sector scratch area which can be used for anything.

 For drivers that support volume identification and disk change, the call
should cause a new volume identification to be read off the disk. This call
indicates that the disk has been legally changed.

 If the device is IBM compatible, it must be true that the first sector of the
first FAT is located at the same sector for all possible media. This is
because the FAT sector is read before the media is actually determined.

 The information relating to the BPB for a particular media is kept in the boot
sector for the media. In particular, the format of the boot sector is:

旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴커
 For DOS 2.x, 3 byte near jump (0E9h) For DOS 3.x+, 2 byte near jump (0EBh)   
 followed by a NOP (90h)                                                      
쳐컴컴컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
 8 bytes    OEM name and version                                             
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컫컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   BYTE          sectors per allocation unit (must be a power of 2)         
쳐컴컴컴컴캑     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   WORD     B    reserved sectors (strarting at logical sector 0)           
쳐컴컴컴컴캑     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   BYTE          number of FATs                                             
쳐컴컴컴컴캑     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   WORD     P    max number of root directory entries                       
쳐컴컴컴컴캑     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   WORD          number of sectors in logical image (total number of        
                 sectors in media, including boot sector directories, etc.) 
쳐컴컴컴컴캑  B  쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   BYTE          media descriptor                                           
쳐컴컴컴컴캑     쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
   WORD          number of sectors occupied by a single FAT                 
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   WORD     sectors per track                                                
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   WORD     number of heads                                                  
쳐컴컴컴컴컵컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑
   WORD     number of hidden sectors                                         
읕컴컴컴컴컨컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴켸

 The three words at the end return information about the media. The number of
heads is useful for supporting different multihead drives that have the same
storage capacity but a different number of surfaces. The number of hidden
sectors is useful for drive partitioning schemes.

                         ############################

INPUT / OUTPUT  (IOCTL)
command code = 3   IOCTL Read
               4   Read              (block or character devices)
               8   Write             (block or character devices)
               9   Write With Verify
              12   IOCTL Write
              16   Output Until Busy (character devices only)

        ES:BX   pointer to 24-byte request header and data structure

  Format of structure:
        offset    length          field
        00h     13 bytes     request header
        0Dh        byte      media descriptor byte from BPB
        0Eh       dword      transfer address (buffer address)
        12h        word      byte/sector count
        14h        word      starting sector number (block devices)
                             [no meaning on character devices]
        16h       dword      (DOS 3.0+) pointer to the volume ID if error code
                             0Fh is returned

The driver must perform the following:
        A) set the status word in the request header
        B) perform the requested function
        C) set the actual number of sectors or bytes tranferred

 No error checking is performed on an IOCTL I/O call. However, the driver must
set the return sector or byte count to the actual number of bytes transferred.

 Under certain circumstances a block device driver may be asked to do a write
operation of 64k bytes that seems to be a "wrap around" of the transfer address
in the BIOS I/O packet. This arises due to an optimization added to write code
in DOS. It will only happen in writes that are within a sector size of 64k on
files that are being extended past the current end of file. It is allowable for
the device driver to ignore the balance of the write that wraps around, if it
so chooses. For example, a write of 10000h bytes worth of sectors with a
transfer address of XXX:1 ignores the last two bytes. A user program can never
request an I/O of more than 0FFFFh bytes and cannot wrap around (even to 0) in
the transfer segment, so in that case the last two bytes can be ignored.

 A program that uses DOS function calls can never request an input or output
function of more than 0FFFFh bytes, therefore, a wrap around in the transfer
(buffer) segment can never occur. It is for this reason you can ignore bytes
that would have wrapped around in the tranfer segment.

 If the driver returns an error code of 0Fh (invalid disk change) it must put
a DWORD pointer to an ASCIIZ string which is the correct volume ID to ask the
user to reinsert the disk.

DOS 3.0+:
 The reference count of open files on the field (maintained by the OPEN and
CLOSE calls) allows the driver to determine when to return error 0Fh. If there
are no open files (reference count=0) and the disk has been changed, the I/O
is all right, and error 0Fh is not returned. If there are open files
(reference count > 0) and the disk has been changed, an error 0Fh condition
may exist.

                         ############################

NONDESTRUCTIVE INPUT NO WAIT
command code = 5        (character devices only)
        Reads a character from input stream but does not remove it from the
        buffer

        ES:BX   pointer to 14-byte request header and data structure
 Format of structure:
        offset    length          field
        00h     13 bytes   request header
        0Dh        byte    read from device

The driver must do the following:
        A) return a byte from the device
        B) set the status word in the request header.

 If the character device returns busy bit=0 (characters in the buffer), then
the next character that would be read is returned. This character is not removed
form the buffer (hence the term nondestructive input). This call allows DOS to
look ahead one character.

                         ############################

STATUS
command codes =  6   Input Status      (character devices only)
                10   Output Status     (character devices only)
        Check for characters waiting in input buffer

        ES:BX   pointer to 13-byte request header

This driver must perform the following:
        A) perform the requested function
        B) set the busy bit
        C) set the status word in the request header.

The busy bit is set as follows:

 For input on unbuffered character devices: if the busy bit (bit 9) is 1 on
return, a write request would wait for completion of a current request. If the
busy bit is 0, there is no current request. Therefore, a write request would
start immediately.

 For input on buffered character devices: if the busy bit is 1 on return, a
read request does to the physical device. If the busy bit is 0, there are
characters in the device buffer and a read returns quickly. It also indicates
that a user has typed something. DOS assumes all character devices have a type-
ahead input buffer. Devices that do not have this buffer should always return
busy=0 so that DOS does not hang waiting for information to be put in a buffer
that does not exist.

                         ############################

FLUSH INPUT BUFFERS
command code = 7        (character devices only)
        Forces all data in buffers to specified device.

        ES:BX   pointer to 13-byte request header

 This call tells the driver to flush (terminate) all pending requests that it
has knowledge of. Its primary use is to flush the input queue on character
devices.

 The driver must set the status word in the request header upon return.

                         ############################

FLUSH OUTPUT BUFFERS
command code 11         (character devices only)
        Forces all data in buffers to specified device.

        ES:BX   pointer to 13-byte request header


 This call tells the driver to flush all output buffers and discards any
pending requests. Its primary use is to flush the output queue on character
devices.

 The driver must set the status word in the request header upon return.

                         ############################

OPEN or CLOSE  (DOS 3.0+)
command code = 13   Open      (block or character devices)
               14   Close     (block or character devices)

        ES:BX   pointer to 13-byte static request header

 These calls are designed to give the device information about the current file
activity on the device if bit 11 of the attribute word is set. On block
devices, these calls can be used to manage local buffering. The device can keep
a reference count. Every OPEN causes the device to increment the reference
count. Every CLOSE causes the device to decrement the reference count. When the
reference count is 0, if means there are no open files in the device. Therefore,
the device should flush buffers inside the device it has written to because now
the user can change the media on a removeable media drive. If the media had been
changed, it is advisable to reset the reference count to 0 without flushing the
buffers. This can be thought of as "last close causes flush". These calls are
more useful on character devices. The OPEN call can be used to send a device
initialization string. On a printer, this could cause a string to be sent to set
the font, page size, etc. so that the printer would always be in a known state
in the I/O stream. Similarly, a CLOSE call can be used to send a post string
(like a form feed) at the end of an I/O stream. Using IOCTL to set these pre and
post strings provides a flexible mechanism of serial I/O device stream control.

 Since all processes have access to STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR, STDAUX, and STDPRN
(handles 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4) the CON, AUX, and PRN devices are always open.

                         ############################

REMOVABLE MEDIA  (DOS 3.0+)
command code = 15       (block devices only)
        This call identifies the media type as removable or nonremovable.

        ES:BX   pointer to 13-byte static request header

 To use this call, set bit 11 (removable media) of the attribute field to 1.
Block devices can only use this call through a subfunction of the IOCTL
function call (int 21h fn44h).
 This call is useful because it allows a utility to know whether it is dealing
with a nonremovable media drive or with a removable media drive. For example,
the FORMAT utility needs to know whether a drive is removable or nonremovable
because it prints different versions of some prompts.

note    No error checking is performed. It is assumed that this call always
        succeeds.


THE CLOCK$ DEVICE쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴

 To allow a clock board to be integrated into the system for TIME and DATE,
the CLOCK$ device is used. This device defines and performs functions like any
other character device (most functions will be reset done bit, reset error bit,
and return). When a read or write to this device occurs, 6 bytes are
transferred. The first 2 bytes are a word, which is the count of days since
01-01-80. The third byte is minutes, the fourth is hours, the fifth is
hundredths of a second, and the sixth is seconds.

 Reading the CLOCK$ device gets the date and time, writing to it sets the date
and time. CLOCK$ is normally called only when the system is initializing or if
the system time and date are set (DOS 3.3+). DOS carries the system time and
date internally after receiving it from the CLOCK$ driver.





       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴


                                 C R E D I T S

 The information presented here was gathered from megabytes of files found on
BBS systems, conversations on a dozen different BBS systems, correspondence,
and every reference book I could get my hands on. On occasion, a number of
prestigious references didn't agree with each other. Where this has happened, I
have used the latest references. There is too much information here for me to
verify every fact personally. I have used my own judgement as to the
reliability of the sources.

 I've been selling copies of the Reference since October 1987.  The original
basis for the Reference came from Peter Norton's "Programmer's Guide to the
IBM PC" and the original Janet Jack interrupt list circa sometime 1986, as
updated by Ross Greenberg. Anyway, I've prepared a list of the sources I've
used for the Reference to clear up any ambiguities.



Tools used in preparing this book:


Microsoft SymDeb, the final gasp of venerable DEBUG.COM and a fine program.

Microsoft CodeView, huge and awkward though it may be.

V Communications Sourcer, the only effective disassembler I've found.



References used in preparing this book:


AST EEMS Technical Reference Manual v3.2
        documents 020022-001B and 000408-001B
        provided by AST Corporation, 1987

AT&T 6300 Plus Hardware Reference Manual
        p/n 999-300-194IS
        from AT&T Corp, 1985 (before the Death Star logo, yet...)

Creative Labs Sound Blaster User Reference Manual
        copr. 1989

Data General Programmer's Reference for MS-DOS, Rev.3
        Data General Corporation             (covers through DOS 3.0)
        p/n 069-100157 rev 00 May 1986

Digital Research DR-DOS System and Programmer's Guide v3.32
        Digital Research Corporation 1988
        comment: This manual does not cover the extended disk partition access,
                 file password protection, or any of the other goodies
                 provided in DR-DOS. In fact, it not only doesn't cover the
                 extended features, it doesn't completely cover DOS calls
                 documented by IBM. It does have an extensive section on
                 customizing DR-DOS for use from ROM.

Digital Research DR-DOS User's Guide v3.32
        Digital Research Corporation 1988

Digital Research DR-DOS Reference Guide v3.32
        Digital Research Corporation 1988

Digital Research DR-DOS Users and Reference Guide v3.40
        Digital Research Corporation, January 1989

Digital Research DR Multiuser DOS Users and Reference Guide v5.0
        Digital Research Corporation, 1991

Digital Research DR-DOS Users and Reference Guide v5.0
        Digital Research Corporation, 1991

DPMI 0.9 Specification
        Intel Corp, 1990

DPMI 1.0 Specification
        Intel Corp, 1991

An Introduction to the DOS Protected Mode Interface
        Software Focus Group
        Intel Corp, March 1991   order # 240787-002

IBM DOS Operations Manual Version 2.00
        IBM Corp, 1983

IBM DOS Operations Manual Version 2.10
        IBM Corp, 1983

IBM DOS Operations Manual Version 3.1
        IBM Corp, November 1984

IBM DOS Operations Manual Version 3.3
        IBM Corp, April 1987

IBM DOS Technical Reference, Version 4.0
        IBM Corp, 1988

IBM DOS Command Reference, Version 4.0
        p/n 6280254
        IBM Corp, 1988

IBM PC Local Area Network Program Version 1.20
        IBM Corp, April 1987

IBM Technical Reference
        Options and Adapters - Enhanced Graphics Adapter
        p/n 6280131  IBM Publications Aug 1984

IBM Technical Reference
        Personal Computer
        p/n 6322507 IBM Publications

IBM Technical Reference
        Personal Computer - PCjr
        p/n 1502293 IBM Publications

LANtastic Programmer's Information Package, 2/21/89

Logitech Mouse Programmer's Toolkit
        Logitech Corp. 1986

Lotus-Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification Version 3.20
        part number 300275-003
        provided by Intel Corp.  September, 1985

Lotus-Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification 4.0
        document 300275-005
        provided by Intel Corp.  October 1987

Lotus-Intel-Microsoft Expanded Memory Specification 4.0
EMS Toolkit for C Developers
        document 302243-001
        provided by Intel Corp, February 1990

Microsoft - various documents provided to MS 5.0 beta testers

Microsoft Extended Memory Specification v2.00
        provided by Microsoft Corporation,  1988

Microsoft Mouse Technical Reference
        Microsoft Press, 1989

Mouse Systems Programmer's Toolkit
        p/n 302449-001 Rev A, 1989
        p/n 302375-100, 1989
        p/n 302446-100, 1989

MS-DOS Programmer's Reference                (covers through DOS 2.00)
        by Microsoft
        p/n 135555-001 Intel Corp. 1984

MS-DOS 5.0 Programmer's Reference            (covers DOS 5.0 only)
        by Microsoft
        Microsoft Press 1991, ISBN 1-55615-329-5

Phar Lap Virtual Control Program Interface (VCPI) Specification v1.0
        Phar Lap Software 1989

Tandy 1000 TX Technical Reference Manual
        Tandy Corp.
        p/n 25-1514  Tandy Corp 1987

The Software Link
        PC-MOS 4.1 Programmer's Reference

Toshiba 1000 Technical Reference Manual
        Toshiba Corp. of America 1987

Tseng Labs EVA Chipset Programming Guide
        Tseng Labs, 1986

X3.4-1977: American National Standard Code for Information Interchange
        by American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
        New York, NY  1977

Weitek ABACUS Software Designer's Guide, Doc 8967
        September 1989

Wendin, Inc
        Wendin-DOS Programmer's Reference

**********************

ATI EGA Wonder Operation Manual
        ATI Technologies, 1987

Everex EV-650 EGA Reference Guide, Version 1.00
        Everex Computer, 1986

FastCard IV User Manual
        Peripheral Marketing Inc.
        p/n 0527        Jan 1987

Hercules Graphics Card User's Manual
        Hercules Computer Technology
        1983

Hercules Graphics Card Plus Owner's Manual
        Hercules Computer Technology
        Model GB112  1987

JDR B-3101 FLoppy Disk Drive Card User's Guide
        470.03002 version 1.00    1988

LANtastic 2.46 Installation Guide
        Artisoft, 1988

LANtastic 3.01 Installation Guide
        Artisoft, 1990

LANtastic 4.0 beta Installation Guide
        Artisoft, 1991

LapLink Release 2 User's Manual
        Traveling Software, 1987

LapLink Release 3 User's Manual
        Traveling Software, 1989

Logitech EGA Reference Manual, EGA+Mouse Board

Mirage Super VGA TVGA-8900 User's Manual

MPC Operations Guide,  Manual #1023
        Columbia Data Products, Inc.
        CDP  1983

Microcomputer Products - 1987 Data Book
        NEC Electronics, Inc.
        p/n 500105      Aug 1987

NEC uPD70108/70116 Microprocessor User's Manual
        p/n 500350      October 1986
        provided by NEC Electronics, Inc.

Novell Advanced Netware System Manager's Reference

pcAnywhere User's Guide v2.00
        Dynamic Microprocessor Associates, Inc  1986

S-286 User Manual, version 2
        Link Computer, 1988

STB VGA Extra/EM
        EM-16 BIOS Features
        STB Corp.

TesSeRact v1.0 documentation

TCXL 5.1 documentation

Toshiba ND352/356 3.5" Diskette Drive Installation Notes
        document number 87019   March 1988
        Toshiba America Corporation

Tseng Labs
        EVA, EVA/480 BIOS Guide
        November 10, 1988

VESA Toolkit v2.0
        summer 1991

VideoTrax Installation Guide
        Alpha Micro, 1987

******************

Advanced MSDOS
        Ray Duncan
        Microsoft Press  1986

Assembly Language Programming for the IBM Personal Computer
        David J. Bradley
        Prentice-Hall   1984

Assembly Language Subroutines for MSDOS Computers
        Leo J. Scanlon
        TAB Books   1986

Atari ST Internals
        Gerits, English, & Bruckmann
        Abacus Software  1985

Compute!'s Guide to Assembly Language Programming on the IBM PC
        COMPUTE! Publications

Compute!'s Mapping the IBM PC and PCjr
        Russ Davis
        COMPUTE! Publications

DOS Power Tools
        Paul Somerson
        Bantam Books  1988

DOS: The Complete Reference
        Kris Jamsa
        Osborne/McGraw-Hill  1987

Exploring the IBM PCjr
        Peter Norton
        Microsoft Press  1984

Discovering the IBM PCjr
        Peter Norton
        Microsoft Press  1984

IBM Video Subsystems
        Richard Wilton
        Microsoft Press  1988

Inside the IBM PC
        Peter Norton

Mapping the IBM PC
        Russ Davies/Compute! Magazine
        Compute! Books   1986

Memory Resident Utilities, Interrupts, and Disk Management With MS & PC DOS
        Michael Hyman
        MIS Press  1987

Microcomputer Interfacing
        Bruce A. Artwick
        Prentice Hall   1980

Microsoft Systems Journal - March 1987
        "Expanded Memory: Writing Programs that Break the 640k Barrier"
        Marion Hansen, Bill Krueger, Nick Stuecklen

MS-DOS Encyclopedia
        Ray Duncan
        Microsoft Press 1988  (first edition)

Network Programming in C
        Barry Nance  (barryn on BIX)
        Que, 1990

Operating Systems Design and Implementation
        Arthur S. Tanenbaum
        Prentice Hall 1987

Programmer's Guide to the IBM PC
        Peter Norton
        Microsoft Press  1985

Programmer's Problem Solver for the IBM PC, XT, & AT
        Robert Jourdain
        Prentice Hall  1986

Running MS-DOS
        Van Wolverton
        Microsoft Press

Supercharging MS-DOS
        Van Volverton
        Microsoft Press  1986

The 8080a Bugbook
        Tony-Larsen-Titus
        Howard W. Sams   1977

The 8086 Book
        Russell Rector and George Alexy
        Osborne/McGraw-Hill  1980

The IBM Personal Computer from the Inside Out
        Murray Sargent III and Richard L. Shoemaker
        Addison-Wesley  1984

The IBM ROM BIOS
        Ray Duncan
        Microsoft Press  1988

The Serious Assembler
        Charles A. Crayne and Dian Gerard
        Baen Books   1985

Tricks of the MS-DOS Masters
        Waite Group
        Howard W. Sams  1987

Turbo Pascal Express
        Robert Jourdain
        Brady Books, 1987

Writing DOS Device Drivers in C
        Adams/Tondo
        Prentice Hall, 1990

***********************

Microsoft Macro Assembler 4.0, 5.1 documentation

Microsoft C 4.0 documentation

Borland Turbo Pascal 3.02a and 5.0 documentation, Turbo C 2.0 documentation

Novell SFT System Administrator's Reference

***************************

 Western Digital, Rodime, Miniscribe, Microscience, Adaptec, Storage
Technologies, and Connor Peripherals were kind enough to send spec sheets on
most of their products which helped to expand and verify the hard drive
information in Appendix 6.

***************************

 A large amount of miscellaneous information came from various computer
magazines. Documenting what came from where would be an experience all its
own. A great deal of information came from articles by Michael Mefford and
Charles Petzold of PC Magazine, and Neil Rubenking, Jeff Duntemann, and
Ray Duncan, who get around a lot.

   Byte
        ( Byte's kinda weird. They have some really neat, well-researched
          stuff interspersed with mindless drivel.  Still, they print some
          stuff you absolutely, positively won't find anywhere else. )

   C'T (Computer Technik)
        ( If you read German, this one is sorta like PC Magazine was in its
          heyday. )

   Computer Language
        ( I never decided if I liked CL or not.  Maybe I'm not the sort of
          programmer they're writing for... )

   Computer Shopper
        ( Though primarily advertising, some information sneaks in from time
          to time. )

   Dr. Dobb's Journal
        ( I always thought the old title, "Doctor Dobbs' Journal of Computer
          Calisthenics and Orthodontia - Running Light Without Overbyte" was
          a killer name, but nobody asked me. )

   InfoWorld
        ( I never really figured out how a weekly magazine could so often be
          both late *and* wrong with their stories, but IW tries hard. Still,
          you often hear about rumblings you'd never find out about in the
          slicks. The National Enquirer of the computer world? )

   Micro Cornucopia
        ( R.I.P - it was great while it lasted. )

   Microsoft Systems Journal
        ( Hideously expensive and mostly oriented to Windows and OS/2, the
          early issues had some really good stuff )

   Midnight Engineering
        ( This one's hard to classify.  It's hardcore computer with a dash
          of entrepreneurship, bizarre as the combination may sound.  I like
          it when I can find it. )

   PC Magazine
        ( Despite their new "management format" in mid '89, PC Mag still has
          some good techie stuff from time to time. I guess the bean counters
          thought managers were more important than programmers. )

   PC Resource
        ( There was rarely anything of interest in PC Resource, but every
          now and then I found something. Now defunct. )

   PC Tech Journal
        ( "Tell 'em what you're going to say, tell 'em what you're saying, tell
          'em what you just said." - and don't send us no steenking submissions
          unless they're in WordPerfect format! Despite their fascist policies,
          every now and then they printed something useful. The Little Rock
          Wild Bunch refered to it as "PC Tech Urinal," an apt monicker. Now
          defunct. )

   PC Techniques
        ( This is the magazine PC Tech Journal tried to advertise itself as.
          Pure programming, written by programmers for programmers, without
          too many "journalists" pissing in the text. Try it! )

   Programmer's Journal
        ( This is a nice magazine, though expensive. )

   Tech Specialist
        ( One of the few really good magazines for bit-twiddlers.  Haven't
          seen a GUI phone-dialer shootout yet! )

****************************

various computer bulletin board systems, including

Byte Information Exchange (BIX)
 (check out ibm.dos/old.secrets.2 and ibm.dos/secrets.3)

 Effusive thanks to the gang in the ibm.exchange - these guys are *sharp*.
 In alphabetic order:

 barryn, billn, daiken, dgh, dmick, dnanian, dondumitru, drifkind, geary,
 glass, gmussar, greenber, hfishman, j_vanderbilt, jdunlap, jlussmeyer, johnf,
 jsloman, jsprowl, jswitzer, jrichards, mike123, rbabcock, rbrukardt, rduncan,
 roedy, sjgrant, skluger, terjem, twagner, wardc, wcowley, and all the guys
 whose names forgot... 

Compuserve IBM SIG

FIDOnet international network       (various technical echos)

GEnie IBM RT and Borland RT

PCanada BBS system                  (Toronto, Canada)

RIME PCRelay international network  (IBM, Technical, Programming echos)

TelePath

*********************************

The following text files were of use. Bear in mind that some of them may be
seen under several different names. The author's name is given as it appears
in the documentation (if any).

10H-BUG  ASM     4680  29/01/87 bug in 2.x int 21h/fn10h             Ray Duncan

1PT4MB   INF     5120   3/10/87 1.44Mb drives         Clyde Washburn 70305,1211

2EH      ASM     2969   3/03/87 info on undoc'd int 2Eh           David Gwillim

386BUG   ARC     9216  15/10/87 bug in early 80386 chips           Compaq Corp.

8086     3      10572   5/12/88 dump of Fidonet?? 8086 conf??         

8259     ARC     2826  15/03/88 info on 8259 chip                     

APICALLS ARC    11481   8/01/88 OS/2 API function call list          Bill Earle

ASM-ADRS ARC     6144  20/12/87 low memory vectors         Malcolm McCorquodale

ATCMDS   ARC     3072  20/03/88 Hayes 1200 baud command set           

BACKDOOR UPL    26115  11/12/89 "back door" through PSP            John Switzer

BIOSDOC  ARC    34816   3/11/87 very good function list         David E. Powell

BIXDOS1  ARC   155648  14/12/87 BIX "MSDOS Secrets" #1                

BUG40DOS ARC     3200  18/08/88 bugs in DOS 4.0                          "Doug"

CAS      ARC    33792  27/10/88 Communicating Applications Standard 1.0A
                                                                DCA, Intel Corp

CCPM86   ARC    68238  14/10/89 list of Concurrent CP/M calls         

CDOS     ARC    35584  18/07/89 list of Concurrent DOS calls         Guy Scharf

CDOS2_   ARC   227200  18/07/89 list of Concurrent DOS calls      J. F. Jankura

CDOSCALL ARC    19968  18/07/89 list of Concurrent DOS calls      J. F. Jankura

CUFEXT   ARC    13228  13/03/90 common file extensions               J.W. Rider

DEBUGTUT ARC    15655  23/04/88 DEBUG tutorial                        
                                                        possibly David Whitman?

DIAGNOSE ARC    14336   1/01/86 memory errcodes  Jerry Schneider, Arnold Kischi

DISK144  ARC    23086  16/10/88 info on 1.44Mb diskettes              

DISKTYPE ARC     5073  14/04/88 IBM floppy formats                    

DOOM     ARC     9216  29/09/88 hard drive information                

DOS-SIZE ARC      787  27/03/88 size of DOS files 1.1-3.1             

DOS3TXT  ARX     9168  31/07/85 list of DOS/BIOS ints, data areas   Dan Rollins

DOS32    ARC    17408  31/05/88 command list for DOS 3.2              

DOS3BUGS ARC     5639  15/10/87 acknowledged bugs in DOS 3.0-3.2      IBM Corp.

DOS40    ARC    15625  22/07/88 IBM announcement of DOS 4.0           IBM Corp.

DOS401   ARC    18178  19/10/88 errors in DOS 4.0                     IBM Corp.

DOS40B   ARC    27008  26/08/88 Compuserve thread on DOS 4.0          

DOS40FAT ARC     1510  11/09/88 DOS 4.0 File Allocation Table       Mike Austin

DOS40FUN ZOO     3410  31/12/99 DOS 4.0 int 24, 25, etc               Pat Myrto

DOS40HLP ARC    53376  28/08/88 DOS 4.0 command set                   

DOS40TXT ARC    46169  16/10/88 DOS 4.0 problems & info               

DOS4TIPS ARC     1735  19/09/88 problems with DOS 4.0                 IBM Corp.

DOSBUG   TXT     1024  15/10/87 info on 2.0 volume label              

DOSGUIDE ARC    21344  21/02/88 DOS tutorial                Carrington B. Dixon

DOSINT   ARC     4201  15/03/88 list of DOS 2.0 function calls     John Chapman

DOSNOTES ARC     5052  15/03/88 info on DOS undoc fns.                

DOSREF   ARC     9216  21/01/87 partial list of PC BIOS calls         

DOSREF   ARC    62052  23/08/86 device driver info                    "Cracker"

DOSTIPS  ARC    28926  15/03/88 info on DOS                        John Chapman

DOSTIPS1 ARC   159657  25/11/85 various DOS info                   Dean R. Wood

DOSTIPS3 ARC    59264  25/01/88 various DOS tips (different)       Dean R. Wood

DOSUNDOC ARC     3840  03/05/86 one of the very first interrupt lists
                                                           Spyros Sakellariadis

DRIVPARM ARC    11264   7/01/88 info on DRIVPARM parameters      Joan Friendman

EGATEK   ARC     8704  15/03/88 IBM EGA registers                   Bill Frantz

EMS40BIX ARC     3802  21/09/87 BIX announcement of EMS 4.0                 BIX

ENVIRONM ARC     4255  18/09/88 info on DOS environment           Jan Fagerholm

ESC_CODE ARC     3072   3/10/88 Laserjet setup codes                     S. Noh

FILEIO   ARC     8192  24/07/88 TSRs and INDOS flag                   

FLOPPIES ARC     9216   2/11/87 info on floppy media                 Ted Jensen

FOSSIL   ARC     9031  15/07/87 list of FOSSIL functions       Vincent Periello

FXN4BH   ASM     4503   1/01/80 odd 4Bh behavior                     Ray Duncan

HAYESET2 ARC     6479   4/09/86 modem commands         Ruth Lubow, Fowler Brown

HD-DATA  ARC     4096  19/07/87 list of hard drives & specs           
                                I've seen many similar files. I believe the
                                original may have been a file or bulletin on
                                Sparta BBS

HDINFO   ARC    11264  19/11/87 updated version of above, evidently by someone
                                else                                  

HDNOISE  ARC     4159  11/11/87 hard disk information             Clancy Malloy

HDTIPS   ARC     9660  11/10/87 hard disk information              Barry Gordon

IBMTAB   ARC     7882  15/03/88 general IBM PC tech info            John S. Lou

IBMTECH  ARC   136064   4/11/88 error codes, other info               IBM Corp.

INT-MDOS ARC    20682  31/07/85 one of the original INT lists    Ross Greenberg

INTER189 LZH   156368  25/06/89 interrupt list                       Ralf Brown

INTERRUP ARC   157440  19/09/88 interrupt vector list                Ralf Brown

INTERRPT ARC    42632   4/04/88 interrupt vector list         Marshall Presnell
                                this is a very nice list and some programming
                                information. If I'd come across it way back
                                then it would have saved a ton of typing 

JARGON   ARC    49274  16/07/88 dictionary of computer terms          

LE_MCLCK.ASM     3489   3/27/86  undoc'd Leading Edge BIOS fns      Bob Plouffe

LIM-40   ARC    21504  15/10/87 info on LIM 4.0                Stephen Satchell

LISTINTS ARC     6144   3/12/87 small interrupt list                  

MCB      ARC     5120  24/07/88 info on DOS Memory Control Blocks David Gwillim

MNP-TEXT ARC     6144  30/09/88 MNP modem info                       Mike Focke

MOUSENG  ARC    10240  13/08/88 Norton Guide file for mouse programming, with
                                C examples                            

MSLOOKUP ARC    58368  25/12/87 interrupt and function listing     Frank Bonita

MS-OS2   ARC    25600  15/10/87 MS press release on OS/2        Microsoft Corp.

MSINT125 ARC    48128  12/01/88 interrupt vector listing             Ralf Brown

NETBIOS  ARC    17280  29/10/88 NetBIOS tutorial & summary         Tom Thompson

NOVELINT ARC     4531  18/10/88 NetBIOS calls                        Marc Guyot

OCOM_520 ARC    53632  19/08/88 FOSSIL tutorial and functions        Rick Moore

ODDITY   ARC     3072  24/07/88 int 2Eh description               Daniel Briggs

PINS     ARC     3072  18/01/88 pinouts of various connectors         

QUES40   ARC     9081   1/09/88 info on DOS 4.0                       IBM Corp.

RAW_COOK ARC     2048  15/10/87 info on DOS raw and cooked modes      

RESETSWT TXT     3584  23/01/86 add a reset switch to a PC          Don Jenkins

RLLHINTS ARC    12288  17/10/87 RLL controller info                 Steve Sneed

RLLMISC  ARC     5120  17/10/87 info on RLL controllers        Richard Driggers

RLLSTORY ARC     9718  31/07/88 good info on RLL coding           Pete Holzmann

SEAGATE  ARC     2048   3/03/88 specs for many Seagate drives        Jim McKown

SECRETS2 ARC   179625  17/04/88 BIX "MS-DOS Secrets" #2               

SERCBL2  ARC     4372  16/10/88 serial cable pinouts                   Lee Zeis

SM2400   ARC     2296   9/08/86 Hayes 2400 baud command set           

SPOOL   DOC     29704  03/28/89 Versa-Spool API                     Jeff Newbro

SSTEP    ARC     2300  11/07/89 explanation of CPU single-step      Ed Burnette

ST225    ARC    11264   7/10/87 optimizing ST225 and WD cont.         Neil Erbe

TANDON   ARC     3612  21/02/88 info on Tandon drives             David Welcher

TECH     ARC    27827   8/05/88 misc tech info - Fidonet?             

TOOLS    C      14032   8/10/89 Grid laptop special functions  Fredrick Coffman

TOS               938  24/03/88 TOS function calls                Mike Crawford

TRYST    ARC    29312  29/10/88 DOS and hard disk info               Amy Goebel

UNDOCINT 21H     7168  14/04/87 undocumented DOS calls           Peter Holzmann

VESA     TXT    41269  01/17/90 VESA standard                              VESA

VGAKIT   DOC     7634  05/04/90 VGA programming kit                John Bridges

VGAPIN   ARC     1252  24/10/88 VGA pinout                               "Mike"

WD-27X   ARC     6144  10/10/87 WD 27X HD controller setup        Steve Shelton

WDCONFIG ARC     5504  11/10/87 WD-1002 WXS setup              Richard Driggers

WDCONT   ARC    11264  25/12/87 info on WD hard disk controllers    Peter Fales

XEB1210  ARC     7947  18/07/87 Xebec HD controller setup      Richard Driggers

XEBEC    ARC     1036  30/04/88 setup for Xebec HD controller  Richard Driggers

XEBECTEC ARC     1834  30/04/88 setup for Xebec 1210                  

XGADEMO  LZH    23552  01/27/91 IBM XGA programming info v.50        Bert Tyler

XMS      ARC    75776   1/08/88 Microsoft Extended Memory Specification 1.0
                                                          Microsoft Corporation

XTCHARTS ARC    12416   4/11/88 ports, charts                         

                      **********************************

NBRCV.C      Paul McGinnis      NetBIOS API calls

DESQ10.ASM   James H. LeMay     DesqView API calls

NETTUT.DOC   Charles L. Hedrick TCP/IP network

CED10D       Chris Dunford      CED interrupt calls

LANTSTIC.DOC LANtastic adware   peer-to-peer LAN calls

GLOSSARY.ARC no author name     computer terms

4DOS.DOC     Tom Rawson         4DOS int 2Eh, 2Fh calls, SHELL= bug


DOSREF isn't a tutorial, and sometimes you need a tutorial.  Microsoft has 
finally written a half-decent one - The MS-DOS Programmer's Reference,
Microsoft Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55615-329-5.  This is the DOS 5.0 Tech Ref.
It covers data structures and DOS programming concepts clearly.  However,
it has no information on other DOS versions, nor does it (of course) cover 
undocumented calls.

                     ------------------------------------

 Nothing gets written in a vacuum, and I'd like to express my thanks to all
the people who have been good enough to furnish information and support:
   (in alphabetical order)

Tommy Apple, Mike Crawford, Herman Diagostino, Joe Felix, Ron Melson,
Denis Murphy, & Ben Sansing,
        who all loaned me documentation and reference material for so long
        that some of them have forgotten to ask for their stuff back


 And those users who were kind enough to help out:

Mike Blaszczak, MA:                                        (blaszczak on BIX)
        who went rampaging through work and client's sites to find and
        document various model ID bytes, plus plenty of information on MS OBJ
        file formats

Carl Bretteville, Drammen Norway:
        who sent me a complete Concurrent DOS Programmer's Reference,
        considerably enriching the Norwegian postal service thereby

Herman Diagostino, Manassas VA:
        who worked up the TECHMENU menu file and provided a copy of the
        rare IBM DOS 4.0 Technical Reference and a copy of the original MSDOS
        Encyclopedia from Microsoft, info on the Pelican 5.5mb floppy drive,
        IBM DOS 4.0 command reference, many hard drive specs

James Drenter, Davenport IA:
        additional info on int 1Ch

David Dorling, Buderim, Australia:
        found one embarrassing error in the device driver info and provided
        many expansions and clarifications

Chris Dunford, Columbia MD:                                (CIS 76703,2002)
        who sent me a copy of the PCED 2.0 API

Steve Grant, Jersey City NJ:                               (sjgrant on BIX)
        who granted permission to include his excellent SYSID program with my
        distribution disks, furnished several model IDs

Roedy Green, Vancouver BC Canada:                          (roedy on BIX)
        many names and addresses for Appendix 5, serial and parallel port
        details and cabling, granted permission to include some of his very
        educational essays with my distribution disks, plus many details on
        DOS disk I/O

Michael Koepke, Wood Dale IL:
        pinouts on EGA feature connector, PS/2 keyboard connector, DR-DOS
        programming information, much info on Digital's DR-DOS

Curt Lankford, Little Rock, AR:
        loaned his copy of the AT&T 6300 Plus Hardware Technical Reference

Alan R. Levinstone, Garland TX:
        80286 LOADALL instruction
        BIOS Data Area floppy control parameters 40:8B, 40:8F, 40:90

Brian Long, Twyford UK:
        provided a copy of the then-nearly-unavailable DPMI 0.9 specification,
        plus port and address info

Keith Meade, Rochester MN:                                 (keithm on BIX)
        who provided a Microsoft Windows 2.11 SDK, copy of IBM TopView

Feico Nater, Hengelo, Netherlands:
        additions to FCB calls, several pages of expansions and clarifications

Bruce Nevins, Tucson AZ:                                   (bnevins on BIX)
        Irwin low-level tape drive info, DEC PC info

Patrick O'Riva, San Jose CA:
        info on what happens to the interleave when the BIOS is finished, and
        for his interesting online assembly-language magazine

Klaus Overhage, Stuttgart W.Germany:
        FANSI-CONSOLE system calls, and translating the TechRef into German

John Richards, England:                                    (jrichards on BIX)
        European DOS 4.0 information

Ben Sansing, Little Rock AR:
        ANSI.SYS information, documentation for the NEC V20/30 chips, reported
        error in register chart in Chapter 4, loaned his copy of PC-MOS/386
        for testing

Hans Schleichert, Marburg West Germany:
        information on int 2Fh, fn OAEh (internal DOS commands). Good thing
        I took some German in high school... 

John Switzer, CA:                                          (jswitzer on BIX)
        who allowed me to include his discoveries on alternate DOS entries
        and file mysteries. (see BACKDOOR.ZIP on BIX, or Oct 1990 Dr. Dobbs')

Fred Thompson, Rapid City SD:
        loaned his Sound Blaster manual, provided much info on graphics
        programming

Matt Trask:                                                (matt.trask on BIX)
        who donated a complete copy of the TopView Programmer's Reference

Richard Vogh, Marietta GA:
        found several embarrassing errors in the boot sector chart in Chapter
        8. The shame! The shame! 

Jim Wenzel, North Little Rock AR:
        more PC model ID codes, loaned his copy of the Windows 3.0 SDK


The Software Link, Atlanta GA:
        provided a review copy of PC/MOS-386 and the programming guide

Digital Research, Monterrey CA:
        provided review copies of DR-DOS 5.0 and DRMDOS

Microsoft Corporation, Redmond WA:
        for beta-test versions of DOS 5.0, Windows 3.1, other products,
        information on DOS 5 and the DOSSHELL API

 Special thanks to Chris Dunford, who donated his "CED" program to the public
domain. If it wasn't for CED, I would likely have abandoned MSDOS machines
entirely and bought a Macin...uh... something else; and to Haruyasu Yoshizaki
for allowing unrestricted use of his LHarc program used to compress the files
on these diskettes.


                                                        Dave Williams
                                                    --------------------
                                                      Jacksonville, AR



       **  Programmer's Technical Reference for MSDOS and the IBM PC **
                USA copyright TXG 392-616  ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴캑 DOSREF (tm) 쳐컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                     ISBN 1-878830-02-3 (disk-based text)
                    Copyright (c) 1987, 1992 Dave Williams
                        旼컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴
                         Shareware Version, 01/12/92 
                          Please Register Your Copy  
                        읕컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴컴



                            Additional Readings...


 I don't have and haven't seen most of this stuff, but I've come across
mentions of it. This list is purely FYI...

 IBM's literature guide lists the following manuals:

Hardware Technical References:
PS/2 Model 25            $31.50          75X1055
PS/2 Model 30            $82.50          68X2201
PS/2 Model 30/286        $26.75          01F0237
PC                       $33.00          6322507  (the original)
PC/AT                    $115.00         6280070
supplement for AT/339    $54.50          6280099  (enhanced 8mHz)
XT/286                   $55.00          68X2210
XT and Portable          $54.50          6280089
Convertible              $82.50          6280648
PCjr                     $38.50          1502293  (availability varies)

PS/2 Hardware Interface  $137.00         68X2330
(Micro Channel docs)

PS/2 BIOS Interface      $137.00         68X2341  (no source code listing)

Advanced BIOS Interface  $50             68X2288

DOS 3.3 Technical Ref.   $93.00          6280059  (no reference for 4.0)

DOS 4.0 Command Ref.     $31.50          6280253  (commands only)

8514/A Developer's Guide $26.75          68X2279
 There is supposed to be a DOS 4.0 Technical Reference, but there's no name or
part number listed in the official IBM literature. You might check with your
local IBM retailer. (hah!)

DOS 4.0 Technical Ref.   $--.--          6280254  (not listed in catalog)

IBM NetBIOS Application
Development Guide (API)  $49.25          68X2270  (not listed in catalog)


address:
IBM Technical Directory                 800-426-7282
PO Box 2009                             414-633-8108
Racine WI 53404-3336         BC, Canada 112-800-465-1234
                                 Canada 800-465-1234
catalogs are free


Zenith Data Systems' "MS-DOS version 2 Programmer's Utility" comes with MASM,
a version of the MS-DOS Programmer's Reference from Microsoft, the assembly
language source for Zenith's ANSI.SYS driver, an editor, an assortment of
filters and utilities, and the source listing for the "device dependent"
portion of MS-DOS for the Z-151.


"Document Content Architecture: Revisable - Form - Text Reference"
IBM Document SC23-0758-1

IGES (International Graphics Exchange Specification) 3.0 documentation,
Global Engineering Documents (800) 854-7179. Part number NBSIR 86-3359, NBS.

ISBN 0-672-22027-X "Interfacing To the IBM Personal Computer" by
Lewis C. Eggebrecht, Howard W Sams & Co., Indianapolis, IN.

Intel Application Note AP-133, "Getting Started with the Numeric Data
Processor," by Bill Rash.  February 1981.

Intel iAPX 286 Programmer's Reference Manual, including the iAPX 286
Numeric Supplement, Intel part no. 210498-003.  Has some reasonably useful
example codes in section 4, including ASCII to binary and vice versa on
pages 4-7 to 4-14 and trig functions on 4-18 to 4-23.  The programming
style in these examples is rather bizarre but they are better than nothing.

Intel 80387 Programmer's Reference Manual,  Intel part no. 231917-001.
Various example listings on pages 7-7 to 7-17, including ASCII to binary
and binary to ASCII conversions and raising a number to a power.  No trig
routines in this manual because the 80387 has built-in FSIN, FCOS, and FSINCOS
instructions and generalized FPTAN and FPATAN instructions that make
subroutines  unnecessary.

Hercules sells a graphics library for the Herc board called GRAPHX for $50.

DoD Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (popularly known as "The
Orange Book)  GPO Stock No  008-000-00461-7   Cost $6.00

Information Interchange Standards:

  ANSI X 3.15-1976        (FIPS 16-1)
    Bit Sequencing In Serial-By-Bit Data Transmission.

  ANSI X3.16-1976         (FIPS 17-1)
    Character Structure and Parity-Sense, Serial-By-Bit.

  ANSI X3.25-1976         (FIPS 18-1)
    Character Structure and Parity-Sense, Parallel-By-Bit.

  ANSI X3.4-1977          (FIPS 1-1)
    Code for Information Interchange

  ANSI X3.41-1974         (FIPS 35)
    Code Extension Techniques for Use With 7-Bit Coded Characters.

  ANSI X3.64-1979         (FIPS 86)
    Additional Controls for Use With...

  ANSI X3.32-1973         (FIPS 1)
    Graphic Representation of the Control Characters.

  ANSI X3.78-1981
    Representation of Vertical Carriage positoning Characters.

  ANSI X3.42-1975
    Representation of numeric values in Character Strings.

  ANSI X3.98-1983
    Page Image Format (PIF), Text, for Information Systems.

  ANSI X3.28-1976
    Procedure for the Use of Communications Control Characters.

  ANSI X3.66-1979         (FIPS 71)
    Advanced Data Communications Control Procedures (ADCCP)

Data Encryption Standards:

  ANSI-X3.92-1981
    Data Encryption Algorithm

  ANSI-X3.105-1983
    Data Link Encryption

  ANSI-X3.106-1983
    Modes of Operation of Data Encryption Algorithm

Serial Interface Standards:

  RS-232-C Aug 1969 (June 1981)
    Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and
    Data Communications Equipment (DCE)

    Bulletin #9 May 1971 (Application Notes)
      ...reviews methods of operation...service and trans-
      mission facility characteristics...

    Bulletin #12 Nov 1977 (Application Notes)
      Interconnection Between RS-449 and RS-232-C ...

    Bulletin #14 Mar 1982 (Application Notes)
      Loop Test Circuits Not Defined in RS-232-C

  RS-336-A Mar 1979
    Interface Between DTE and Automatic Calling Equipment

  RS-449 Nov 1977
  RS-449-1  Addendum 1  Feb 1980
    General Purpose 37- and 9-Position Interface for DTE
    and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment (DCE)...

Standards Groups:

AFIP    (Federal Information Processing Standards)
        Office of Technical Information and Publications
        National Bureau of Standards
        Washington, D.C. 20234

ANSI    American National Standards Institute, Inc.
        1430 Broadway
        New York, New York 10018

BELL    ??

EIA     Electronic Industries Association
        2001 Eye Street
        Washington, D.C. 20006

CCITT   ??

ISO     International Standards Organization
        (available through ANSI)


Coding and Information Theory       by Richard W. Hamming (Prentice-Hall, 1980)

Error Correcting Codes        by W. Wesley Peterson (MIT Press and Wiley, 1961)

Handbook of Software & Hardware Interfacing for IBM PCs
Jefferey P. Royer
1987 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. (Osborne-McGraw-Hill)
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632
ISBN 0-13-381831-4          hardware and expansion card design and interfacing

The C Programmer's Guide to NetBios, W. David Schwaderer, Howard W Sams &
Company, ISBN 0-672-22638-3  $24.95.

Computer Networks - Andrew S. Tanenbaum,Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-162959-X

Local Area Networks - Thomas W.Madron - Wiley, ISBN 0-471-85989-3

Netware APIs: There are many API packages available from Novell. Some of them:
Value-Added Process API $10.00 part number 420-10361-001
Netware Enhancements Package (security APIs, Queue Management, Accounting
Services) $15.00 part number 420-010316-110
Peer to Peer Comm. $15.00 part # 421-10070-001
Message Handling Service Interface $15.00 part # 420-10360-001
Novell API Reference Manual vols 1 & 2 $25.00 each part #s 452-760041-001
and 452-760042-001
C language Novell API Reference $250.00 part # 452-760043-001
Programmer's Guide $49.00 part # 420-000089-001

NetWare Technical Journal, 650 South Clark, Chicago, IL 60605-9960, pub. four
times a year for $50.00/yr.

 SCSI specification: $25 from the American National Standards Institute,
 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018, (212) 642-4900.

 SCSI-2 X3T9.2 committee working documents, CAM committee documents, and the
 most current draft of the SCSI-2 specification are available for downloading
 from the SCSI BBS at (316) 636-8700 (300, 1200, or 2400 bps; 24 hours).

  A paper copy of the SCSI-2 draft specification is available for $60 from
 Global Engineering Documents 2805 McGaw Ave., Irvine, CA 92714,
 (800) 854-7179 or (714) 261-1455.

 SMB protocol (used by Microsoft in MS-Net and Lan Manager) "IBM Personal
 Computer Seminar Proceedings", Volume 2, Number 8-1, G320-9310-00.

 Security (DES, etc):  NCSC's VENDOR'S GUIDE (dark green book [part of the
 Rainbow  series of books]).  Write to:  National Security Agency, ATTN: S613,
 Ft. George Meade, MD 20755-6000, or call (301) 688-6581.

        Programmer's Guide to PC & PS/2 Video Systems
        Richard Wilton
        Microsoft Press 1987
        ISBN 1-55615-103-9


Logitech Mouse Tech. Ref. and Programmer's Guide v2.0, $25   (415)795-0801

  ============================== I N V O I C E =================SWv2.2a=======

  mail invoice to:                       SHIP TO:

   Dave Williams                     +----------------------------------------
      DOSREF                         |
    PO Box 181                       |
 Jacksonville, AR                    |
  72076-0181 USA                     |
                                     |
          Order #:                   |
          Date   :                   |
          PO #   :                   |
                                     +----------------------------------------
===============================================================================
  item  |    description                             |unit pr| qty |total price
===============================================================================

          Programmer's Technical Reference            _______ _____ _____ _____

            USA:   $20
         Canada:   $25 CDN (checks)
                   $20 US  (postal money orders)
 United Kingdom:   15                           check one:
    EuroCheques:   15 UK
                                                       | | (1)  1.44m disk
  Cash, checks, or money orders are acceptable.        | | (1)  1.2mb disk




===============================================================================
  Orders from other countries, please make payment            DOSREF  _$20.00__
  in one of the currencies listed above.
                                                 packing and postage  _$1.75___

       $1.25 extra charge for 3 x 360K [ ] or 2 x 720K [ ] diskettes  _________

  $10 surcharge for approved corporate or government purchase orders  _________

                                                               total  _________

or charge your American Express card:

account #:__________________________  expiration date: ____________________


signature: _______________________________ today's date: __________________


Where did you hear about DOSREF?  __________________________________________


Would you like a copy of the latest shareware version to upload or pass out
to friends or associates?
                              YES___   NO___

                                                THANK YOU!
          --------------------  QUICK MAILER  ----------------------
            Please support quality shareware by your registration.

                          Thank you for your support!

                         DOSREF 2.2a Registration Form

make check or money order to:                   Dave Williams
                                                PO Box 181  (DOSREF)
see INVOICE.TRF for foreign orders              Jacksonville AR 72076-0181 USA

                                                   unit price  

    Programmer's Technical Reference ................. $20
    surcharge for gov't or corporate POs ............. $10
    shipping and handling ............................ $1.75
                                                 Total $___________________
------------fold------------ INSTANT REGISTRATION ---------here------------

 check disk type          | | (1) 5-1/4 inch, 1.2mb
                          | | (1) 3-1/2 inch, 1.44mb

Where did you hear about DOSREF? __________________________________________

                                 __________________________________________

Use Address on envelope ( )    check ( )    or:

Name     ___________________________________________________________________

Address  ___________________________________________________________________

         ___________________________________________________________________

         ___________________________________________________________________

 Copy this file to the printer.  After the first page prints, you will have
to turn it over and print the back side for the address.

 Fold at the page break below with the printing facing out.  Then fold letter
style, putting this side in and the address side out. If necessary, staple
the check to the mailer, then staple or tape the sides and top.


 Check here if you would like a copy of the latest shareware version to
pass around or upload to a local BBS: _____


                                               THANK YOU!


                                                                   ---------
_________________________________                                 |         |
                                                                  |         |
_________________________________                                 |  Stamp  |
                                                                  |         |
_________________________________                                 |         |
                                                                   ---------



                                         Dave Williams
                                         PO Box 181   (DOSREF 2.2)
                                         Jacksonville, AR 72076-0181
                                         USA
DOSREF SWv2.2a

Zurück zur Homepage Zur MMS Homepage